The Fluid Mechanics ClipArt gallery offers 64 images of the study of fluids, how they move, and how they react to forces on them.

A circle in a aerodynamic chamber where the airflow hitting the object. The area at point DD is large creating a resistance.

Circle Aerodynamic

A circle in a aerodynamic chamber where the airflow hitting the object. The area at point DD is large…

Aerodynamic of the ellipse where the area at point DD is small. The small area creates less resistance for the plane while in flight.

Ellipse Aerodynamic

Aerodynamic of the ellipse where the area at point DD is small. The small area creates less resistance…

"From on pan suspend a hollow cylinder of metal t, and below that a solid cylinder a of the same size as the hollow part of the upper cylinder. Put two weights in the other scale pan until they sxactly balance the two cylinders. If a be immersed in water, te scale pan containing the weights will descend, showing that a has lost some of its weight. Now fill t with water, and the volume of water that can be poured into t will equal that displaced by a. The scale pan that contains the weights will gradually rise until t is filled, when the scales will balance again." —Hallock 1905

Archimedes Principle

"From on pan suspend a hollow cylinder of metal t, and below that a solid cylinder a of the same size…

A corked bottle with a tube, spouting a stream of water.

Spouting bottle

A corked bottle with a tube, spouting a stream of water.

A Bramah Press.

Bramah Press

A Bramah Press.

"Capillary water held between two soil grains." -Department of Agriculture, 1899

Capillary Water

"Capillary water held between two soil grains." -Department of Agriculture, 1899

"Form of the capillary water surface." -Department of Agriculture, 1899

Capillary Water Surface

"Form of the capillary water surface." -Department of Agriculture, 1899

"Variation in the direction and magnitude of the pressure of the capillary surface due to the form of the surface." -Department of Agriculture, 1899

Capillary Water Surface Variation

"Variation in the direction and magnitude of the pressure of the capillary surface due to the form of…

"Diagram showing three soil grains surrounded by water films: Straight arrows indicate direction and magnitude of the pressure of the capillary water surfaces; curved arrows indicate movement of water resulting from difference in pressure." -Department of Agriculture, 1899

Capillary Water Surfaces

"Diagram showing three soil grains surrounded by water films: Straight arrows indicate direction and…

This figure represents a small centrifugal pump as mounted for use. The largest class of centrifugal pumps are usually immersed in the water to be pumped, and revolve horizontally.

Centrifugal pump

This figure represents a small centrifugal pump as mounted for use. The largest class of centrifugal…

This figure consists of three pumps, the piston rods of which are jointed to three cranks on a horizontal axle, by means of three connecting rods.

Connected Pumps.

This figure consists of three pumps, the piston rods of which are jointed to three cranks on a horizontal…

"As the liquid flows out of each orifice, each stream follows a parabolic path based upon pressure of the liquid inside the container. Orifices A and C are equidistant, thus reach the same point." —Quackenbos 1859

Course of Streams

"As the liquid flows out of each orifice, each stream follows a parabolic path based upon pressure of…

"Whenever liquid reaches the bottom of the short leg on the siphon inside the cup, the liquid is discharged out of the bottom of the siphon. Discharge continues until the liquid level drops below the short leg of the siphon." —Quackenbos 1859

Tantalus's Cup

"Whenever liquid reaches the bottom of the short leg on the siphon inside the cup, the liquid is discharged…

Double acting pumps use both sides of the piston to pump fluid.

Double-action pump

Double acting pumps use both sides of the piston to pump fluid.

The ordinary fire-engine is formed by the union of two forcing-pumps which play into a common reservoir, containing in its upper portion air compressed by the working of the engine.

Fire engine pump

The ordinary fire-engine is formed by the union of two forcing-pumps which play into a common reservoir,…

The forcing pump consists of a pump-barrel dipping into water, and having at the bottom a valve opening upward.

Forcing-pump

The forcing pump consists of a pump-barrel dipping into water, and having at the bottom a valve opening…

Hero's fountain is named after its inventor, Hero, who lived in Alexandria 120 B.C. It is dependent on the elastic properties of air for its operation. It is made of brass dish A, glass globes B and C, and tubes D and E.

