The Bird Anatomy ClipArt gallery offers 405 illustrations of skeleton diagrams, arteries, digestive system, eggs, feathers, and both internal and external diagrams.

"Columba livia. The brain; A, from above; B, from below; C, from the left side. cb, cerebellum; c. h, cerebral hemispheres; f, flocculus; inf, infundibulum; m. o, medulla oblongata; o. l, optic lobes; o. t, optic tracts; pn, pineal body; II-XIII, cerebral nerves; sp. 1, first spinal nerve." -Parker, 1900

Rock Pigeon Brain

"Columba livia. The brain; A, from above; B, from below; C, from the left side. cb, cerebellum; c. h,…

"Columba livia. Part of left foot of an unhatched embryo. The cartilage is dotted. mtl. 2, second; mtl. 3, third; and mtl. 4, fourth metatarsal; ti, tibia; tl. 1, proximal tarsal cartilage; tl. 2, distal tarsal cartilage." -Parker, 1900

Rock Pigeon Embryo Foot

"Columba livia. Part of left foot of an unhatched embryo. The cartilage is dotted. mtl. 2, second; mtl.…

"Pterylosis of Columba livia. A, ventral; B, dorsal. al. pt, alar pteryla or wing-tract; c. pt, cephalic pteryla or head-tract; cd. pt, caudal pteryla or tail-tract; cr. pt, crural pteryla; cr. apt, cervical apterium or neck-space; fm. pt, femoral pteryla; hu. pt, humeral pteryla; lat. apt, lateral apterium; sp. pt, spinal pteryla; v. apt, ventral apterium; v. pt, ventral pteryla." -Parker, 1900

Rock Pigeon Feather Tracts

"Pterylosis of Columba livia. A, ventral; B, dorsal. al. pt, alar pteryla or wing-tract; c. pt, cephalic…

"Columba livia. Female urino-genital organs. cl. 2, urodaeum; cl. 3, proctodaeum; k, kidney; l. od, left oviduct; l. od', its cloacal aperture; l. od'', its coelomic funnel; l. od''', its coelomic aperture; ov, ovarty; r. od, right oviduct; r. od', its cloacal aperture; ur, ureter; ur', its cloacal aperture." -Parker, 1900

Female Rock Pigeon Genitalia

"Columba livia. Female urino-genital organs. cl. 2, urodaeum; cl. 3, proctodaeum; k, kidney; l. od,…

"Columba livia. Male urino-genital organs. adr, adrenal; cl. 2, urodaeum; cl. 3, proctodaeum; k, kidney; ts, tetis, that of the right side displaced; ur, ureter; ur', aperture of ureter; vd, vas deferens; vd', its cloacal aperture; v. s, vesicula seminalis." -Parker, 1900

Male Rock Pigeon Genitalia

"Columba livia. Male urino-genital organs. adr, adrenal; cl. 2, urodaeum; cl. 3, proctodaeum; k, kidney;…

"A, heart of the pigeon, dorsal aspect. a. ao, arch of aorta; br. a, brachial artery; br. v, bachial vein; c. c, common carotid; ju, jugular; l. au, left auricle; l. p. a, left pulmonary artery; l. vn, left ventricle; pc. v, left pre-caval; ptc, post-caval; p. v, pulmonary veins; r. au, r. au', right auricle; r. p. a, right pulmonary artery; r. prc, right pre-caval; r.r vn, right ventricle." -Parker, 1900

Pigeon Heart

"A, heart of the pigeon, dorsal aspect. a. ao, arch of aorta; br. a, brachial artery; br. v, bachial…

"Columba livia. Left innominate of a nestling. The cartilage is dotted. ac, acetabulum; a. tr, anti-trochanter; il, pre-acetabular; and il', post-acetabular portion of ilium; is, ischium; i s. f, ischiatic foramen; ob. f, obturator notch; pu, pubis." -Parker, 1900

Rock Pigeon Innominate

"Columba livia. Left innominate of a nestling. The cartilage is dotted. ac, acetabulum; a. tr, anti-trochanter;…

Diagram of the lungs and air sacs of a pigeon. <em>p</em>, air sacs; <em>lu</em>, lung; <em>t</em>, traches.

