This human anatomy ClipArt gallery offers 140 illustrations of the peripheral nervous system, which includes the nervous structures not included in the central nervous system such as peripheral nerves that extend from the spine through the torso and limbs.

Axons terminate peripherally in various ways and may be most conveniently studied in the efferent and afferent systems. The peripheral termination of afferent neurons are better called peripheral nerve beginnings, on account of their functional relations; the impulse is excited in the peripheral end and conducted centrad through the rest of the neuron. The figures are showing some varieties of peripheral termination of afferent neurons ( or "peripheral nerve beginnings"): A, Terminal fibrillae in epithelium. B, Tactile corpuscles. C, Bulboid corpuscle. D, Lamellated corpuscle. Labels: a, axon; t, telodendria.

Peripheral Nerve Beginnings

Axons terminate peripherally in various ways and may be most conveniently studied in the efferent and…

"Nerve tissue is really made up of a great number of distinctive units called <em>nerve cells</em>. Each cell usually contains a large nucleus and gives off one or more tiny branches, or processes. Thse cells vary more in shape and size than any other cell in the body. Each nerve cell has a number of short branches, and many have also one long branch which can be traced for some distance from the cell body." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Nerve cells

"Nerve tissue is really made up of a great number of distinctive units called nerve cells.…

Diagram to show the relationship of nerve cell (NC) to Muscle (M) through its nerve fiber.

The Relation of Nerve Cells to Muscle

Diagram to show the relationship of nerve cell (NC) to Muscle (M) through its nerve fiber.

Diagram of motor nerve endings in A. striated muscle. B, cardiac muscle. C, nonstriated muscle. Labels: a, axon; t, telodendria.

Motor Nerve Endings

Diagram of motor nerve endings in A. striated muscle. B, cardiac muscle. C, nonstriated muscle. Labels:…

"The axis cylinder is in the center. On either side is seen the medullary sheath, represented by dark lines. The primitive sheath, or neurilemma, is on the outside and represented by white lines in which is a nerve corpuscle with an oval nucleus." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Portion of a medullated nerve fiber

"The axis cylinder is in the center. On either side is seen the medullary sheath, represented by dark…

Nerve fibers. Labels: a, nerve-fiber, showing complete interruption of the white substance; b, another nerve fiber with nucleus. In both these nerve fibers the white substance is stained black with osmic acid, and the axon is seen running as an uninterrupted strand through the center of the fiber. c, ordinary nerve fiber unstained; d, e, smaller nerve fiber; f, varicose nerve fiber; g, non-medullated nerve fibers.

Nerve Fibers

Nerve fibers. Labels: a, nerve-fiber, showing complete interruption of the white substance; b, another…

To illustrate the structure of nerve fibers. Labels: A, nerve fiber examined fresh; n, node. B, nerve fiber with axis cylinder shaded, and medulla represented by dark lines; n.c, nucleus; p, granular cell substance near the nucleus. C, more highly magnified: m, medulla; n, node. D, nerve treated with reagents to show the axis cylinder: n.x, surrounded by medulla, m. E, nerve treated with reagents to show n.c, nucleus with fine line over it representing the neurilemma, and outside this fine connective tissue, c: n.c', nucleus lying in the fine connective tissue. F, nerve fiber deprived of its neurilemma showing medulla broken up into fragments, m, surrounding the axis cylinder, n.x.

Nerve Fibers

To illustrate the structure of nerve fibers. Labels: A, nerve fiber examined fresh; n, node. B, nerve…

Two nerve fibers of the sciatic nerve. Labels: A. Node of Ranvier. B. Axis cylinder. C. Sheath of Schwann with nuclei.

Nerve Fibers of the Sciatic Nerve

Two nerve fibers of the sciatic nerve. Labels: A. Node of Ranvier. B. Axis cylinder. C. Sheath of Schwann…

Primitive nerve fibers. A, A perfectly fresh tubule with a single dark outline. B. A tubule or fiber with a double contour from commencing post-mortem change. C. The changed further advanced, producing a varicose or beaded appearance. D. A tubule or fiber, the central part of which , in consequence of still further changes, has accumulated into separate portions within the sheath.

