The inner ear of a reptile (top), a bird (left) and an ox (right).

Animal Ears

The inner ear of a reptile (top), a bird (left) and an ox (right).

A large grazing animal.

Bison

A large grazing animal.

Caecum and origin of colon of an ox- inflated. Labels: a, terminal portion of the ileum; b, caecum; c, origin of colon.

Caecum of an Ox

Caecum and origin of colon of an ox- inflated. Labels: a, terminal portion of the ileum; b, caecum;…

Right cardiac bone of an ox. Labels: a, anterior angle; b, posterior angles; c, superior border; d, anterior border; e, posterior border; f, right surface.

Cardiac Bone of an Ox

Right cardiac bone of an ox. Labels: a, anterior angle; b, posterior angles; c, superior border; d,…

This image depicts a man leading two oxen pulling a cart in Spain.

Cart

This image depicts a man leading two oxen pulling a cart in Spain.

"Cattle doctors are exhibited performing operations upon sick oxen, bulls, deer, goats, and even geese." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian cattle doctors

"Cattle doctors are exhibited performing operations upon sick oxen, bulls, deer, goats, and even geese."…

Two men capturing wild cattle for domestic use.

Wild Cattle

Two men capturing wild cattle for domestic use.

A Galloway cow standing in a field.

Galloway Cow

A Galloway cow standing in a field.

A Kerry cow standing in a field.

Kerry Cow

A Kerry cow standing in a field.

African-American farm workers with a horse drawn-wagon.

Farm Workers

African-American farm workers with a horse drawn-wagon.

"Italian Farmers rejoicing after the harvest." — S. G. Goodrich, 1885

Italian Farmers

"Italian Farmers rejoicing after the harvest." — S. G. Goodrich, 1885

"The Ox-fly, Oestrus bovis, is three-forths of an inch long, and lays its eggs in the skin of young cattle, producing a swelling which supprates and forms a purulent humor, on which the larvae feed." — Goodrich, 1859

Ox Fly

"The Ox-fly, Oestrus bovis, is three-forths of an inch long, and lays its eggs in the skin of young…

An extreme form of a compressed foot, typically seen in the deer and ox. It is useful for land transit.

Compressed Foot

An extreme form of a compressed foot, typically seen in the deer and ox. It is useful for land transit.

A symbolical figure representing a giant having the head of an ox and wielding a club.

Giant with the Head of an Ox

A symbolical figure representing a giant having the head of an ox and wielding a club.

Hand-shadow of Ox

Ox

Hand-shadow of Ox

A comparison of vertebrate hands. A, hand or anterior foot of the dog; B, that of the hog; C, that of the elk; D, that of the ox. Digits: I, pollex; II, index; III, medius; IV, annukus; V, minimus.

Hands of Vertebrates

A comparison of vertebrate hands. A, hand or anterior foot of the dog; B, that of the hog; C, that of…

This Ox head was designed by Habenschaden of Munchen, Germany.

Ox Head

This Ox head was designed by Habenschaden of Munchen, Germany.

Mesentery and intestines of an ox. Labels: 1, duodenum; 2, small intestines; 3, caecum; 4, colon; 5, rectum; 6, mesentery.

Intestines of an Ox

Mesentery and intestines of an ox. Labels: 1, duodenum; 2, small intestines; 3, caecum; 4, colon; 5,…

Lobulated kidney of an ox.

Kidney of an Ox

Lobulated kidney of an ox.

Posterior view of the liver of an ox. Labels: a, left lobe; b, right lobe; c, spigelian lobe; d, quadrate lobe; e, superior border; e', anterior fissure; f, inferior border; f', notch for the umbilical vein; g, gall bladder; h, biliary tubes; i, cystic duct; k, ductus choledochus.

Liver of an Ox

Posterior view of the liver of an ox. Labels: a, left lobe; b, right lobe; c, spigelian lobe; d, quadrate…

Section of a mesenteric gland from the ox. Labels: a, Hilus; b, medullary substance; c, cortical substance with indistinct alveoli; d, capsule.

Mesenteric Gland

Section of a mesenteric gland from the ox. Labels: a, Hilus; b, medullary substance; c, cortical substance…

An ox under a tree

Ox

An ox under a tree

"Represents an ox adorned for sacrifice." — Anthon, 1891

Ox sacrifice

"Represents an ox adorned for sacrifice." — Anthon, 1891

"Compound stomach of ox. a, esophagus; b, rumen, or paunch; c, reticulum, or second stomach; d, omasum, or third stomach; e, abomasum, or fourth stomach; f, the duodenuin." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Ox Stomach

"Compound stomach of ox. a, esophagus; b, rumen, or paunch; c, reticulum, or second stomach; d, omasum,…

"An Ethiopian princess on her journey through Upper Egypt to Thebes. The chariot is drawn by oxen, a mode of conveyance in use at this day in Southern Africa." — Goodrich, 1844

Ethiopian princess

"An Ethiopian princess on her journey through Upper Egypt to Thebes. The chariot is drawn by oxen, a…

The riddle in this "Riddle-seal of Oxford" is an 'ox' crossing a 'ford.' "A seal which contains a rebus, riddle, or other descriptive device." -Whitney, 1911

Riddle Seal

The riddle in this "Riddle-seal of Oxford" is an 'ox' crossing a 'ford.' "A seal which contains a rebus,…

The skeletal hoof of an ox.

Skeletal Hoof

The skeletal hoof of an ox.

A skeleton of a common cow.

Cow Skeleton

A skeleton of a common cow.

Ruminants (those animals that chew the cud), as the ox, have a stomach with four cavities. Labels: 1, The esophagus. 2, The rumen (paunch). 3, The reticulum (honeycomb). 4, The omasum (many-plies). 5, The abomasum(rennet). 6, The intestine.

Stomach of an Ox

Ruminants (those animals that chew the cud), as the ox, have a stomach with four cavities. Labels: 1,…

An illustration of a supply train powered by oxen.

Supply Train

An illustration of a supply train powered by oxen.

"Yak is a species of ox from the mountainous regions of Tibet. There are two races: the wild yak, generally black, which is found near the snow line, descending into the valleys in winter, and a domesticated race of various colors, black and white being most common. The yak is about the size of the common ox, to which it has a general resemblance, but it is covered with a thick coat of long, silky hair, hanging down like the fleece of a sheep, completely investing the tail, and forming a lengthy fringe along the shoulders, flanks, and thighs. This fringe, which exists in both races, was apparently developed as a protection to the animal, as the long hair forms a sort of mat which defends the body from the effects of the cold when the animal is reposing in the snow. The domesticated race is of great importance to the natives of Tibet. The yak is employed as a beast of burden, but never for tillage or draught; the milk is very rich, and yields excellent butter; the flesh is of the finest quality, and that of the calves far superior to ordinary veal. The hair is spun into ropes, and made into coverings for tents, and the soft fur of the hump and withers is woven into a fine strong cloth. The tails, often dyed red, are made into the chowries or fly-flappers, used in India. Yaks are often seen in zoological gardens and menageries."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Yak

"Yak is a species of ox from the mountainous regions of Tibet. There are two races: the wild yak, generally…