Pigeon Lungs

Diagram of the lungs and air sacs of a pigeon. p, air sacs; lu, lung; t,…

"Columba livia. Left manus of a nestling. The cartilaginous parts are dotted. cp. 1, radiale; cp. 2, ulnare; mcp. 1, 2, 3, metacarpals; ph. 1, phalanx of first digit; ph. 2, ph. 2', phalanges of second digit; ph. 3, phalanx of third digit; ra, radius; ul, ulna." -Parker, 1900

Rock Pigeon Manus

"Columba livia. Left manus of a nestling. The cartilaginous parts are dotted. cp. 1, radiale; cp. 2,…

"Columba livia. Sacrum of a nestling (about fourteen days old), ventral aspect. c1, centrum of first sacral vertebra; c1, centrum of fifth caudal; c. r, first sacral rib; l1, centrum of first lumbar; l3, of third lumbar; s1, of fourth lumbar; s3, of sixth lumbar; tr. p, transverse process of first lumbar; tr. p', of fifth lumbar; tr. p'', of first sacral." -Parker, 1900

Rock Pigeon Sacrum

"Columba livia. Sacrum of a nestling (about fourteen days old), ventral aspect. c1, centrum of first…

"Columba livia. Skull of young specimen. A, dorsal; B, ventral; C, left side. al. s, alisphenoid; au, angular; ar, articular; b. o, basi-occipital; d, dentary; e. o, ex-occipital; eu, aperture of Eustachian tube; f. m, foramen magnum; fr, frontal; i.o. s, inter-orbital septum; ju, jugal; lc, lachrymal; lb. s, lambdoidal suture; m. eth, mesethmoid; mx, maxilla; mx. p, maxillo-palatine process; na, na', na'', nasal; o. c, occipital condyle; or. fr, orbital plate of frontal; pa, parietal; pa. s, parasphenoid (rostrum); pl, palatine; p. mx, premaxilla; pt, pterygoid; qu, quadrate; s. an, supra-angular; s. o, supra-occipital; sq, squamosal; ty, tympanic cavity; IL-XII, foramina for cerebral nerves." -Parker, 1900

Rock Pigeon Skull

"Columba livia. Skull of young specimen. A, dorsal; B, ventral; C, left side. al. s, alisphenoid; au,…

"Female urogenital organs of pigeon. K., Kidney with three lobes; u., ureter; cl., cloaca; ov., ovary; od., oviduct; f.t., funnel at end of oviduct; r.r.od., rudimentary right oviduct." -Thomson, 1916

Female Pigeon Urogenital Organs

"Female urogenital organs of pigeon. K., Kidney with three lobes; u., ureter; cl., cloaca; ov., ovary;…

"Male urogenital organs of pigeon. T., testes; V., base of inferior vena cava; S.R., suprarenal bodies; K., kidneys with three lobes (1, 2, 3); u., ureter; v.d., vas deferens; vs., seminal vesicle; cl., cloaca." -Thomson, 1916

Male Pigeon Urogenital Organs

"Male urogenital organs of pigeon. T., testes; V., base of inferior vena cava; S.R., suprarenal bodies;…

"Heart and venous system of pigeon. R.A., Right auricle; R.V., right ventricle; L.V., left ventricle; L.A., left auricle; P.V., pulmonary veins; P.A., pulmonary arteries; J., jugular; Br., brachial; P., pectoral; H.V., hepatic; E.P., epigastric; I.V.C., inferior vena cava; C.M., coccygeo-mesenteric; I.V., iliac; F., femoral; R., renal; Sc., sciatic; Hyp., hypogastric or "renal-portal"; i.il., internal iliac; C., caudal." -Thomson, 1916

Pigeon Venous System

"Heart and venous system of pigeon. R.A., Right auricle; R.V., right ventricle; L.V., left ventricle;…

"The external air penetrates into every part of their body by the respiratory tubes, which ramify the whole cellular tissue. Wings alone would fail to support the bird."

Lungs of a Pigeon

"The external air penetrates into every part of their body by the respiratory tubes, which ramify the…

"The external air penetrates into every part of their body by the respiratory tubes, which ramify the whole cellular tissue. Wings alone would fail to support the bird."