Primitive Nerve Fibers

Primitive nerve fibers. A, A perfectly fresh tubule with a single dark outline. B. A tubule or fiber…

Nerve-filaments, decussing with their sheath.

Nerve Filaments

Nerve-filaments, decussing with their sheath.

Motorial end-plate, the termination of a nerve in a fiber of cross-striped muscle.

Termination of a Nerve in a Fiber of Cross-Striped Muscle

Motorial end-plate, the termination of a nerve in a fiber of cross-striped muscle.

The right cervical and brachial plexuses. The shaded portions are the derivatives of the superior rami.

Cervical and Brachial Nerve Plexuses

The right cervical and brachial plexuses. The shaded portions are the derivatives of the superior rami.

Right lumbar and sacral plexuses, schematic, viewed from in front The darkly shaded trunks are derivatives of the dorsal half of the plexus.

Lumbar and Sacral Nerve Plexuses

Right lumbar and sacral plexuses, schematic, viewed from in front The darkly shaded trunks are derivatives…

This cut represents a portion of nerve, showing the filaments of which it is composed, and one of them drawn out.

Nerve Portion

This cut represents a portion of nerve, showing the filaments of which it is composed, and one of them…

Reflex arc schematic. Labels: S.O., sensory organ; S.N., sensory neuron; N.C., nerve center; M.N., motor neuron; M.O., motor organ.

Nerve Reflex Arc

Reflex arc schematic. Labels: S.O., sensory organ; S.N., sensory neuron; N.C., nerve center; M.N., motor…

Reflex arc, as it is approximately in man. Labels: 1, nerve terminal, or sensory epithelium; 2, dendrite of sensory neuron; 3, cell body in dorsal root ganglion; 4, axon of sensory neuron; 5, dendrite of motor neuron; 6, cell body in ventral horn; 7, axon of motor neuron; 8, end organ (e.g., muscle-cell, gland-cell, etc.).

Nerve Reflex Arc

Reflex arc, as it is approximately in man. Labels: 1, nerve terminal, or sensory epithelium; 2, dendrite…

Portion of the trunk of a nerve dividing into two branches.

Nerve Trunk Dividing

Portion of the trunk of a nerve dividing into two branches.

"The Main Nerve Trunks of the Right Forearm, showing the Accompanying Radial and Ulnar Arteries. (Anterior view.)" &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Nerve trunks

"The Main Nerve Trunks of the Right Forearm, showing the Accompanying Radial and Ulnar Arteries. (Anterior…

A diagram of nerve tubules A nerve tube consists of a white portion which is fatty, and which protects the central portion, or axis cylinder. Surrounding these is a tubular membrane composed of epithelial cells. The nerve of the body are made up of bundles of these tubes, bound together by connective tissue and enclosed in a sheath of the same. Labels: a, axis cylinder; b, inner border of white substance; c, c, outer border of same; d, ,d, tubular membrane; B, tubular fibers; e, in natural state; f, under pressure; g, g', varicose fibers.

Nerve Tubules

A diagram of nerve tubules A nerve tube consists of a white portion which is fatty, and which protects…

"A Great Nerve (Crural) and its branches on the Front of the Thigh. The femoral artery with its cut end is shown." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Great nerve

"A Great Nerve (Crural) and its branches on the Front of the Thigh. The femoral artery with its cut…

"A Great Nerve (Posterior Tibial) on the Back of the Leg, with its Accompanying Artery of the Same Name." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Great nerve

"A Great Nerve (Posterior Tibial) on the Back of the Leg, with its Accompanying Artery of the Same Name."…

"A Great Nerve (Plantar) and its Branches which supply the Bottom of the Feet. Note the cut tendons of the great muscles of the leg." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Great nerve

"A Great Nerve (Plantar) and its Branches which supply the Bottom of the Feet. Note the cut tendons…

Plan of a typical intercostal nerve.

Intercostal Nerve

Plan of a typical intercostal nerve.

