Santos Dumont's Airship rounding the Eiffel Tower.

Airship

Santos Dumont's Airship rounding the Eiffel Tower.

The house in which Napoleon I was born, located in Ajaccio, France.

Napoleon's Birthplace at Ajaccio

The house in which Napoleon I was born, located in Ajaccio, France.

Jacques Coeur being publicly punished in France in 1453. "A part of the Amende Honorable of Jacques Coeur before Charles VII of France." -Bodmer, 1917

Amende Honorable of Jacques Coeur

Jacques Coeur being publicly punished in France in 1453. "A part of the Amende Honorable of Jacques…

A political cartoon contrasting American liberty and French liberty.

The Contrast Between American Liberty and French Liberty

A political cartoon contrasting American liberty and French liberty.

The modern French antefix is found in the theater of Celestines in Lyons, France by Architect Renaud. This design is found on the lower roof line in front of the imbrices (overlapping roof tiles).

Modern French Antefix

The modern French antefix is found in the theater of Celestines in Lyons, France by Architect Renaud.…

The Arc de Triomphe in Paris, France honoring those who fought for France, commissioned during the Napoleonic wars.

Arc de Triomphe

The Arc de Triomphe in Paris, France honoring those who fought for France, commissioned during the Napoleonic…

"In the center of the Place de l'Étoile, from which twelve broad avenues radiate in all directions. Commenced by Napoleon in 1805, but not completed until the reign of Louis Philippe. It is the largest triumphal arch in the world, being 162 feet high and 147 feet wide. The monument is adorned with groups of sculpture representing the military triumphs of the revolutionary and Napoleonic armies."—Webster, 1920

Arc de Triomphe

"In the center of the Place de l'Étoile, from which twelve broad avenues radiate in all directions.…

"This young peasant girl, with soul sensitive to impressions from brooding over her country's wrongs and sufferings, saw visions and heard voices which bade her undertake the work of delivering France, She was obedient unto the heavenly voices."—Myers, 1905

Joan of Arc

"This young peasant girl, with soul sensitive to impressions from brooding over her country's wrongs…

"The amphitheater was made a fortress, packed with houses, in the eighth century, on account of Saracen incursions."—Myers, 1905

The Amphitheater at Arles

"The amphitheater was made a fortress, packed with houses, in the eighth century, on account of Saracen…

King David's Arm-chair was designed in the 13th century. The Arm-chair was made from a relief portal of a cathedral in Auxerre, France.

King David's Arm-Chair

King David's Arm-chair was designed in the 13th century. The Arm-chair was made from a relief portal…

The Medieval polygonal chair came from Toulouse, France.

Medieval Polygon Arm-Chair

The Medieval polygonal chair came from Toulouse, France.

An illustration of the Avenue de Champs Élysées in Paris, France. It is known for its luxury specialty shops and is one of the most famous streets in the world. It was originally a stretch of fields and market gardens.

Avenue de Champs Élysées

An illustration of the Avenue de Champs Élysées in Paris, France. It is known for its luxury…

The Bastille, a fortress-prison in Paris remembered by the storming of the Bastille in the French Revolution.

Bastille

The Bastille, a fortress-prison in Paris remembered by the storming of the Bastille in the French Revolution.

The storming of a medieval fortress and prison in Paris by revolutionaries, which represented royal authority.

Storming of the Bastille

The storming of a medieval fortress and prison in Paris by revolutionaries, which represented royal…

The flashpoint of the French Revolution, where the prisoners of the Bastille were released by revolutionaries.

The Storming of the Bastille

The flashpoint of the French Revolution, where the prisoners of the Bastille were released by revolutionaries.

The Battle of Agincourt was an English victory against a larger French army in the Hundred Years' War. The battle occurred on Friday 25 October 1415 (Saint Crispin's Day), in northern France. Henry V's victory started a new period in the war, in which he came very close to capturing the throne of France for himself and his heirs.