Respiratory Organs of a Pigeon

"The external air penetrates into every part of their body by the respiratory tubes, which ramify the…

"Squatarola. Four-toed Plover. A small but distinct hind toe, contrary to the rule in this family. Tail less than half as long as wing. Tarsus much longer than middle toe and claw. Tibia bare below, reticulate like the tarsus. Basal web between outer and middle toes. Upper plumage speckled, lower black or white; no rings or bars of color about head or neck. Legs dark-colored. Tail fully barred. Seasonal changes of plumage very; sexes alike." Elliot Coues, 1884

Four-toed Plover Bill and Hind Toe

"Squatarola. Four-toed Plover. A small but distinct hind toe, contrary to the rule in this family. Tail…

"Plumage of Bird. Bohemian Chatterer (Bombycilla garrula). a, primaries; b, secondaries; c, coverts; d, scapulars; e, tail feathers; f, forehead; g, sinciput; h, occiput." &mdash; Winston's Encyclopedia, 1919

Plumage of Bird

"Plumage of Bird. Bohemian Chatterer (Bombycilla garrula). a, primaries; b, secondaries; c, coverts;…

"In the feathers of a large portion of birds there is a plumiform formation."

Plume

"In the feathers of a large portion of birds there is a plumiform formation."

"This plumule is conspicuous in gallinaceous birds."

Plumule

"This plumule is conspicuous in gallinaceous birds."

"Lunda cirrata. Tufted Puffin. Crests about 4 inches long, straw-yellow, some of the posterior feathers black at base; these bundles of silky, glossy feathers with very delicate shafts and loosened webs; they chiefly sprout from what corresponds to the furrow in the plumage of F. artica. Face white, broadly of this color on sides of head to beyond eyes (as far as the crests), narrowly across forehead and chin, the bill being thus entirely surrounded by white. Crown between the crests, and entire upper parts, excepting the extreme forehead and a line along the forearm, glossy blue-black. Entire under parts, excepting extreme chin, and including sides of hind head and sides of neck, sooty brownish-black, more grayish on the belly, the lining of wings smoky-gray, the under tail-coverts quite black. Wings and tail black, their inner webs brownish-black, the shaft of the primary whitish underneath near base. Bill, feet, and eye-ring vermilion-red; the basil parts of the bill when about to desquamate showing more yellowish or enamel color, or even showing the living color of the subjacent membrane. Rosette of mouth yellow. Claws black." Elliot Coues, 1884

Tufted Puffin Bill

"Lunda cirrata. Tufted Puffin. Crests about 4 inches long, straw-yellow, some of the posterior feathers…

"Ortyx. Quail. Outstretched feet reaching beyond end of tail. Bill black or blackish-brown. " Elliot Coues, 1884

Quail Foot and Bill

"Ortyx. Quail. Outstretched feet reaching beyond end of tail. Bill black or blackish-brown. " Elliot…

A transparent body, with usually three sides and two equal and parallel triangular ends or bases.

Quill

A transparent body, with usually three sides and two equal and parallel triangular ends or bases.

Left thigh-muscle of a rail.

Rail Thigh

Left thigh-muscle of a rail.

"Aegithognathous skull of raven, Corvus corax, nat. size, from nature, by Dr. R. W. Shufeldt, U.S.A. Letters as before. N.B. The reference line, V, goes to the ossified nasal septum borne upon the end of the vomer, which latter bone begins at the thickest part of the central projection. Mxp underlies V and overlies Pl, but touches neither." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Skull of a Raven

"Aegithognathous skull of raven, Corvus corax, nat. size, from nature, by Dr. R. W. Shufeldt, U.S.A.…

"Trachea or windpipe of the red breasted merganser, Mergus serrator, about half natural size, viewed from above (behind); after Newton, A, tongue; B B, its attachments; C C; windpipe, dilated in the middle and swelling below into a bony box, D; E E, bronchial tubes, going to the lung" Elliot Coues, 1994

the Windpipe of a Male Red Breasted Merganser

"Trachea or windpipe of the red breasted merganser, Mergus serrator, about half natural size, viewed…

The claw of a rooster.

Rooster Claw

The claw of a rooster.

A large triangular bone as the base of the spine. Resides inbetween the two hip bones.