Plan of the constitution of a spinal nerve.

Spinal Nerve

Plan of the constitution of a spinal nerve.

"The Cervical and Thoracic Portions of the Sympathetic Nerve and their Main Branches. In the center of the figure, running almost vertically, is shown the right pneumogastrix nerve. To the left may be seen a chain of ganglia of the sympathetic nerve, running along the vertebrae. The distribution of some smaller ganglia and nerve branches in the neck and chest regions are also shown." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Sympathetic nerve

"The Cervical and Thoracic Portions of the Sympathetic Nerve and their Main Branches. In the center…

Side view of the human skull, showing the main nerves.

The Fifth Nerve

Side view of the human skull, showing the main nerves.

Nerves leading to the roots of the teeth.

Nerves Leading to Teeth Roots

Nerves leading to the roots of the teeth.

Diagrammatic representation of the nerves of the alimentary canal. Oe to Rct, the various parts of the alimentary canal from esophagus to rectum: L.V, left vagus, ending in front of stomach; rl, recurrent laryngeal nerve, supplying upper part of esophagus; R.V, right vagus, joining left vagus in esophageal plexus; oe.pl., supplying the posterior part of the stomach , and continues at R'V' to join the solar plexus, here represented by a single ganglion, and connected with the inferior mesenteric ganglion m.gl.: a, branches from the solar plexus to stomach and small intestine , and from the mesenteric ganglia and rami communicantes; r.c., belonging to dorsal nerves from the 6th to the 9th (or 10th); Spl.min., small splanchnic nerve similarly from the 10th and 11th dorsal nerves. These both join the solar plexus, and thence make their way to the alimentary canal; c.r., nerves from the ganglia, &c., belonging to 11th and 12th dorsal and 1st and 2nd lumbar nerves, proceeding to the inferior mesenteric ganglia (or plexus), m.gl., and thence by the hypogastic nerve, n.hyp., and the hypogastric nerve, n.hyp., and the hypogastric plexus, pl.hyp., to the circular muscles of the rectum; 1.r., nerves from the 2nd and 3rd sacral nerves, S.2, S.3 (nervi erigentes) proceeding by the hypogastric plexus to the longitudinal muscles of the rectum.

Nerves of the Alimentary Canal

Diagrammatic representation of the nerves of the alimentary canal. Oe to Rct, the various parts of the…

Nerves of the forearm.

Nerves of the Forearm

Nerves of the forearm.

A view of the nerves of the back of the forearm and hand.

Nerves of the Forearm and Hand

A view of the nerves of the back of the forearm and hand.

"Superficial, or Cutaneous, Nerves on the Back of the Left Forearm and Hand." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Superficial nerves of the forearm and hand

"Superficial, or Cutaneous, Nerves on the Back of the Left Forearm and Hand." — Blaisedell, 1904

"Showing some of the superficial nerves on the left side of the neck and the head. A few superficial muscles and arteries in the same region are also shown." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Superficial nerves of the head

"Showing some of the superficial nerves on the left side of the neck and the head. A few superficial…

Nerves of the outer walls of the nasal fossae. 1, network of the branches of the olfactory nerve, descending upon the region of the superior and middle turbinated region of the superior and middle turbinated bones; 2, external twig of the ethmoidal branch of the nasal nerves; 3, spheno-palatine ganglion; 4, ramification of the anterior palatine nerves; 5, posterior, and 6, middle division of the palatine nerves; 7, branch to the region of the superior and middle turbinated bones; 9, naso-palatine branch to the septum cut short.

