Leaves - simple, alternate (often crowded at the ends of the branches); edge entire. Outline - broadly oval or egg-shape or reverse egg-shape. Apex - pointed. Base - slightly pointed. Leaf/Stem - one inch long or more. Leaf - about three to four inches long, sometimes yellowish-green; smooth above; whitish beneath, and slightly rough between the prominent curved ribs, seldom entirely flat, usually in clusters at the ends of the branches. Bark - of the branches, smooth, yellowish-green, with whitish streaks. Flowers - yellowish in loose flat clusters. June. Fruit - very dark blue when ripe, on reddish stems. August. Found - in low rich woods and along streams, from New Brunswick through the Northern States, and southward along the Alleghany Mountains to Northern Georgia and Alabama. General Information - A small tree or shrub, ten to twenty feet high, with wide-spreading branches and flattish top. A "Shaker Medicine" is made from its bitter bark. Cornus, from a Greek word meaning horn, because of the hardness of the wood.
Newhall, Charles S. The Trees of North-Eastern America (New York: The Knickerbocker Press, 1900) 137
Courtesy the private collection of Roy Winkelman