Bird Sacrum

A large triangular bone as the base of the spine. Resides inbetween the two hip bones.

"Fig. 39 shows a Tridactyle foot of a sanderling, Calidris arenaria." Elliot Coues, 1884

Tridactyle Foot of a Sanderling

"Fig. 39 shows a Tridactyle foot of a sanderling, Calidris arenaria." Elliot Coues, 1884

"... basal webs generally run out to the end of the first, or along part of the second, phalanx of the toes; usually farther between the outer and middle that between the middle and inner toes. Such a foot is well illustrated by the semipalmated plover (Aegialites semipalmatus), semipalmated sandpiper(Ereunetes pusillus, fig 48)." Elliot coues, 1884

Half-Webbed Foot of a Sandpiper

"... basal webs generally run out to the end of the first, or along part of the second, phalanx of the…

"Spermatozoa of domestic cock, greatly magnified." The spermatozoam or seminal animalcules, or male Dynamamaebae (figs. 106, 107), are the exact counterparts of ovarian ova, in so far as they are single-celled animals of a very low grade of organization; but their activity and intelligence is marvelousm and still more so is the mysterious attribute with which they are endowed of assimilating their protoplasmic substance with that of the ovum; with the result that thus fecundated ovum is capable of procreating itself by fission for a period until a mass of similar creates in engendered; from which mass is then speedily evolved the complex body the bird." Elliot Coues, 1884

Rooster Seman

"Spermatozoa of domestic cock, greatly magnified." The spermatozoam or seminal animalcules, or male…

"Spermatozoa of domestic cock, greatly magnified." The spermatozoam or seminal animalcules, or male Dynamamaebae (figs. 106, 107), are the exact counterparts of ovarian ova, in so far as they are single-celled animals of a very low grade of organization; but their activity and intelligence is marvelousm and still more so is the mysterious attribute with which they are endowed of assimilating their protoplasmic substance with that of the ovum; with the result that thus fecundated ovum is capable of procreating itself by fission for a period until a mass of similar creates in engendered; from which mass is then speedily evolved the complex body the bird." Elliot Coues, 1884

Sparrow Seman

"Spermatozoa of domestic cock, greatly magnified." The spermatozoam or seminal animalcules, or male…

The skeleton of a bird. Labels: a, radius and ulna; b, dorsal vertebrae; c, sacrum and pelvis; g, ploughshare bone; h, tibia; i, metatarsus; d, furculum; e, carina of the sternum; f, distal phalanx of pectoral limb.

Skeleton of a Bird

The skeleton of a bird. Labels: a, radius and ulna; b, dorsal vertebrae; c, sacrum and pelvis; g, ploughshare…

"Fig 56 - Axial skeleton, minus the skull, of an owl, Asio wilsonianus, life size; from nature by Dr. R.W. Shufeldt, USA.at, atlas; ax,axis; cv, cervical vertebrae; c, c', cervical ribs, or free pleurapophyses; dv, dorsal vertebrae, excepting the last one, which joins the sacrum; R, two of the six true ribs (pleurapophyses), whereof sr is sacral; u, one of the five uncinate processes or epipleura; cr, two of the six sternal ribs(haemapophyses), whereof the sixth floats; p, pelvic or sacral region of the spine, comprehending one dorsal, and several lumbar, sacral proper, and urosacral vertebrae; I ilium; Is, ischium; P pubis; a, acetabulum; in, ischio-iliac foremen; o, obturator foramen; clv, caudal or coccygeal vertebrae, whereof py is the pygostyle; s, scapula; ohs, os humero-scapulare; cl, clavicle; C, coracoid; S, sternum." Elliot Coues, 1884

Axial Skeleton

"Fig 56 - Axial skeleton, minus the skull, of an owl, Asio wilsonianus, life size; from nature by Dr.…

"Ideal plan of the double-ringed body of a vertebrate. N, neural canal; H, haemal canal; the body separating them is the centrum of any vertebra, bearing e, and epapophysis, and y, a hypapophysis; n, n, neurapophyses; d, d, diapophyses; ns, bifid neural spine; pl, pl, pleurapophyses; h, h, haemapophyses; hs, bifid haemal spine. Drawn by Dr. R. W. Shufeldt, USA, After Owen. The Axial Skeleton of a bird or any vertebrated animal, that is, one having a back-bone, exhibits in cross-section two rings or hoops, one above and the other below a central point, like the upper and lower loops of a figure 8. The upper ring is the neural arch, so called because such cylinder encloses a section of the cerebro-spinal axis, or principal nervous system of a vertebrate (brain and spinal cord, whence arise all the nerves of the body, excepting those of the sympathetic nervous system). The lower ring is the haema arch, which similarly contains a section of the principal blood vessals and viscera.

