Genus Quercus, L. (Oak)
Leaves - simple; alternate; edge deeply lobed (edges of lobes mostly entire, but notched and toothed towards the ends). Outline - broadly oval or broadly reverse egg-shape. Base - very short wedge-shape or squared. Ends of the lobes and of the teeth pointed and bristle-tipped. Leaf - four to eight inches long, bright green above, slightly lighter below; both surfaces smooth and shining. Lobes - five to nine, usually seven with the hollows rounded and very broad, and reaching about two thirds of the way to the middle rib. Most of the lobes widen and are deeply notched toward their end. Bark - of trunk, thick and rough, usually not quite as dark or as straight-furrowed as that of the Black Oak. The inner bark reddish. Acorns - variable. Cup - very thick, top-shaped, with large somewhat triangular egg-shaped, scales. Nut - one half to three fourths of an inch long; rounded or rounded egg-shape, about one third covered by the cup; kernel bitter and whitish. October. Found - from Southern Maine southward and westward; most common in the Middle and Southern States. General Information - A tree fifth to ninety feet high, with wood of less value than some of the other oaks. In the fall the leaves turn to a bright scarlet, or orange0scarlet, or crimson and red. They often cling throughout the winter. Quercus, possible from a Celtic word meaning to inquire, because it was among the oaks that the Druids oftenest practised their rites.
Newhall, Charles S. The Trees of North-Eastern America (New York: The Knickerbocker Press, 1900) 119
Courtesy the private collection of Roy Winkelman