"Ordinance is military guns of the larger class; artillery; also called rifles, guns, or cannon."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Driggs-Shroeder 6-Pounder

"Ordinance is military guns of the larger class; artillery; also called rifles, guns, or cannon."—(Charles…

Naval battle between an American ship and an Algerine corsair.

Capture of an Algerine Corsair

Naval battle between an American ship and an Algerine corsair.

Showing the Battle for Atlanta, which Sherman won for the Union during the Civil War.

Battle of Atlanta

Showing the Battle for Atlanta, which Sherman won for the Union during the Civil War.

"Two cannon balls, when suspened by long cords, so as to hang quite near each other, are found to exert a mutual attaction, so that neither of the cords are excatly perpendicular, but they approach each other..." -Comstock 1850

Gravitational Attraction

"Two cannon balls, when suspened by long cords, so as to hang quite near each other, are found to exert…

"The Bouquet Battery, commanding the viaduct over the Patapsco River, on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, near the Relay House, in 1861. The Relay House was a small railroad station about seven miles from Baltimore, on the Northern Central Railroad. It was of small population and trade, but its position elevated it into considerable importance. Immediately after the troubles in Baltimore this position was seized upon, and General Butler made it his headquarters, and by so doing not only held the control of the railrod to Harper's Ferry and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and Patapsco River, but threatened the city of Baltimore with a strong military force. The Relay House was romantically situated in a country of exquisite natural beauty. Our sketch shows the battery stationed to command the viaduct, with the Relay House in the distance." —Leslie, 1896

Bouquet Battery

"The Bouquet Battery, commanding the viaduct over the Patapsco River, on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,…

Fortification constructed of timber, muskets and cann0n fire from within.

Blockhouse

Fortification constructed of timber, muskets and cann0n fire from within.

Movable canon on wheels.

Cannon

Movable canon on wheels.

A "Long Tom." A cannon used during Madison's administration.

Cannon

A "Long Tom." A cannon used during Madison's administration.

An illustration of a cannon.

Cannon

An illustration of a cannon.

An illustration of soldiers loading a cannon.

Cannon & Soldiers

An illustration of soldiers loading a cannon.

Cannon used at the time of the American revolution

Cannon used at the time of the American Revolution

Cannon used at the time of the American revolution

The Serpentine was a cannon used in the sixteenth century.

Serpentine Cannon

The Serpentine was a cannon used in the sixteenth century.

Picture of Spanish cannons

Spanish Cannon

Picture of Spanish cannons

Cannon able to swivel around 360 degrees.

Swivel Cannon

Cannon able to swivel around 360 degrees.

Cannon used at the time of the Civil War

Civil War Canon

Cannon used at the time of the Civil War

An illustration of a captain standing on a cannon with his foot on the railing of the ship.

Captain Standing on Cannon with Foot on Railing of Ship

An illustration of a captain standing on a cannon with his foot on the railing of the ship.

"Suppose a cannon ball, tied with a string to the centre of a slab of smooth marble, and suppose an attempt be made to push this ball with the hand in the direction of b; it is obvious that the string would prevent its going to that point; but would keep it in thei circle. n this case, the string is the centripedal force." -Comstock 1850

Centrifugal Force

"Suppose a cannon ball, tied with a string to the centre of a slab of smooth marble, and suppose an…

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the battles between the Federal forces commanded by General McClellan and the Confederate armies led by Generals Lee, Jackson, Magruder and Longstreet. About two o'clock in the afternoon, June 26th, 1862, the Confederates were seen advancing in large force across the Chickahominy, near the railroad, close the Mechanicsville, where General McCall's division was encamped. Placing their batteries in the rear of the Federals, the Confederates commenced a steady fire. The Federal batteries replied, and very soon the roar of the artillery was deafening. For three hours the fight raged with great fierceness, the enemy attempting a flank movement, which was defeated. Toward six o'clock in the evening General Morell's division arrived on the ground, and marched straight on the enemy, in spite of the shower of shot and shell rained upon them." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Valley of Chickahominy

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the…

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the battles between the Federal forces commanded by General McClellan and the Confederate armies led by Generals Lee, Jackson, Magruder and Longstreet. About two o'clock in the afternoon, June 26th, 1862, the Confederates were seen advancing in large force across the Chickahominy, near the railroad, close the Mechanicsville, where General McCall's division was encamped. Placing their batteries in the rear of the Federals, the Confederates commenced a steady fire. The Federal batteries replied, and very soon the roar of the artillery was deafening. For three hours the fight raged with great fierceness, the enemy attempting a flank movement, which was defeated. Toward six o'clock in the evening General Morell's division arrived on the ground, and marched straight on the enemy, in spite of the shower of shot and shell rained upon them." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Valley of Chickahominy