Axial Skeleton

"Ideal plan of the double-ringed body of a vertebrate. N, neural canal; H, haemal canal; the body separating…

An illustration of a bird skeleton.

Bird Skeleton

An illustration of a bird skeleton.

A very large flightless bird.

Dinornis Skeleton

A very large flightless bird.

"Fig 55. - Actual section of the body in the thoracic region of a bird. N, neural canal; H, haemal canal; c, centrum of a dorsal vertebra; hy, hypapophysis; d, diapophysis; z, zygapophysis; ns, neural spine; r, pleurapophysis, or vertebral part of a free rib, bearing u, uncinate process or epipleura; cr, haemapophyses; or sternal part of the same; st, section of the sternum or breast-bone (haemal spine). Designed by Dr. R. W. Shufeldt, USA. This figure shows such a section, made across the thoracic or chest-region of the trunk. Here the upper ring (neural) is contracted, only surrounding the slender spinal cord, while the lower ring is expanded to enclose the heart and lungs." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Axial Skeleton

"Fig 55. - Actual section of the body in the thoracic region of a bird. N, neural canal; H, haemal canal;…

A skeleton of a vulture. 6 - keel of sternum, 7 - clavicle

Vulture Skeleton

A skeleton of a vulture. 6 - keel of sternum, 7 - clavicle

'Rhynchops. Skimmer. Bill hypognathous Among the singular bills of birds that frequently excite our wonder, that of the skimmers as one of the most anomalous. The under mandible is much longer than the upper, compressed like a knife-blade; its end is obtuse; its sides come abruptly together and are completely soldered; the upper edge is as sharp as the under, and fits a groove in the upper mandible; the jawbone, viewed apart, looks like a short-handled pitchfork. The upper mandible in also compressed, but less so, nor is it so obtuse at the end; its substance is nearly hallow, with light cancellated structure, much as in a toucan; it is freely movable by means of an elastic hinge at the forehead." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Bill of a Skimmer

'Rhynchops. Skimmer. Bill hypognathous Among the singular bills of birds that frequently excite our…

The skull of a bird. Labels: a, inferior aspect, the mandible being removed; b, lateral aspect; px, premaxilla; mx, superior maxilla; p, palatine bone; v, vomer; j, jugal bone; qj, quadrato-jugal bone; lachrymal; me, median ethmoid; f, frontal; pf, post-frontal process; p, parietal; pt, pterygoid; q, os quadratum; sq, sqamosal; eu, process before the sustachian aperture; bo, basi-occipital, and so, supra-occipital bone; ar, articular; a, surangular, and d, dentary portion of the mandible.

Skull of a Bird

The skull of a bird. Labels: a, inferior aspect, the mandible being removed; b, lateral aspect; px,…

"Fig 64 - Skull of chick, fifth day of incubation, x 9 diameters. Seen from above, the membranous roof of the skull and the brain removed. cv1, anterior cerebral vesicle; e, eye; c, notochord, running through the middle of the basilar plate or parachordal cartilage, in which are already visible the rudimentary ear-parts, cl, the cochlea, hsc, the horizontal semicircular canal; pts, the pituitary space, bounded by tr, the trabeculae, which come together before it to form the fronto-nasal plate, fn, in fig. 65; lg, lingula or bridge connecting trabeculae with parachordal cartilage; 5 notch afterward becoming foramen ovale for passage of parts of the fifth (trifacial) nerve; 9, foramen for hypoglossal nerve; q, separate cartilage forming the future quadrate bone." Elliot Coues, 1884

Skull of a Chick

"Fig 64 - Skull of chick, fifth day of incubation, x 9 diameters. Seen from above, the membranous roof…

