Genus Quercus, L. (Oak)
Leaves simple; alternate; edge lobed (edges of the lobes mostly entire, but slightly toothed toward the ends). Outline - about oval. Base - short wedge-shape, or rounded. Ends of the lobes and of their one to three slight teeth, pointed and bristle-tipped. Leaf - six to nine inches long, three to five inches wide; both surfaces smooth. Lobes, nine to thirteen, usually very tapering from the base, with the hollows between them rounded and narrow and extending about half way to the middle rib. Bark - of trunk, dark, greenish-gray, and continuing smooth longer than on any other oak, never becoming as rough, for example, as that of the black oak. Acorns - large and stemless, or nearly so. Cup - flat saucer-shape, bulging, very shallow, nearly smooth, with small scales. Nut - about one inch long, somewhat egg-shape; bitter. October. Found - from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick westward and southward. Very common, especially at the North, and extending farther north than any other Atlantic oak. General Information - A tree fifty to eight feet high, with wood that at the East is porous and not durable (though often of better quality westward). It is used for clapboards and in cooperage. The leaves change in the fall to dark red. Quercus, possible from a Celtic word meaning to inquire, because it was among the oaks that the Druids oftenest practised their rites.
Newhall, Charles S. The Trees of North-Eastern America (New York: The Knickerbocker Press, 1900) 123
Courtesy the private collection of Roy Winkelman