Hero's Fountain

Hero's fountain is named after its inventor, Hero, who lived in Alexandria 120 B.C. It is dependent…

An illustration of Heron's fountain. Heron's fountain is a hydraulic machine invented by the first century inventor, mathematician, and physicist Heron, also known as Hero of Alexandria. Heron studied the pressure of air and steam, and built the first steam engine as well as toys that would spurt water, one of them known as Heron's fountain. Various versions of Heron's Fountain are used today in physics classes as a demonstration of principles of hydraulics and pneumatics

Heron's Fountain

An illustration of Heron's fountain. Heron's fountain is a hydraulic machine invented by the first century…

An instrument intended to exbihit the ebullition of liquid at low temperatures, constructed like a cryophorus.

Pulp Glass

An instrument intended to exbihit the ebullition of liquid at low temperatures, constructed like a cryophorus.

"It consists of a brass dish A and two glass globes B and C. The dish communicates with the lower part of the globe C by means of a long tube D, and another tube E connects the two globes. A third tube passes through the dish A to the lower part of the globe B. This last tube being taken out, the globe B is partially filled with water, the tube is then replaced, and water is poured into the dish. The water flows through tube D into the lower globe, and expels the air, which is forced into the upper globe. The air thus compressed acts on the water and makes it jet out as represented in the figure." — Hallock, 1905

Hero's Fountain

"It consists of a brass dish A and two glass globes B and C. The dish communicates with the lower part…

"After preparing the fountain, water is added into D, and later, the tube is opened to allow the air trapped in box A to escape." -Comstock 1850

Hiero's Fountain

"After preparing the fountain, water is added into D, and later, the tube is opened to allow the air…

"An instrument called the hydrostatic bellows, also shows, in a striking manner, the great force of a small quantity of water, pressing in a perpendicular direction. This instrument consists of two boards, connected together with strong leather, in the manner of the common bellows. It is then furnished with a tube a, which communicated between the two boards. A person standing on the upper board may raise himself up by pouring water into the tube. If the tube holds an ounce of water, and has an area equal to a thousandth part of the area of the top of the bellows, one ounce of water in the tube will balance a thousand ounces placed on the bellows." —Comstock, 1850

Hydraulic Bellows

"An instrument called the hydrostatic bellows, also shows, in a striking manner, the great force of…

"The hydraulic ram uses alternating water pressure, air pressure, and suction to provide a steady stream of water through the delivery pipe, e." —Hallock 1905

Hydraulic Water Ram

"The hydraulic ram uses alternating water pressure, air pressure, and suction to provide a steady stream…

"Pumps water in bursts. Water enters pipe B and is forced into D then up the tube F. Any excess water in tube B exits through E." —Quackenbos 1859

Hydraulic Ram

"Pumps water in bursts. Water enters pipe B and is forced into D then up the tube F. Any excess water…

This illustration shows how putrefying animal matters from a leaky drain and an overflowing cess-pool soak diagonally into the well and contaminate the well-water, which is pumped up and used by the family without, perhaps, a thought of danger from this terrible sanitary defect.

Leaky Drain

This illustration shows how putrefying animal matters from a leaky drain and an overflowing cess-pool…

"The lock C is a controllable compartment with raise-able and lower-able gates D and E. Since water always finds its level, by raising and lowering the gates, two separate water levels can be maintained and still provide water transportation through the lock." —Quackenbos 1859

Locks

"The lock C is a controllable compartment with raise-able and lower-able gates D and E. Since water…

"Grain enters the mill at H down into D and into tube A. The grain passes down through the holes B and C causing A to rotate. This rotation powers the millstone S at the top which grinds the grain before it reaches the dispersal tube A." —Quackenbos 1859

Barker's Mill

"Grain enters the mill at H down into D and into tube A. The grain passes down through the holes B and…

"...let the area of the piston a be 1 square inch; of b, 40 square inches. According to Pascal's law, 1 pound placed on a will balance 40 pounds placed on b." —Hallock 1905

Pascal's Law and Water Pressure

"...let the area of the piston a be 1 square inch; of b, 40 square inches. According to Pascal's law,…

The part of the pipe that is above the highest piston travel point is the delivery pipe and the part at the lowest point is the suction pipe. This is a larger scale of a lifting pump.

Delivery Pipe

The part of the pipe that is above the highest piston travel point is the delivery pipe and the part…

"To avoid friction and heat, the piston is not in contact with the cylinder in which it works."

Piston and Barrel of Deleuil's Air-pump

"To avoid friction and heat, the piston is not in contact with the cylinder in which it works."