"Skull of a chick, but seen from below. cv1, anterior cerebral vesicle; e, eye; m, mouth; pts, pituitary space; fn, fronto-nasal plate; tr, ends of the trabeculae, free again after their union and bent strongly from the original axis of the trabeculae; n, external nostril; mxp, subocular bar of cartilage, or pterygo-palatine rod, to form pa, palatine, and pg, pterygoid bone, and other parts of the upper jaw, as the maxillary, jugal and quadrato-jugal; q, quadrate cartilage, same as seen in fig 64; mk, meckelian cartilage, to form lower jaw; these parts are in the first post-oral visceral arch; ch, cerato-hyal, and bh, basihyal, of second postoral arch; cbr, cerato-branchial, ebr-branchial, bbr, basi-branchial, of third post-oral arch; the parts of the second and third arch all going into the hyoid bone. 1, 2, 3, 1st, 2d, 3d, visceral clefts, whereof the 1st is to be modified into the ear-passages, and the others are to be obliterated." Elliot Coues, 1884

Skull of a Chick Below

"Skull of a chick, but seen from below. cv1, anterior cerebral vesicle; e, eye; m, mouth; pts, pituitary…

"Fig 63 - Skull of a duck (Clangula islandica), nat. size; Dr. R.W. Shufeldt, U.S.A.   a, premaxillary bone; b, partly ossified internasal septum; b', pervious part of nostril; c, end of premaxillary, perforated form numerous branches of second division of the fifth cranial nerve; d, dentary bone of under mandible; e, groove of nerves, etc.; f, a vacuity between dentary and other pieces of the mandible; g, articular surface; h, recurved "angle of the jaw;" i, occipital protuberance; j, vacuity in supraoccipital bone; k, muscular impression on back of skull; l is over the black ear-cavity; m, post-frontal process; n, quadrate bone; o, pterygoid; p, palatine; q, quadrato-jugal; r, jugal; s, maxillary; t, fronto-parietal dome of the brain-cavity; u; u, the lacrymal bone, immense in a duck, nearly completing rim of the orbit by approaching m; v, vomer; w, supra-orbital depression for the nasal gland; x, cranio-facial hinge; y, optic foramen; z, etc. interorbital vacuities." Elliot Coues, 1884

Duck Skull

"Fig 63 - Skull of a duck (Clangula islandica), nat. size; Dr. R.W. Shufeldt, U.S.A. a, premaxillary…

"Side view of a woodpecker's skull, showing the long slender basihyal (bh), bearing slight elements at its fore end, no uroyhal, and extraordinarily long thyrohyals (cbr, ebr) curving up over back of skull and curling together around orbit of the right eye." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Skull of a Woodpecker

"Side view of a woodpecker's skull, showing the long slender basihyal (bh), bearing slight elements…

"Schizognathous skull of common fowl. pmx, premaxilla; mxp, maxillopalatine; mx, maxilla; pl, palatine; pt, pterygoid; vo, vomer." -Whitney, 1911

Bird Skull

"Schizognathous skull of common fowl. pmx, premaxilla; mxp, maxillopalatine; mx, maxilla; pl, palatine;…

Skull of <em>corvus corone</em>, or carrion crow, showing the brain cavity.

Crow skull

Skull of corvus corone, or carrion crow, showing the brain cavity.

"The post-oral arches of the house martin, at middle of period of incubation, lateral view, X14 diameters. mk, stumpof meckelian or mandibular rod, its articular part, ar already shapen; q, quadrate bone, or suspensorium of lower jaw, with a free anterior orbital process and long posterior otic process articulating with the ear-capsule, of which teo, tympanic wing of occipital, is a part; mst, est, sst, ist, sth, parts of suspensorium of the third post-oral arch, not completed to chy; mst, medio-stapedial, tp come away from teo, bringing a piece with it, the true stapes or columella auris; the oval base of the stapes fitting into the future fenestra ovalis, or oval window looking into the cochlea; sst, supra-stapedial; est, extra-stapedial; ist, infra-stapedial, which will unite with sth, the stylo-hyal; chy and bhym cerato-hyal and basi-hyal, distal parts of the same arch; bbr, br 1, br2, basi-branchial, epi-branchial and cerato-branchial pieces of the third arch, composing the rest of the hyoid bone; tg, tongue." Elliot Coues, 1884

