This ClipArt gallery offers 93 images of mining techniques for gold, silver, coal, and iron ore.

"Formerly the balls were squeezed by an "alligator" or "crocodile" squeezer, and were then "shingled" by shingling hammers, such as the "tilt" hammer (where the hammer forms a lever with the fulcrum in the middle, a cam pressing upon one end serving to depress that end and raise the other which carries the head)." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Alligator Squeezer

"Formerly the balls were squeezed by an "alligator" or "crocodile" squeezer, and were then "shingled"…

"Mexican Arrastre. A rude apparatus used in Mexico, and to some extent in the United States, for grinding and at the same time amalgamating ores containing free gold or silver."-Whitney, 1902

Arrastre

"Mexican Arrastre. A rude apparatus used in Mexico, and to some extent in the United States, for grinding…

An axe with an adz—like edge on the end opposite the point.

Pick Axe

An axe with an adz—like edge on the end opposite the point.

An axe with an adz—like edge on the end opposite the point.

Pick Axe

An axe with an adz—like edge on the end opposite the point.

This illustration shows a Blake Ore Breaker (stone crusher), used in a gold stamp mill. This crusher breaks the large, mined rocks containing the gold (ore) into small pieces, to then be reduced to the finest powder by stamps.

Blake Ore Breaker

This illustration shows a Blake Ore Breaker (stone crusher), used in a gold stamp mill. This crusher…

An illustration of a coal bucket.

Coal Bucket

An illustration of a coal bucket.

A light steel mining cage and car used to raise and lower cars in gold and silver mines. The car is loaded with the minerals from the mined and raised to the surface by a hoist.

Light Steel Safety Mining Cage and Car for Gold and Silver Mines

A light steel mining cage and car used to raise and lower cars in gold and silver mines. The car is…

"Calder Pipe Stove. I. End Elevation. II. Elevation. III. Plan." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Calder Pipe Stove

"Calder Pipe Stove. I. End Elevation. II. Elevation. III. Plan." — The Encyclopedia Britannica,…

Appearance of the chambers. The miners, when they branch off from the main shaft or avenue, leave pillars of coal about eighteen feet square, to support the roof or mass above. These huge pillars were crushed by the great weight upon them, in the accident recorded.

chambers

Appearance of the chambers. The miners, when they branch off from the main shaft or avenue, leave pillars…

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside of which is moistened with water and treated with chlorine gas to form a solution of Gold Chloride. This is then run off, and the gold precipitated , usually by means of Ferrous Sulphate or charcoal.

Chlorination Barrel

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside…

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside of which is moistened with water and treated with chlorine gas to form a solution of Gold Chloride. This is then run off, and the gold precipitated , usually by means of Ferrous Sulphate or charcoal.

Chlorination Barrel (End Section)

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside…

This illustration shows coal-beds with stumps of trees rising out of the coal. The stumps always stand vertically on the bed, however much the latter may be displaced, showing that the bed was horizontal when it was formed, or when the trees were growing.

Coal Beds

This illustration shows coal-beds with stumps of trees rising out of the coal. The stumps always stand…

The coal-fields of the United States are the richest in the world. Immense deposits occur in the eastern, central, and western sections of the country.

Coal Mine

The coal-fields of the United States are the richest in the world. Immense deposits occur in the eastern,…

An anthracite coal mine. Anthracite is a variety of mineral coal known by its high luster.

Coal Mine

An anthracite coal mine. Anthracite is a variety of mineral coal known by its high luster.

Circulation of fresh air was critical in coal mining. In spite of passages created to control this, ther were always side rooms through which no circulation could be effected. These areas were where explosive "fire-damp", or light carbide of hydrogen, evolved spontaneously from the coal, and often caused fatal accidents to the miners.

Explosion in a Coal Mine

Circulation of fresh air was critical in coal mining. In spite of passages created to control this,…

A scene in the coal mining region of Pennsylvania.

Coal Mining

A scene in the coal mining region of Pennsylvania.

An illustration of an automatic coal weighing machine.

Automatic Coal Weighing Machine

An illustration of an automatic coal weighing machine.

An illustration of an automatic coal weighing machine.

Automatic Coal Weighing Machine

An illustration of an automatic coal weighing machine.

"This machine consists essentially of a horizontal piston and cylinder engine fixed upon a platform carried upon four wheels, which are coupled together by side rods, so that on motion being communicated by means of a mitre wheel in the hind axle, it can be moved forward by hand. On the forward end of the frame are two bosses forming the centres for a pair of bell cranks or bent levers places close to the ground, and facing in opposite directions, either one of which can be connected with the piston rod. The outer arm of each lever carries a square socket, into which is fixed the pick, which has two cutting heads, one placed a little in front of the other so as to cut to the whole depth at one operation." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Coal-cutting Machine

"This machine consists essentially of a horizontal piston and cylinder engine fixed upon a platform…

A crane in which the postis supported by fixed stays in the rear and the jib is pivoted like the boom of a derrick.

