John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) was an American abolitionist who advocated and practiced armed insurrection as a means to end all slavery. He led the Pottawatomie Massacre in 1856 in Bleeding Kansas and the unsuccessful raid at Harpers Ferry in 1859.
Benson John Lossing, ed. Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (vol. 1) (New York, NY: Harper and Brothers, 1912)
Courtesy the private collection of Roy Winkelman