House Martin Skull

"The post-oral arches of the house martin, at middle of period of incubation, lateral view, X14 diameters.…

"Desmognathous skull of mallard duck, Anas boscas, nat. size, from nature, by Dr. R.W. Shufeldt, U.S.A. Letters before. In the "bound-palate" type, the vomer in either abortive, or so small that it disappears; when existing it is usually slender and tapers to a point in front; the maxillo-palatines are united across the median line, either directly or by means of ossification in the nasal septum; the posterior ends of the palatines and the anterior ends of the pterygoids articulate directly with the rostrum (as in schizognathism). This type is simply and perfectly exhibited by a duck in which the maxillo-palatine is a broad flat plate united with its fellow in mid-line; the oval sessile basipterygoid facets are far forward, opposite the very ends of the pterygoids." Elliot Coues, 1884

Mallard Duck Skull

"Desmognathous skull of mallard duck, Anas boscas, nat. size, from nature, by Dr. R.W. Shufeldt, U.S.A.…

"Fig. 114. -Skulls of Turdidae and Sylvicolidae, nat. size; after Shufeldt. A, Oroscoptes montanus; B, Sialia mexicana; C, Cinclus mexicanus; D, Siurus naevius. Observe likeness between A and B, at points marked c, c', l, l'; and between C and D, at points marked b, b,' d, d'." Elliot Coues, 1884

Bird Skulls

"Fig. 114. -Skulls of Turdidae and Sylvicolidae, nat. size; after Shufeldt. A, Oroscoptes montanus;…

The claws of a skylark.

Skylark

The claws of a skylark.

"Ammodramus. Seaside Sparrow. Bill remarkably slender and lengthened for this family, with culmen toward end, gonys straight, and sometimes an evident lobation of the cutting edge of the upper mandible. Wings short and rounded, yet longer than tail; inner secondaries, though not elongate, reaching nearly to end of primaries when wing is closed; point formed by 2d-4th quills. Feet large and stout, reaching outstretched about to the end of tail; tarsus about equal to middle toe and claw in length; lateral toes of equal lengths, very short, their claws under reaching base of middle claw. Tail shorter or not longer than wings, much rounded, of narrow, stiffish, sharp-pointed feathers. Embracing small streaky marsh sparrows, especially of the sea-coast, but not exclusively maritime, as long supposed; remarkable for slenderness of the bill, sharp narrow tail-feathers, and stout feet fitted for grasping slender swaying reeds. Edge of wing bright yellow; a yellow spot of buff stripe on head; upper parts olive-gray or quite blackish, streaky." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Details of a Seaside Sparrow

"Ammodramus. Seaside Sparrow. Bill remarkably slender and lengthened for this family, with culmen toward…

"Fig. 30., Feathers of a sparrow's wing. pc, covers of the primaries; msc, median upper secondary coverts; bc, tectrices minores; b, primaries; s, secondaries; t, tertiaries." Elliot Coues, 1884

Feathers of a Sparrow's Wing

"Fig. 30., Feathers of a sparrow's wing. pc, covers of the primaries; msc, median upper secondary coverts;…

"The beak or bill of birds is composed of two bony pieces, called mandibles, surrounded by a horny substance, differing both in form and thickness, according to the habits of the species."

Bill of Sparrow

"The beak or bill of birds is composed of two bony pieces, called mandibles, surrounded by a horny substance,…