Derrick Crane

A crane in which the postis supported by fixed stays in the rear and the jib is pivoted like the boom…

An illustration of a derrick crane.

Derrick Crane

An illustration of a derrick crane.

The gold mining camp of Cripple Creek, Colorado.

Cripple Creek Mine

The gold mining camp of Cripple Creek, Colorado.

In the gold extraction process, finely crushed ores are leached in vats with a very diluted solution of Potassuim Cyanide (KCN), containing 0.05 to 0.3 percent KCN (or its equivalent, Sodium Cyanide, NaCN) which is allowed to remain for twelve to twenty-four hours to dissolve the gold.

Cyanide Leaching Tank (Gold Extraction)

In the gold extraction process, finely crushed ores are leached in vats with a very diluted solution…

Darlington's Rock Drill

Darlington Drill

Darlington's Rock Drill

Darlington's rock drill

Darlington Drill

Darlington's rock drill

An illustration of an iron derrick, a lifting device composed of one mast or pole which is hinged freely at the bottom. It is controlled by lines (usually four of them) powered by some means such as man-hauling or motors, so that the pole can move in all four directions. A line runs up it and over its top with a hook on the end, like with a crane. It is commonly used in docks and onboard ships. Some large derricks are mounted on dedicated vessels, and are often known as "floating derricks".

Derrick

An illustration of an iron derrick, a lifting device composed of one mast or pole which is hinged freely…

"Dormoy's rabble differs from others of this class in being worked by rotation like a hair-brushing machine; the tool being made to revolve very rapidly (300 to 500 turns per minute for white iron and 800 to 1000 for grey pig) gives the metal such an impulse that it gyrates horizontally round the bed, continually renewing the surface in contact with the atmosphere; this is further aided, by making the end of the rabble to carry a disk, which is replaced by a short twisted point when the metal comes to nature." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Dormoy's Rabble

"Dormoy's rabble differs from others of this class in being worked by rotation like a hair-brushing…

"Dormoy's rabble differs from others of this class in being worked by rotation like a hair-brushing machine; the tool being made to revolve very rapidly (300 to 500 turns per minute for white iron and 800 to 1000 for grey pig) gives the metal such an impulse that it gyrates horizontally round the bed, continually renewing the surface in contact with the atmosphere; this is further aided, by making the end of the rabble to carry a disk, which is replaced by a short twisted point when the metal comes to nature." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Dormoy's Rabble

"Dormoy's rabble differs from others of this class in being worked by rotation like a hair-brushing…

A Little Champion Rock Drill

Drill

A Little Champion Rock Drill

A Little Champion Rock Drill

Drill

A Little Champion Rock Drill

Miners went into the mine shaft by means of a barrel lowered by rope to the bottom of the shaft. This engraving by Bonhomme shows the method of descent.

Miners Descending A Shaft

Miners went into the mine shaft by means of a barrel lowered by rope to the bottom of the shaft. This…

An inside view of the Capell Fan for ventilation in mining. The fan removes the hazardous air from the mine to the atmosphere.

Capell Ventilation Fan for Mining

An inside view of the Capell Fan for ventilation in mining. The fan removes the hazardous air from the…

"Two pieces of metal placed in a hole in a stone which is to be split a wedge-shaped key or plug being driven between them for this purpose." -Whitney, 1911

Feather and Tare

"Two pieces of metal placed in a hole in a stone which is to be split a wedge-shaped key or plug being…

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

Frue Vanner (End View)

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

Frue Vanner (Side View)

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

A granite quarry.

Granite

A granite quarry.

A German headgear located in Dortmund and designed by Aug. Klönne. This headgear is made out of steel frame carrying hoisting ropes used in mining. The towers are located at the mouth shaft.

German Steel Mining Headgear Hoist Tower

A German headgear located in Dortmund and designed by Aug. Klönne. This headgear is made out of…

A headgear is a wood or steel frame carrying hoisting ropes commonly used in mining. The towers are located at the mouth shaft.

Mining Headgear Hoist Tower

A headgear is a wood or steel frame carrying hoisting ropes commonly used in mining. The towers are…

"The oldest form of blast heating apparatus, applied by Neilson, consisted of a tubular rivetted boiler plate heating vessel, mounted in a brick chamber OOOO, and heated by a fire underneath fed through the door D, the waste gases from the fire passing out at the far end of the chimney. Crescent-shaped partitions p, p, p inside the heater caused the current of air from the blowing engine which entered at B to take a serpentine course as indicated by the arrows, finally passing off at S to the furnace." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Hotblast Stove

"The oldest form of blast heating apparatus, applied by Neilson, consisted of a tubular rivetted boiler…

"This consists of a cast-iron pan a, having a shallow cylindrical bottom b, holding 50 lb of mercury, in which a wooden runner c, nearly of the same shape as the inside of the pan, and armed below with several projecting blades, is made to revolve by gearing wheels placed either above or below." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Hungarian Mill

"This consists of a cast-iron pan a, having a shallow cylindrical bottom b, holding 50 lb of mercury,…

This miners lamp is a safety lamp with a wick and oil vessel burning heavy vegetable oil.