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the…

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the battles between the Federal forces commanded by General McClellan and the Confederate armies led by Generals Lee, Jackson, Magruder and Longstreet. About two o'clock in the afternoon, June 26th, 1862, the Confederates were seen advancing in large force across the Chickahominy, near the railroad, close the Mechanicsville, where General McCall's division was encamped. Placing their batteries in the rear of the Federals, the Confederates commenced a steady fire. The Federal batteries replied, and very soon the roar of the artillery was deafening. For three hours the fight raged with great fierceness, the enemy attempting a flank movement, which was defeated. Toward six o'clock in the evening General Morell's division arrived on the ground, and marched straight on the enemy, in spite of the shower of shot and shell rained upon them." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Valley of Chickahominy

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the…

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the battles between the Federal forces commanded by General McClellan and the Confederate armies led by Generals Lee, Jackson, Magruder and Longstreet. About two o'clock in the afternoon, June 26th, 1862, the Confederates were seen advancing in large force across the Chickahominy, near the railroad, close the Mechanicsville, where General McCall's division was encamped. Placing their batteries in the rear of the Federals, the Confederates commenced a steady fire. The Federal batteries replied, and very soon the roar of the artillery was deafening. For three hours the fight raged with great fierceness, the enemy attempting a flank movement, which was defeated. Toward six o'clock in the evening General Morell's division arrived on the ground, and marched straight on the enemy, in spite of the shower of shot and shell rained upon them." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Valley of Chickahominy

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the…

"Shelling of a Confederate camp on the Potomac by Lieutenant Tompkins, of the First Rhode Island battery. Lieutenant Tompkins, of the First Rhode Island Artillery, observing on the other side of the Potomac a Confederate camp, fixed one of his guns, and after one or two trials got the range so perfectly that they fled in the greatest confusion." —Leslie, 1896

Shelling of Confederate Camp

"Shelling of a Confederate camp on the Potomac by Lieutenant Tompkins, of the First Rhode Island battery.…

"Fort on Fenwick's Island, South Edisto River, S. C."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Fenwick's Island

"Fort on Fenwick's Island, South Edisto River, S. C."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Confederate forces bombarding Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861

Bombardment of Fort Sumter, April 12, 1861

Confederate forces bombarding Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861

The bombardment of Fort Wagner, infantry in trenches.

Bombardment of Fort Wagner

The bombardment of Fort Wagner, infantry in trenches.

"A device for preventing the escape of gas through the vent or around the breech-mechanism which closes the rear end of the bore or chamber of any breech-loading small-arm, machine-gun, or cannon. Freire Gas-check. AA, breech-block; BB, expanding bolt and bolt-head; CC, expanding steel ring or gas-check; S, spiral spring; D, check-nut and set-screw." -Whitney, 1911

Freire Gas Check

"A device for preventing the escape of gas through the vent or around the breech-mechanism which closes…

A picture depicting some of General Grant's exploits.

General Grant in Action

A picture depicting some of General Grant's exploits.

Depiction of the battle of Gettysburg.

Battle of Gettysburg

Depiction of the battle of Gettysburg.

"That the cannon ball is capable of attracting as well as being attracted, may be proved by suspending two balls close to each other by very long cords. In consequence of their attraction, the cords will not hang parallel, but will incline towards each other as they descend...." —Quackenbos 1859

Gravity Proved by Cannon Balls

"That the cannon ball is capable of attracting as well as being attracted, may be proved by suspending…

"Shelling Confederate cavalry across the Potomac River from the heights of Great Falls, by Major West, of Campbell's Pennsylvania Artillery, October 4th, 1861. On Friday, october 4th, 1861, Major West, of Campbell's Pennsylvania Artillery, was ordered to shell a barn, in which there was every reason to conclude a large quantity of Confederate provisions and supplies was stored. The major, therefore, placed a Parrott gun on the heights of Great Falls, and threw a few shells across the Potomac. Several of them fell into the barn, which had the effect of unhousing a number of Confederate cavalry, who rode with all speed for the neighboring woods." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Great Falls

"Shelling Confederate cavalry across the Potomac River from the heights of Great Falls, by Major West,…

"Ordinance is military guns of the larger class; artillery; also called rifles, guns, or cannon."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Noiseless and Flashless Gun

"Ordinance is military guns of the larger class; artillery; also called rifles, guns, or cannon."—(Charles…

Hand Cannon, fourteenth century

Hand Cannon

Hand Cannon, fourteenth century

A horse, with names of parts. 1, crest; 2, withers; 3, croup; 4, hamstring; 5, hock; 6, cannon; 7, fetlock; 8, pastern; 9, hoof; 10, coronet; 11, arm; 12, gullet; 13, muzzle.