Battle of Azincourt

The Battle of Agincourt was an English victory against a larger French army in the Hundred Years' War.…

(1647-1706) A famous French philosopher, skeptic, and writer.

Pierre Bayle

(1647-1706) A famous French philosopher, skeptic, and writer.

French lyrical poet.

Pierre Jean Beranger

French lyrical poet.

The Chateau of Blois is located in the Loire Valley in France. It was the residence of many French Kings, and the place where Joan of Arc was blessed. The Chateau of Blois is built in the middle of town, and consists of several buildings that were built between the 13th and 17th century.

Chateau of Blois

The Chateau of Blois is located in the Loire Valley in France. It was the residence of many French Kings,…

(1636-1711) A French poet.

Nicolas Boileau

(1636-1711) A French poet.

"The celebrated warrior and Emperor of the French, Napoleon Bonaparte, was born at Ajaccio, in the island of Corsica." —The Popular Cyclopedia, 1888

Napoleon Bonaparte

"The celebrated warrior and Emperor of the French, Napoleon Bonaparte, was born at Ajaccio, in the island…

A military and political leader of France in the early 19th century.

Napoleon Bonaparte

A military and political leader of France in the early 19th century.

The Emperor of France from 1804 to 1814.

Napoleon Bonaparte

The Emperor of France from 1804 to 1814.

French general and politician

General George Ernest Boulanger

French general and politician

The Cathedral of Bourges is located in Bourges, France. It Cathedral was built in dedication to Saint Stephen. The structure of the Cathedral is designed in a Gothic style with the use of flying buttresses.

Cathedral of Bourges

The Cathedral of Bourges is located in Bourges, France. It Cathedral was built in dedication to Saint…

This bracelet was designed for her Royal Highness, the Countess of Chambord in Marseilles, France. In the center of the bracelet is a coat of arms of Marseilles surmounted by a mural crown. On each side are portraits in enamel of characters celebrated in the history of Marseilles.

Bracelet

This bracelet was designed for her Royal Highness, the Countess of Chambord in Marseilles, France. In…

John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 - 27 May 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. In Geneva, his ministry both attracted other Protestant refugees and over time made that city a major force in the spread of Reformed theology. He is famous for his teachings and writings, in particular for his Institutes of the Christian Religion.

John Calvin

John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 - 27 May 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during…

A French pastor during the Protestant Reformation, who helped develop the system of Christian theology called Calvinism.

John Calvin

A French pastor during the Protestant Reformation, who helped develop the system of Christian theology…

Section of the Cantal district of France, showing the reconstruction of the old volcano with its succession of lava flows.

Cantal District of France

Section of the Cantal district of France, showing the reconstruction of the old volcano with its succession…

The Romanesque Double-Cushion Capital is an 11th century design found in the Rosheim church in France. It is a design of a half sphere that is cut by planes below and on the four sides.

Romanesque Double-Cushion Capital

The Romanesque Double-Cushion Capital is an 11th century design found in the Rosheim church in France.…

The Walls of Carcassonne are what fortify the French town of Carcassonne in France. It was fortified on a hilltop by the Romans in 100 BC.

Walls of Carcassonne

The Walls of Carcassonne are what fortify the French town of Carcassonne in France. It was fortified…

The Organizer of Victory in the French Revolutionary Wars.

Lazare Carnot

The Organizer of Victory in the French Revolutionary Wars.

A French explorer who claimed the land that is now Canada for France.

Cartier

A French explorer who claimed the land that is now Canada for France.

A French explorer who claimed the region of the St. Lawrence River for France.

Jacques Cartier

A French explorer who claimed the region of the St. Lawrence River for France.

"A Castle is a building constructed for the purpose of repelling attack. The castella left by the Romans were constructed on the general model of their stationary encampments, and though they may have suggested the castles of the Middle Ages, they differed from them in being designed for military purposes only, and not as places of permanent residence."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Castle

"A Castle is a building constructed for the purpose of repelling attack. The castella left by the Romans…

An illustration of the feudal castle of Rouen. Rouen is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie region.