Nerves of the Nasal Fossae

Nerves of the outer walls of the nasal fossae. 1, network of the branches of the olfactory nerve, descending…

"<em>A</em>, branches of the nerves of smell; <em>B</em>, nerves of touch to the nostrils; <em>E, F, G,</em> nerves to the palate springing from a ganglion at <em>C</em>; <em>H</em>, a branch of the facial nerve, from which which other branches <em>D, I,</em> and <em>J</em>, spring to be distributed to the nostrils." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Nerves of the nostril

"A, branches of the nerves of smell; B, nerves of touch to the nostrils; E, F,

Diagram of the origin and distribution of the nerves to the pectoral muscles. E.A.T., external thoracic nerve; I.A.T., internal anterior thoracic nerve; C.5, 6, 7, C.8, T.1, nerves of the brachial plexus; ART., axillary artery; CL, clavicle; SCL., subclavius muscle; P.Mr, pectoralis minor, joined to subclavius by costocoracoid membrane; P.MA, pectoralis major.

Nerves of the Pectoral Muscles

Diagram of the origin and distribution of the nerves to the pectoral muscles. E.A.T., external thoracic…

Nerves of the septum nasi, seen from the right side. I, the olfactory bulb; 1, the olfactory nerves passion through the foramina of the cribriform plate, and descending to be distributed on the septum; 2, the internal or septal twig of the nasal branch of the ophthalmic nerve; 3, naso-palatine nerves.

Nerves of the Septum Nasi

Nerves of the septum nasi, seen from the right side. I, the olfactory bulb; 1, the olfactory nerves…

"Dental Branch of One of the Divisions of the Fifth Pair of Cranial Nerves, supplying the Lower Teeth. Branches from the motor root, distributed to various muscles, are also shown." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Cranial nerves

"Dental Branch of One of the Divisions of the Fifth Pair of Cranial Nerves, supplying the Lower Teeth.…

"Dental Branches of One of the Divisions of the Fifth Pair of Cranial Nerves, supply the Upper Teeth." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Cranial nerves

"Dental Branches of One of the Divisions of the Fifth Pair of Cranial Nerves, supply the Upper Teeth."…

Surface markings for the second and third division of the fifth nerve.

Facial Nerves

Surface markings for the second and third division of the fifth nerve.

Diagram to show the proximity of the sensory nuclei of the fifth and tenth cranial and first and second cervical nerves.

Facial Nerves

Diagram to show the proximity of the sensory nuclei of the fifth and tenth cranial and first and second…

Diagram to indicate the arrangement of the Sympathetic Nervous Centers and Fibers.

Nervous Centers

Diagram to indicate the arrangement of the Sympathetic Nervous Centers and Fibers.

Nervous fibers, deprived of their neurilema and unraveled, showing the smaller threads, or filaments, of which the fibers consist.

Nervous Fibers

Nervous fibers, deprived of their neurilema and unraveled, showing the smaller threads, or filaments,…

Ultimate fibers of nerve highly magnified; showing the strings of globules of which they consist.

Nervous Fibers

Ultimate fibers of nerve highly magnified; showing the strings of globules of which they consist.

"Diagram illustrating the General Arrangement of the Nervous System. (posterior view.)" &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Nervous system

"Diagram illustrating the General Arrangement of the Nervous System. (posterior view.)" — Blaisedell,…

Element of Nervous System. a: Sensory fiber; b: Motor fiber; c: Center; f: End of sensory fiber; m: muscle.

Nervous System

Element of Nervous System. a: Sensory fiber; b: Motor fiber; c: Center; f: End of sensory fiber; m:…

"Part of the sympathetic nervous system seen from in front, n, one of the two chief cords, t, i, and p, branches to organs." &mdash;Davison, 1910

Sympathetic nervous system

"Part of the sympathetic nervous system seen from in front, n, one of the two chief cords, t, i, and…

Scheme of the central motor neuron. The motor cell body, together with all its protoplasmic processes, its axis-cylinder process, collaterals, and end ramifications, represent parts of a single  cell or neuron. Labels: a, h, Axone-hillock devoid of Nissl bodies, and showing fibrilation; c, cytoplasm showing Nissl bodies and lighter ground substance. n', nucleolus.

Scheme of the Central Motor Neuron

Scheme of the central motor neuron. The motor cell body, together with all its protoplasmic processes,…

Scheme and the course and distribution of the obturator nerve.

Course of Obturator Nerve

Scheme and the course and distribution of the obturator nerve.