Horse

A horse, with names of parts. 1, crest; 2, withers; 3, croup; 4, hamstring; 5, hock; 6, cannon; 7, fetlock;…

Brass howitzer.

Howitzer

Brass howitzer.

British ships firing on kegs thought to be full of gunpowder.

The Battle of the Kegs

British ships firing on kegs thought to be full of gunpowder.

A large cannon placed on naval ships during the American Revolution.

Long Tom

A large cannon placed on naval ships during the American Revolution.

The American army in Mexico City.

American Army in Mexico City

The American army in Mexico City.

A short barreled, high angled, short ranged cannon.

Mortar

A short barreled, high angled, short ranged cannon.

Mortar practice- putting in the shell.

Mortar practice

Mortar practice- putting in the shell.

"Mortar practice- 13-inch shell mortar, as used by the Federal government- weight of mortar 17,000 pounds." —Leslie, 1896

Mortar practice

"Mortar practice- 13-inch shell mortar, as used by the Federal government- weight of mortar 17,000 pounds."…

"Mortar practice- rear view of 13-inch mortar, with its usual complement of seven gunners. The mortar is one of the most ancient forms of cannon, being used as early as 1495 by Charles VIII at the siege of Naples. In 1478 the first attempt was made to project hollow shot filled with powder; but owing to their clumsy make the accidents were so frequent as to cause their discontinuance. In 1634 a French mechanic overcame the difficulty, and mortars were revived in the French service. Our illustrations represent a 13-inch mortar, the largest in general practice, weight 17,000 pounds, exclusive of the carriage. The number of men required to work one of these guns is seven, for all of whom there is distinct and adequate occupation. Mortars are not used in hand-to-hand encounters, their value consisting in pitching shells into camps and towns, or shelling fortifications erected on elevations, against which cannons are of no avail." —Leslie, 1896

Mortar practice

"Mortar practice- rear view of 13-inch mortar, with its usual complement of seven gunners. The mortar…

An illustration of a 240 mm Trench Mortar used by the French during World War I, and designed by Dumezil—Batignolles. The mortar had a short barrel firing 192 lb. bombs.

240 mm Trench Mortar

An illustration of a 240 mm Trench Mortar used by the French during World War I, and designed by Dumezil—Batignolles.…

An schematic illustration of the 3 inch Stokes mortar. The mortar is made out of steel and screwed onto the ground for support by a cap. The mortar was used by the British in the trench during World War I.

Barrel View of Stokes Mortar

An schematic illustration of the 3 inch Stokes mortar. The mortar is made out of steel and screwed onto…

A light carriage minenwerfer class mortar used for direct fire. The barrel and the shifting lever is moved up during loading, while the angle of the mortar is adjusted by the elevating screw in the front.

Rifled Carriage Light Minenwerfer Mortar

A light carriage minenwerfer class mortar used for direct fire. The barrel and the shifting lever is…

The illustration shows a schematic view of the Stokes Mortar being mounted onto the bipod. The mortar is mounted on to the bipod. The bipod adjusts the mortar's angle by adjusting the the elevating handle moving the gears.

Front View of Stokes Mortar with Bipod

The illustration shows a schematic view of the Stokes Mortar being mounted onto the bipod. The mortar…

An illustration showing the German minenwerfer, or mine launcher, class for short range mortars. The mortar weighs around 1693 pounds, and has a rifle length of 4.54 calibers.

Rifled Heavy Minenwerfer Mortar

An illustration showing the German minenwerfer, or mine launcher, class for short range mortars. The…

A light minenwerfer with 7.6 cm caliber designed by German during World War I. The series of gears adjusts the angle of the barrel by turning the hand crank.

Rifled Light Minenwerfer Mortar

A light minenwerfer with 7.6 cm caliber designed by German during World War I. The series of gears adjusts…

The illustration of a medium trench mortar used during World War I. The mortar was designed with a rifled barrel to spin stabilize the shell.

Rifled Medium Trench Mortar

The illustration of a medium trench mortar used during World War I. The mortar was designed with a rifled…

"The mortar is a stout cannon of forged steel with simple vent firing and rear trunnions. The maximum pressure with the heaviest bomb is 16 tons to the square inch." —Encyclopeadia Britannica, 1922

Mounted Steel Mortar

"The mortar is a stout cannon of forged steel with simple vent firing and rear trunnions. The maximum…

Three ships engaged in a naval battle.

Naval Battle

Three ships engaged in a naval battle.

