Farnese Palace at Rome
The Villa Farnese, also known as Palazzo Farnese or Villa Caprarola, is a mansion in the town of Caprarola in the province of Viterbo, Northern Lazio, Italy, approximately 50 kilometres (35 miles) north-west of Rome.The Villa Farnese is a massive Renaissance construction begun in the early 1520s by Antonio da Sangallo, opening to the Monte Cimini, a range of densely wooded volcanic hills. It has a five-sided plant, and is built in reddish gold stone; buttresses support the piano nobile above, with two floors above again housing an almost complete two-story villa in itself. As a centerpiece of the vast Farnese holdings, it has always been more than a villa in the ordinary agricultural or pleasure senses."Another school, which displays a still stricter imitation of classical forms than that of which Bramante was the founder, was represented and advocated by Giacomo Barozzio, who is known under the name of Vignola (1507- 1573). This architect, by his works and his great influence on his contemporaries and successors, and the effect of his example is, like Palladio's, to be traced not only in the architectural bias of his own times, but also in the course of history of the eighteenth century. This result was principally brought about by means of his book on the five columnar orders of antiquity, and this treatise has been regarded as an authority down to the latest times. His most noteworthy construction is the Castle of Caprarola, between Rome and Viterbo."
A. Rosengarten, W. Collett-Sandars A Handbook of Architectural Styles (New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1895)
Courtesy the private collection of Roy Winkelman