"Pascal's law finds an important application in the hydraulic press, in the more common forms of which the pressure of a piston operated by a lever is transmitted though a pipe to a piston of larger area." — Avery, 1895

Hydraulic press

"Pascal's law finds an important application in the hydraulic press, in the more common forms of which…

"The tightly fitted piston at the top of a glass vessel of water is driven down. The contained liquid is compressed and the pressure equally distributed through the glass and the water flows out of the tubes along the sides." —Quackenbos 1859

Pressure of Liquids

"The tightly fitted piston at the top of a glass vessel of water is driven down. The contained liquid…

"The vessel a is fitted with a wooden bock of the same size as, and free to move in, the cylinder; the vessel b is filled with water, whose depth is the same as the length of the wooden block in a. When a pressure is applied to a, the pressure will be transmitted to the bottom unchanged. However, when the same pressure is applied to b, the pressure is transmitted everywhere, as the molecules of water are free to move." —Hallock 1905

Water versus Wood Pressure

"The vessel a is fitted with a wooden bock of the same size as, and free to move in, the cylinder; the…

"Let the are of the piston a be 20 square inches; of b, 7 sq. in.; of c, 1 sq. in.; of d, 6 sq. in.; of e, 8 sq. in; and of f, 4 sq. in. If... a force of five pounds be applied at c, a pressure of five pounds per square inch will be transmitted in all directions, and in order that there shall be no movement, the required pressure must be applied by all the other pistons in proportion." —Hallock 1905

Water Pressure Demonstration

"Let the are of the piston a be 20 square inches; of b, 7 sq. in.; of c, 1 sq. in.; of d, 6 sq. in.;…

"The shaft A and B is attached to tubes, C. When the crank is turned, centrifugal force in the tubes draws the water up and into the circular trough, D. The water then collects and discharges out at E." —Quackenbos 1859

Centrifugal Pump

"The shaft A and B is attached to tubes, C. When the crank is turned, centrifugal force in the tubes…

"Liquid is drawn up pipe F by pistons C and D. Once the liquid passes through the first set of valves, the pressure of the descending piston forces the liquid up valves I and J into container H and finally out of hose L." —Quackenbos 1859

Fire Engine Pump

"Liquid is drawn up pipe F by pistons C and D. Once the liquid passes through the first set of valves,…

"Liquid is drawn up the pipe through the valve H. Piston G pushes the liquid through pipe, M, and into the chamber, K which builds pressure from condensing air. Tube I leads to a manual release jet." —Quackenbos 1859

Forcing Pump

"Liquid is drawn up the pipe through the valve H. Piston G pushes the liquid through pipe, M, and into…

"Liquid is pumped up through pipe A, through valve H. The airtight piston G allows the liquid to pass up into the spout F where it is discharged from the pump." —Quackenbos 1859

Lifting Pump

"Liquid is pumped up through pipe A, through valve H. The airtight piston G allows the liquid to pass…

A lifting pump is used when water needs to be raised to a greater height than what can be done with an ordinary suction pump.

Lifting Pump

A lifting pump is used when water needs to be raised to a greater height than what can be done with…

A hydraulic ram. It is used to raise the level of water from a point below water level of a spring to a point that is higher and has no power other than that of that caused by the inertia of the moving water.

Hydraulic Ram

A hydraulic ram. It is used to raise the level of water from a point below water level of a spring to…

Water flows frow the higher glass through the tub and into the lower glass.

Siphon

Water flows frow the higher glass through the tub and into the lower glass.

A bent tube with limbs of unequal length, used for drawing liquids from one vessel into another.

Siphon

A bent tube with limbs of unequal length, used for drawing liquids from one vessel into another.

"The action of the siphon illustrates the effect of atmospheric pressure. It is simply a bent tube having unequal branches, open at both ends, and is used to convey a liquid from a higher point to a lower, over an intermediate point higher than either." — Hallock, 1905

Siphon

"The action of the siphon illustrates the effect of atmospheric pressure. It is simply a bent tube having…

"A bent tube with one limb longer than the other, by means of which a liquid can be drawn off to a lower level over the side of a vessel or other point higher than the upper surface of the liquid."—Finley, 1917

Siphon

"A bent tube with one limb longer than the other, by means of which a liquid can be drawn off to a lower…

"The vertical distance form the level of the upper liquid to the highest point of the tube (ab) is the length of one arm; the vertical distance from the highest point of the tube to the lower end of the tube, or to the level of the liquid into which it dips (cd), is the length of the other arm. The second of these must exceed the first." -Avery 1895