Scheme of the distribution of the ophthalmic nerve. Labels: Vs, trigeminal nerve, afferent root; Mo, efferent root; G.G, gasserian ganglion; M, meningeal branch; I.C, branch to internal carotid artery; Oph, opthalmic nerve; S.M, superior maxillary nerve; I.M, inferior maxillary nerve; III, communication to oculomotor nerve; IV, to trochlear nerve; L, branches to upper eyelid; L.G, long root to lenticular ganglion; Sy, root from sympathetic (on carotid artery); III, short root from motor oculi nerve; C, short ciliary branches; L.C, long ciliary nerves; I.T, infra-trochlear nerve; E.N, external nasal nerve; I.N, internal nasal nerve; O, orbital branch of superior maxillary nerve; L.Gl, lachrymal gland; C, conjuctival branch; L, branch to eyelids and face.

Ophthalmic Nerve

Scheme of the distribution of the ophthalmic nerve. Labels: Vs, trigeminal nerve, afferent root; Mo,…

The distribution of the pneumogastric nerve.

Pneumogastric Nerve Distribution

The distribution of the pneumogastric nerve.

"Showing its distribution by its branches and ganglia to the larynx, pharynx, heart, lungs, and other parts." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Trunk of the pneumogastric nerve

"Showing its distribution by its branches and ganglia to the larynx, pharynx, heart, lungs, and other…

"Illustrating the path of a simple nervous reflex action." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Reflex action

"Illustrating the path of a simple nervous reflex action." — Blaisedell, 1904

"Diagram of the simple reflex arc. R, receptor; A, afferent (sensory) neuron; E, efferent (motor) meuron; M, muscle." &mdash;Martin, 1917

Reflex Arc

"Diagram of the simple reflex arc. R, receptor; A, afferent (sensory) neuron; E, efferent (motor) meuron;…

Diagram of a reflex arc.

Reflex Arc Diagram

Diagram of a reflex arc.

The sacral and coccygeal nerves.

The Sacral and Coccygeal Nerves

The sacral and coccygeal nerves.

Plan of sacral plexus with the pudendal plexus.

Sacral Plexus with Pudendal Plexus

Plan of sacral plexus with the pudendal plexus.

Section of the internal saphenous nerve. Stained in osmic acid and subsequently hardened in alcohol. Drawn as seen under a very low magnifying power. Labels: ep, epineurium (general sheath of the nerve consisting of connective tissue separated by cleft-like areolae, which appear as a network of clear lines, with here and there fat-cells), f, f, and blood-vessels, v; per, perineurium (particular sheath of funiculus); end, endoneurium, or connective tissue within funiculus, embedded in which are seen the cut ends of the medullated nerve fibers. The fat cells and the nerve fibers are darkly stained by the osmic acid.

Section of the Internal Saphenous Nerve

Section of the internal saphenous nerve. Stained in osmic acid and subsequently hardened in alcohol.…

"Diagram to illustrate how a single sensory neuron may communicate with several motor neurons, and a single motor neuron with several sensory neurons." &mdash;Martin, 1917

Sensory Neuron

"Diagram to illustrate how a single sensory neuron may communicate with several motor neurons, and a…

Showing the dorsal preaxial origin of the musculospiral (radial) nerve, and the ventral post-axial origin of the ulnar nerve from the brachial plexus.

Nerves of the Shoulder

Showing the dorsal preaxial origin of the musculospiral (radial) nerve, and the ventral post-axial origin…

Scheme of the origin, connection, and distribution of the spinal accessory nerve. Labels: Sp.Acc, spinal accessory nerve; C.1-4, first four cervical nerves (dorsal roots); Va, pneumogastric nerve; R, ganglion of the root; t, ganglion of the trunk; G.Ph, glossopharyngeal nerve; S.M, nerves to sternocleidomastoid; Tr, nerves to trapezius; F.M, foramen magnum; J.F, jugular foramen.

Spinal Accessory Nerve

Scheme of the origin, connection, and distribution of the spinal accessory nerve. Labels: Sp.Acc, spinal…