This science ClipArt gallery offers 83 images of lab experiments and discoveries reaffirming principles and concepts in chemistry.

"About two feet away from an air thermometer, place an inverted flower pot. Midway between the two, place a board or glass screen that reaches from the table to a height of several inches above teh bulb of the air theremometer. Upon the flower pot, place a very hot brick. Notice that the heat of the brick has little effect upon the thermometer. Then hold a sheet of tin plate over the screen so that energy radianted obliquely upward from the brick may be reflected obliquely downward toward the thermometer. By properly adjusting the position of the reflector, the thermometer may be quickly affected." -Avery 1895

Heat Reflection

"About two feet away from an air thermometer, place an inverted flower pot. Midway between the two,…

This furnace is used to purify a gold concentrate. The gold concentrates, if non-pyritic, are treated in grinding pans in the bottom of which mercury is placed. The amalgam (mercury alloy), after squeezing out the excess mercury, is heated in the retort, to distil (separate) off the rest and leave the gold, which is then melted and cast into bars of gold bullion of varying fineness.

Retort Furnace for Gold Bullion

This furnace is used to purify a gold concentrate. The gold concentrates, if non-pyritic, are treated…

This illustration shows liquid in glue manufacturing being carried on rollers, cooled with cold water, to be cut.

Rollers (Glue)

This illustration shows liquid in glue manufacturing being carried on rollers, cooled with cold water,…

"If in a complete metallic circuit having junctions of disimilar metals, the juntions are at different temperatures, then generally a steady current will flow in the circuit as long as the differences of the temperatures of the junction is maintained." -Hawkins, 1917

Seebeck Effect

"If in a complete metallic circuit having junctions of disimilar metals, the juntions are at different…

A hand slicer used to cut large items used in the chemistry classroom. This slicer is similar to smaller ones used in cutting tobacco.

Draw Knife Slicer

A hand slicer used to cut large items used in the chemistry classroom. This slicer is similar to smaller…

This illustraion shows a "fountain" experiment. This experiment is used to determine specific elements solubility in water.

Solubility Test

This illustraion shows a "fountain" experiment. This experiment is used to determine specific elements…

This illustration shows a standard Lowe water gas apparatus.

Standard Lowe Water Gas Apparatus

This illustration shows a standard Lowe water gas apparatus.

A strainer that is typically used to strain solids from a liquid, like sand from water. A common example of a strainer is a coffee filter, in which water comes in, mixes with the coffee grains and proceeds to fall below into the pot, with the solid grounds strained out/left behind.

Strainer

A strainer that is typically used to strain solids from a liquid, like sand from water. A common example…

Laboratory preparation of sulphur trioxide, an important step in the process of making sulphuric acid. "Sulphur (a) burns in the air drawn into the apparatus by an aspirator, and thte sulphur dioxide formed passes with the excess of air into the U-tube (b) which is filled with some loose material to rid the gases of sulphur dust. In the bottle (c) the gases lose their moisture as they make their way through the flass beads drenched with concentrated sulphuric acid. The patinized asbestos in the tube (d) is gently heated, and brings about the union of the sulphur dioxide with the oxygen of the air. The sulphur trioxide resulting from the action is absorbed by concentrated sulphuric acid trickling down through the apparatus (e)." -Brownlee 1907

Sulphur Trioxide Preparation

Laboratory preparation of sulphur trioxide, an important step in the process of making sulphuric acid.…

"Carefully place a fine sewing needle upon the surface of the water. With care, and perhaps repitition, the needle may be made to float...Closely examine the surface of the water. Notice that the needle rests in a little depression or bed, just as it would if the surface of the water was a thin skin or membrane." -Avery 1895

Surface Tension and Needle

"Carefully place a fine sewing needle upon the surface of the water. With care, and perhaps repitition,…

"Three temperature scales compared against one another." -Comstock 1850

Temperature Scale

"Three temperature scales compared against one another." -Comstock 1850

Shows the differences between the Centigrade and absolute (Kelvin) temperature scales at the boiling point of water, room temperature, freezing point of water, boiling point of hydrogen and absolute zero.