Siphon

"The vertical distance form the level of the upper liquid to the highest point of the tube (ab) is the…

"Partly fill two bottles with water. Connect them by a bent tube that fits closely into the mouth of one, and loosely into the mouth of the other. Place the bottle under the receiver and exhause the air. Note and record what takes place. Admit air to the receiver. Note and record what takes place." -Avery 1895

Bottle Siphon

"Partly fill two bottles with water. Connect them by a bent tube that fits closely into the mouth of…

"A siphon is used to draw off liquids from a higher elevation to a lower one. The siphon uses the vacuum created by the flowing liquid to continuously draw fresh liquid into the siphon." —Quackenbos 1859

The Siphon

"A siphon is used to draw off liquids from a higher elevation to a lower one. The siphon uses the vacuum…

A siphon, which illustrates the effects of atmospheric pressure.

The Siphon

A siphon, which illustrates the effects of atmospheric pressure.

"Illustration showing various forms of the siphon." —Hallock 1905

Various Siphons

"Illustration showing various forms of the siphon." —Hallock 1905

"Impure water is vaporized in the boiler, A. It travels to the vat and down pipe R where it condenses and distilled water finally collects at the bottom. Cold water enters the vat at P and warm water at the top escapes at Q." —Quackenbos 1859

Still

"Impure water is vaporized in the boiler, A. It travels to the vat and down pipe R where it condenses…

The suction-pump consists of a clindrical pump-barrel traversed by a piston, and communicating by means of a suction-tube with the water in the pump-well.

Suction-pump

The suction-pump consists of a clindrical pump-barrel traversed by a piston, and communicating by means…

A suction-pump with the upward and downward movement of the piston being effected by means of a lever.

Suction-pump

A suction-pump with the upward and downward movement of the piston being effected by means of a lever.

A suction-pump in which the alternate motion of the piston is effected by means of a rotary motion.

Suction-pump

A suction-pump in which the alternate motion of the piston is effected by means of a rotary motion.

"Two soap bubbles connected by a tube showing the movement which takes place due to the difference in curvature." -Department of Agriculture, 1899

Surface Tension

"Two soap bubbles connected by a tube showing the movement which takes place due to the difference in…

"Four-way cock, a cock having two passages in the plug and four passage-ways for delivery, or one which unites four pipes so as to deliver from either one at will, according to the position of the valve. Such a cock is used in the continuous air-brake." -Whitney, 1911

Four-Way Cock Valve

"Four-way cock, a cock having two passages in the plug and four passage-ways for delivery, or one which…

"As the ball of wood is dropped into the container or water, the water level rises and is caused to flow into the bucket. The water in the bucket, once weighed, is equal to the weight of the wooden ball." —Quackenbos 1859

Water Displacement

"As the ball of wood is dropped into the container or water, the water level rises and is caused to…

"Suppose we have a pipe A B laid in a horizontal position so that the centre line is exactly at the same level all along the pope, and differences of level may be neglected. Let water be delivered b this pipe at a steady from a reservoir provided with a constant supply which keeps the free surface level always the same.  If the pipe A B is of uniform sectional area throughout, and is at all points offers a uniform frictional resistance to the flow of the water, the pressure will gradually become less at points along it more and more distanct from the reservoir. This is no lonfer the case when the pipe is larger at one place than another, as shown in the [figure]." (Britannica, 1891)

Water Flow in Pipes

"Suppose we have a pipe A B laid in a horizontal position so that the centre line is exactly at the…

"a, a, a, represents the water-level of a pond or reservoir upon elevated ground. From this pond a line or pipe is laid, passing over a bridge or viaduct at d, and under a river at c. The fountains, at b, b, show the stream rising to its level in the pond, a, at two points of very different elevation." — Wells, 1857

Water Level

"a, a, a, represents the water-level of a pond or reservoir upon elevated ground. From this pond a line…

"No matter what the size or shape of a body of water may be, its surface has the same level throughout." —Quackenbos 1859

Uniform Water Level

"No matter what the size or shape of a body of water may be, its surface has the same level throughout."…

"The pond is tapped with a pipe leading to two fountains and a home. The water provided by the pipe will extend upward in the home and fountains to the same level as the pond." —Quackenbos 1859

Tapped Water Level

"The pond is tapped with a pipe leading to two fountains and a home. The water provided by the pipe…