Feudal Castle of Rouen

An illustration of the feudal castle of Rouen. Rouen is the historical capital city of Normandy, in…

The Cathedral of Our Lady of Amiens or simply Amiens Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral and seat of the Bishop of Amiens, Jean-Luc Marie Maurice Louis Bouilleret. The cathedral is the tallest complete cathedral in France, with the greatest interior volume (estimated at 200,000 m³). The vaults of the nave are 42.30 m high, the tallest nave vaults in any completed French cathedral, and surpassed only by the incomplete Beauvais Cathedral. This monumental cathedral is located in Amiens, the chief city of Picardy, in the Somme River valley a little over 100 kilometers north of Paris.

Amiens Cathedral

The Cathedral of Our Lady of Amiens or simply Amiens Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral and seat…

An illustration of the floor plan of Angouleme Cathedral. A first cathedral was built on the site a primitive, pre-Christian sanctuary, in the 4th century AD. The edifice was destroyed when the town was taken by Clovis after the Battle of Vouillé (507). Another cathedral was consecrated in 560, but this was also set on fire by the Vikings/Normans some two centuries later. A third cathedral was then constructed under bishop Grimoard, abbot of Saint-Pierre de Brantôme. The new church was consecrated in 1017. However, at the beginning of the 12th century the citizens started to consider it too small for to the wealth of the county. The designer was bishop Gerard II, one of the most important French figures of the time, who was a professor, Papal legate for four popes and also a notable artist. Works began about 1110 and finished in 1128.

Angouleme Cathedral

An illustration of the floor plan of Angouleme Cathedral. A first cathedral was built on the site a…

The Metz Cathedral is also known as the St. Etienne de Metz in French. It is a Roman Catholic church located in Moselle, France. The interior nave shown in this picture, is the center aisle that leads to the altar, it is the third highest in France.

Metz Cathedral

The Metz Cathedral is also known as the St. Etienne de Metz in French. It is a Roman Catholic church…

This chair was made in Paris, France in the Elizabethan style. It has a carved wooden back with a cushion on the seat.

Chair

This chair was made in Paris, France in the Elizabethan style. It has a carved wooden back with a cushion…

"This fine structure was built in the eighteenth century as a palace for members of the Bourbon-Condé family. It became national property during the French Revolution. The façade, which faces the Pont de la Concorde, is in the style of an ancient temple."—Webster, 1920

Chamber of Deputies (Paris)

"This fine structure was built in the eighteenth century as a palace for members of the Bourbon-Condé…

The Chateau of Chambord is located in the commune of Chambord in the Loire Valley, France. The castle is famous for its French Renaissance architecture that blends French Medieval with classical Italian styles. It was constructed by King Francois I, and is the largest castle in Loire Valley.

Chateau of Chambord

The Chateau of Chambord is located in the commune of Chambord in the Loire Valley, France. The castle…

Charlemagne (Charles the Great) was king of the Franks during the Middle Ages.

Charlemagne

Charlemagne (Charles the Great) was king of the Franks during the Middle Ages.

The royal Château de Chambord at Chambord, Loir-et-Cher, France is one of the most recognizable châteaux in the world because of its very distinct French Renaissance architecture that blends traditional French medieval forms with classical Italian structures.

Plan of Château de Chambord

The royal Château de Chambord at Chambord, Loir-et-Cher, France is one of the most recognizable…

The Viaduct of Chaumont is a railway bridge that connects Paris to Basel. It was built in 1856 and stands on the Marne River in Chaumont, a commune in France.

Viaduct of Chaumont

The Viaduct of Chaumont is a railway bridge that connects Paris to Basel. It was built in 1856 and stands…

The Chateau of Chenonceaux is a castle in the small village of Chenonceaux in the Loire Valley, France. It was built around the 11th century and the current manor was designed by French Renaissance Architect Philibert Delorme. The castle was inhabited by many French Kings.