Miners Lamp

This miners lamp is a safety lamp with a wick and oil vessel burning heavy vegetable oil.

An artificial source of visible illumination, an oil lamp that will not ignite flammable gasses.

Miners Safety Lamp

An artificial source of visible illumination, an oil lamp that will not ignite flammable gasses.

A type of safety lamp used for coal miners. Protected against coal dust, methane and natural gas.

Safety Lamp

A type of safety lamp used for coal miners. Protected against coal dust, methane and natural gas.

A type of safety lamp used for coal miners. Protected against coal dust, methane and natural gas.

Safety Lamp

A type of safety lamp used for coal miners. Protected against coal dust, methane and natural gas.

A type of safety lamp used for coal miners. Protected against coal dust, methane and natural gas.

Safety Lamp

A type of safety lamp used for coal miners. Protected against coal dust, methane and natural gas.

A type of safety lamp used for coal miners. Protected against coal dust, methane and natural gas.

Safety Lamp

A type of safety lamp used for coal miners. Protected against coal dust, methane and natural gas.

A type of safety lamp used for coal miners. Protected against coal dust, methane and natural gas.

Safety Lamp

A type of safety lamp used for coal miners. Protected against coal dust, methane and natural gas.

"Langens arrangement is a somewhat similar combination, the cone being made into a bell with perforated top, the edges of the perforation being turned over inwards bb; the bell rests upon the cup aa, the turned over edge cc fitting into a water lute surrounding the central tube kkk, so that whilst the bell is lowered the furnace top is gastight or nearly so. By means of a pair of levers d, d and a counterpoise swung on a horizontal axle at r by means of a winch e, the bell can be raised so that the charge in the cup falls into the furnace, sliding down the inclined surface. Two safety valves x and fg are provided, the latter being ordinarily supported by the pressure of the gases, but falling by its own weight when the gas pressure is relieved by raising the bell, so as to close the top of the gas shaft, the turned-down edges of g fitting into the annular groove oo; h is a small manhole for the introduction of scrapers to clear out flue dust when required." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Langen's Collector

"Langens arrangement is a somewhat similar combination, the cone being made into a bell with perforated…

"Langens arrangement is a somewhat similar combination, the cone being made into a bell with perforated top, the edges of the perforation being turned over inwards bb; the bell rests upon the cup aa, the turned over edge cc fitting into a water lute surrounding the central tube kkk, so that whilst the bell is lowered the furnace top is gastight or nearly so. By means of a pair of levers d, d and a counterpoise swung on a horizontal axle at r by means of a winch e, the bell can be raised so that the charge in the cup falls into the furnace, sliding down the inclined surface. Two safety valves x and fg are provided, the latter being ordinarily supported by the pressure of the gases, but falling by its own weight when the gas pressure is relieved by raising the bell, so as to close the top of the gas shaft, the turned-down edges of g fitting into the annular groove oo; h is a small manhole for the introduction of scrapers to clear out flue dust when required." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Langen's Collector

"Langens arrangement is a somewhat similar combination, the cone being made into a bell with perforated…

The goal of coal mining is to economically remove coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its energy content, and since the 1880s is widely used to generate electricity. Steel and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production.

Mining Machine

The goal of coal mining is to economically remove coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its energy…

A crusher is a machine designed to reduce large rocks into smaller rocks, gravel, or rock dust. Crushers may be used to reduce the size, or change the form of the waste materials so they can be more easily disposed of or recycled, or to reduce the size of a solid mix of raw materials so that the pieces of different composition can be differentiated.

Ore Crushing Machine

A crusher is a machine designed to reduce large rocks into smaller rocks, gravel, or rock dust. Crushers…

A marble quarry.

Marble

A marble quarry.

A kind of pick-axe, having the iron ends broad, instead of pointed.

Mattock

A kind of pick-axe, having the iron ends broad, instead of pointed.

"A representation of one of the class of mechanical rabbles known as Witham's machine rabble applied to a double puddling furnace." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Mechanical Rabble

"A representation of one of the class of mechanical rabbles known as Witham's machine rabble applied…

An illustration of section of mine from the Kimberley Mine located in South Africa.

Kimberley Mine Section

An illustration of section of mine from the Kimberley Mine located in South Africa.

An illustration of horizontal and vertical mine shaft placement.

Mine Shaft Placement

An illustration of horizontal and vertical mine shaft placement.

An illustration of a man sitting in a coal mine shaft with a shovel in hand.

Miner

An illustration of a man sitting in a coal mine shaft with a shovel in hand.

Two coal miners working.

Miners

Two coal miners working.

French sappers and miners.

Miners

French sappers and miners.

Ancient mining shaft from the mound-builders, where copper was brought up.

Mining

Ancient mining shaft from the mound-builders, where copper was brought up.