A stone wall or embarkment used to help protect soldiers and cannons.

Parapet

A stone wall or embarkment used to help protect soldiers and cannons.

"From a cross piece, A, on a stout framework, a heavy block of wood, B, is suspended, in such a way as to move freely backward and forward. A ball fired into this block will drive it back to a distance proportioned to the ball's velocity. All other things being known, the ball's velocity can be discovered." —Quackenbos 1859

Ballistic Pendulum

"From a cross piece, A, on a stout framework, a heavy block of wood, B, is suspended, in such a way…

Fighting between Union and Confederate forces.

Battle of Pittsburg Landing

Fighting between Union and Confederate forces.

Recapture of artillery by the First Ohio and other regiments under General Rousseau, April 7, 1862. The flight of the 53rd and 57th Ohio Regiments left Waterhouse's battery, which was planted on a hill to the left of Shiloh Chapel, unprotected; but the 43rd and 49th Illinois Regiments came to his aid, and supported it until Colonel Wreish of the 43rd was killed, when they fell back in tolerable order. The Confederates now charged and took Waterhouse's battery, thus flanking General Sherman, who fell back to the Purdy Road in good order. Here the sudden death of Captain Behr, who was getting his battery in position on the left wing of the new line, created a panic in his company, which broke and left five guns. Not being supported by any other division, General Sherman was forced back to the right of McClernand, where he again formed and shared the fortunes of the day.

Battle of Pittsburg Landing

Recapture of artillery by the First Ohio and other regiments under General Rousseau, April 7, 1862.…

"Engagement between the Federal troops and the Confederates on the Virginia side of the Potomac, opposite Edward's Ferry, October 22nd, 1861- battery of Parrott Guns on the Maryland shore. Early in the evening the news of the death of Colonel Baker, and of the presence of an overwhelming Confederate force on the opposite bank, reached Edward's Ferry, and at once orders were given for bringing back to the Maryland shore the troops which had been passed in the scows, etc., during the day. This was effected by the same means, occupying until midnight. At this time word was received at Edward's Ferry that General Banks was approaching with his column to support the movement of the day, and immediately the same troops, which had crossed and recrossed, were again sent across the river in the same scows. Give hundred feet of fortifications were thrown up to support the lodgment, with only a slight brush with a detachment of Confederates, in which General Lander was wounded. During the night, Tuesday, October 22nd, the full epressing news of Baker's disaster became known, and the whistle of the Leesburg railway, bringing up Confederate re-enforcements from Manassas, sounded constantly in the ears of the Federals. On Tuesday morning, however, General McClellan had arrived at Edward's Ferry, and both with reference to further advance or a retreat, as circumstances might justify or require, ordered a bridge of boats to be thrown across the river. He, however, received such intelligence on Wednesday of the number and designs of the Confederates, that he resolved to withdraw the Federal forces from the Virginia side, which was effected silently and safely on the same night. Our engraving illustrates the position of the Federal troops on the Virginia shore, on Tuesday, during the attack in which General Lander was wounded." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle at Potomac

"Engagement between the Federal troops and the Confederates on the Virginia side of the Potomac, opposite…

"Suppose a cannon be loaded with a ball, and placed on top of a tower, at such a height from the ground, that it would take just three seconds for the ball to descend from it to the ground, if let fall perpendicularly. Now, suppose the cannon to be fired in an exact horizontal direction, and at the same instant, the ball to be dropped towards the ground. They will both reach the ground at the same instant..." -Comstock 1850

Projectile Motion of a Cannonball

"Suppose a cannon be loaded with a ball, and placed on top of a tower, at such a height from the ground,…

"Thus, we have a cannon planted on a towwer at such a height that it would take four seconds for a ball to fall from it to the ground. Dropped from the cannon's mouth, in the first second a ball would reach A; in the next, B; in the third, C; and in the fourth D." —Quackenbos 1859

Projectile Motion of a Cannon Ball

"Thus, we have a cannon planted on a towwer at such a height that it would take four seconds for a ball…

A 192 pound bomb shell for the 240 mm trench mortar used during World War I. The vanes, or wings, are at the end of the case perpendicular to each other.

192 Pound Trench Mortar Bomb Shell

A 192 pound bomb shell for the 240 mm trench mortar used during World War I. The vanes, or wings, are…

An illustration of one of Sir Walter Raleigh's ships.

Ralegh's Ship

An illustration of one of Sir Walter Raleigh's ships.

American troops bombarding the city of Vera Cruz during the Mexican-American war.

Bombardment of Vera Cruz

American troops bombarding the city of Vera Cruz during the Mexican-American war.