"Muscles of a bird (accipiter nisus), after Carus, Tab. Anat. Comp., 1828, pl. 4.   a, pharynx; b, trachea; e, hyoid bone; d, ear; e, humerous; f, radius; g, ulna; h, radial finger; i, tibia; k, metatarsus; l, hind toe; m, inner toe; n, middle toe; o, outer toe. 1, biventer cervicis, with central tendon 1 a, and upper 1 b, and lower 1 c, belly. 2, complexus. 3, flexor capitis lateralis. 4, flexor longus capitis. 5, extensor magnus cervicis. 6, descendens cervicis. 7, 7, semispinales. 8, flexorsuperior capitis. 9, flexor inferior or longus capitis. 10, 10, intertransversales. 11, levator coccygis. 12, depressor coccygis. 13, cruro-coccygeus (ilio-coccygeus?). 14, pubo-coccygeus. 15 ischio-coccygeus. 16, lateralis quartus (quadratus coccygis, to tail-feathers). 17, obliquus externus abdominis. 18, cucullaris (trapezius). 19, serratus magnus. 20, pectoralis major. 21, a, b, latissimus dorsi. 22, deltoid. 23, suprascapular. 24, coraco-brachialis. 25, biceps brachii. 26, supinatpr longus. 27, anconeus longus (part of "triceps"). 28, anconeus brevis. 29, anconeus brevissimus. 30 a, 30 b, tensor patagii, carpal and radial parts. 31, tensor patagii posterior. 32, extensormetacarpi longus. 33, extensor metacarpi brevis. 34 a, flexor digitorum sublimis. 34 b, flexor digitorum profundus. 34 c, flexor metacarpi radialis. 36, flexor (meta-) carpi ulnaris. 37, glutaeus maximus. 38, adductor femoris primus. 39, sartorius. 40, latissimus femoris. 41, gracilis = ambiens: only its tendon in sight. 42, vastus; 43, iceps cruris. 44, semimembranosus. 46,46,47, gastrocnemius. 48 digastricus (chief opener of the mouth). 49, temporal. 50, long ligament. 51, cutaneous muscle of scalp. 52, masseter. 53, a muscle of the hyoid bone. 54, tibialis anticus. 55, tibialis posticus. 56, extensor hallucis. 57, flexor hallucis. 58, flaxor digitorum profundus or perforans, seen in various places: long and short head, and several tendons. 59, extensor longus digitorum, tendons seen in various places 60, abductor digiti interni. 61,61,61, flexores digitorum perforati. 62, peronaeus. 63, abductor minimi digiti. 64, abductor hallucis." Elliot Coues, 1884

Eurasian Sparrowhawk Muscles

"Muscles of a bird (accipiter nisus), after Carus, Tab. Anat. Comp., 1828, pl. 4. a, pharynx; b, trachea;…

The sternum of a bird. Label: a, lateral aspect; b, inferior aspect; r, rostrum; c.p, costal process; pl.o, pleurosteon; c, carina; m.x, middle xiphoid process.

Sternum of a Bird

The sternum of a bird. Label: a, lateral aspect; b, inferior aspect; r, rostrum; c.p, costal process;…

"Typical passerine sternum, pectoral arches, and sternal ends of ribs; from the robin, Turdus migratorius, nat. size; Dr. R.W. Shufeldt, U.S.A. Sternum single-notched, with prominent costal processes and forked manubrium; five ribs reaching sternum, one rib "floating"" Elliot Coues, 1884

Sternum of a Robin

"Typical passerine sternum, pectoral arches, and sternal ends of ribs; from the robin, Turdus migratorius,…

""Views of sternum and pectoral arch of the ptarmigan, Lagapus albus, reduced. Lateral view, with the bones upside down. a, sternum or breast-bone showing two long slender lateral processes; b, ends of sternal ribs; c, ends of humerous, or upper arm-bone, near the shoulder-joint; d, scapula, or shoulder-blade; e, coracoid; f, merry-thought, or furculum." Elliot Coues, 1884

Willow Grouse Sternum

""Views of sternum and pectoral arch of the ptarmigan, Lagapus albus, reduced. Lateral view, with the…

"Views of sternum and pectoral arch of the ptarmigan, Lagapus albus, reduced; viewed from below. a, sternum or breast-bone showing two long slender lateral processes; b, ends of sternal ribs; c, ends of humerous, or upper arm-bone, near the shoulder-joint; d, scapula, or shoulder-blade; e, coracoid; f, merry-thought, or furculum." Elliot Coues, 1884

Willow Grouse Sternum

"Views of sternum and pectoral arch of the ptarmigan, Lagapus albus, reduced; viewed from below. a,…

The head and leg of the stork, a bird in the Ciconiidae family of storks, herons, and egrets.

Stork Head and Leg

The head and leg of the stork, a bird in the Ciconiidae family of storks, herons, and egrets.