Chateau of Chenonceaux

The Chateau of Chenonceaux is a castle in the small village of Chenonceaux in the Loire Valley, France.…

The St-Paul-St-Louis Church is located in Paris on Rue Saint Antoine in the Marais. The church was begun in 1627 and completed in 1641 and is an examaple of Jesuit architecture. It was designed based on the Gesú church in Rome. The letters IHS, as shown on the front of the church, is an abbreviation, the first three letters, of Jesus' name in Greek, ΙΗΣΟΥΣ, translated into English characters."In this style curved lines of the most varied description supersede all straight lines both in ground plans and in designs, whilst the most ordinary and characteristic embellishments are volutes, shellfish, and scrolls; groups of fruit and garlands of flowers, hangings, curtains, etc. [shown here]." "During the time that the license of the Roccoco Style prevailed, the elements of the ancient columnar orders were often misapplied, engaged columns and pilasters were frequently so connected with other side-pilasters which were recessed behind them to the number of one, two, or even three, that the cornices and, in fact, all horizontal mouldings were separately profiled over each column or pilaster [shown here]."

Façade of the Church of St. Paul and St. Louis at Paris

The St-Paul-St-Louis Church is located in Paris on Rue Saint Antoine in the Marais. The church was begun…

The Medieval circular panel is found on a glass-painting in Soissons cathedral in France.

Medieval Circular Panel

The Medieval circular panel is found on a glass-painting in Soissons cathedral in France.

This Medieval circular panel is a design found in Laon, France.

Medieval Circular Panel

This Medieval circular panel is a design found in Laon, France.

A. Cross, B. Gate-house, C. Almonry, D. Chapel, E. Inner gate-house, F. Stable, G. Dormitory of lay brethren, H. Abbot's House. I. Kitchen, K. Refectory, L. Staircase to dormitory, M. Dormitory, N. Church, P. Library, R. Infirmary, S. Door to the church for the lay brothers, T. Base court, V. Great cloister, W. Small cloister, X. Boundary wall.

Bird Eye View of Citeaux

A. Cross, B. Gate-house, C. Almonry, D. Chapel, E. Inner gate-house, F. Stable, G. Dormitory of lay…

The "clearstory window of St. Leu d'Esserent, France" showing a sexfoil window, of six petals. -Whitney, 1911

Clerestory

The "clearstory window of St. Leu d'Esserent, France" showing a sexfoil window, of six petals. -Whitney,…

The Tomb of Louis XVII Cluster is a fruit Festoon design found in St. Denis, France during the French Renaissance.

Tomb of Louis XVII Cluster

The Tomb of Louis XVII Cluster is a fruit Festoon design found in St. Denis, France during the French…

Coat of arms for the French Republic and Imperial Arms of France.  France is the most western portion of Central Europe.  It is bordered on the north by the English Channel and the south by Dover, which separates it from England, by Belgium.

Coat of Arms

Coat of arms for the French Republic and Imperial Arms of France. France is the most western portion…

The French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under King Louis XIV. He brought the economy back from the brink of bankruptcy.

Jean-Baptiste Colbert

The French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under King Louis XIV. He brought the economy back from…

Coins struck in France for the Colonies.

Colonies

Coins struck in France for the Colonies.

Coins struck in France for the Colonies.

Colonies

Coins struck in France for the Colonies.

"Semi-columns (Roman). Engaged columns of the Maison Carrée, Nîmes, France." -Whitney, 1911

Semi-Columns

"Semi-columns (Roman). Engaged columns of the Maison Carrée, Nîmes, France." -Whitney,…

A public square in Paris, France. It is the largest square in the French capital.

The Place de la Concorde

A public square in Paris, France. It is the largest square in the French capital.

The Gothic console is a a type of support that tappers downwards like a pendant with a round plan. It is found in a commune in Vezelay, France.

Gothic Console

The Gothic console is a a type of support that tappers downwards like a pendant with a round plan. It…

This medieval console is found in a church in Athis, France.

Medieval Console

This medieval console is found in a church in Athis, France.