Temperature Scales

Shows the differences between the Centigrade and absolute (Kelvin) temperature scales at the boiling…

"Tenacity is that property of matter by virtue of which some bodies resist a force tending to pull their particles asunder Its measure is the ratio between the breaking weight and the area of the cross section of the body broken. It varies with different substances, with the form of the body, with the temperature, and with the duration of the pull." -Avery 1895

Testing for Tenacity

"Tenacity is that property of matter by virtue of which some bodies resist a force tending to pull their…

"Thermometers showing the corresponding points for water's freezing and boiling." -Avery 1895

Fahrenheit and Celcius scale Thermometers

"Thermometers showing the corresponding points for water's freezing and boiling." -Avery 1895

"Tyndall's experiment illustrating the production of heat by friction. The wheel is rotated and heat is produced [by friction] that heats the water in the end of the brass tube, which causes the water to boil, producing steam which pops off the cork." -Hawkins, 1917

Tyndall's Experiment

"Tyndall's experiment illustrating the production of heat by friction. The wheel is rotated and heat…

"Over the upper end of a cylindrical receiver, tie tightly a wet bladder or sheet of writing paper and allow it to dry. Then exhaust the air. The bladder will be forced inward, bursting with a loud noise. Replace the bladder with a thin sheet of india-rubber. Exhaust the air. The rubber sheet will be pressed inward, and nearly cover the inner surface of the receiver." -Avery 1895

Vacuum

"Over the upper end of a cylindrical receiver, tie tightly a wet bladder or sheet of writing paper and…

This illustration shows a vacuum boiler in which liquid to become glue is boiled by steam, as well as a man testing the liquid in the manufacturing process.

Vacuum Boiler, Testing the Liquid (Glue)

This illustration shows a vacuum boiler in which liquid to become glue is boiled by steam, as well as…

A lamp chimney with a candle burning in the bottom. At the top of the chimney is a piece of paper showing the inward and outward air currents.

Experiment of Ventilation

A lamp chimney with a candle burning in the bottom. At the top of the chimney is a piece of paper showing…

"A cubic centimeter of water weighs 1 gram." — Avery, 1895

Water and scale

"A cubic centimeter of water weighs 1 gram." — Avery, 1895

"When any liquid is placed in one or more of several vessels communicating with each other, it will not come to rest until it stands at the same height inall of thw vessels. This principle is emobodied in the familiar expression 'Water seeks its level.' the principle is illustrated, on a large scale, in the system of pipes by which water is distributed in cities." -Avery 1895

Water Level in Multiple Connected Vessels

"When any liquid is placed in one or more of several vessels communicating with each other, it will…

"Therefore, the small quantity in the spout balances the large quantity in the pot, or presses with the same force downwards, as that in the body of the pot presses upwards." -Comstock 1850

Water Pressure

"Therefore, the small quantity in the spout balances the large quantity in the pot, or presses with…

"If a vessel be filled with water, and three apertures be made in its sie at E F G, the fluid will be thrown out in jets, falling to the earth in the curved lines shown." -Comstock 1850

Water Velocity and Gravity

"If a vessel be filled with water, and three apertures be made in its sie at E F G, the fluid will be…

"Take a piece of ivory, or any other substance that will sink in water, and weigh it accurately in the usual manner; then suspend it by a thread, or hair, in the empty cup a, and balance it. Now pour water into the cup, and it will be found that the suspended body will lose a part of its weight, so that a certain number of grains must be taken from the opposite scale, in order to make the scales balance as before the water was poured in. The number of grains taken from the opposite scale, show the weight of a quantity of water equal to the bulk of the body so suspended." —Comstock, 1850

Water Weighing

"Take a piece of ivory, or any other substance that will sink in water, and weigh it accurately in the…