This science ClipArt gallery offers 101 images of methods to produce power by steam, including the coal-powered steam engine often seen on early trains and steamboats.

"The accumulator may consist of a large tank in which are numerous plates over which water can flow, or may contain simply water rapidly circulated by artificial means. As the exhaust steam from the engine enters this accumulator, it spreads out over the exposed water surface, and some of it is condensed if there is an excess of pressure due to more steam being supplied by the exhaust than is being utilized by the turbine." —Derr, 1911

Interior View of Rateau Accumulator

"The accumulator may consist of a large tank in which are numerous plates over which water can flow,…

"Suppose a hollow cube to be filled with some fluid (water or steam) at a given pressure, and to have an opening in one side that can readily be closed. The arrangement is such that when the outlet is opened, the internal pressure will remain the same. If the outlet is opened, the fluid will rush out, and if the jet is supposed to strike against a board free to move, the jet will exert a force upon the board tending to swing it in the direction of the jet." —Derr, 1911

Apparatus for Measuring Jet Stream of Steam

"Suppose a hollow cube to be filled with some fluid (water or steam) at a given pressure, and to have…

A Yorkshire steam wagon transverse boiler. Water is continuously enters the large cylindrical container. The water heating is provided by burning coal in the furnance.

Yorkshire Steam Wagon Transverse Boiler

A Yorkshire steam wagon transverse boiler. Water is continuously enters the large cylindrical container.…

"In 1629 Giovanni Branca, an Italian, contrived a machine which was employed for the various purposes of raising water, of sawing timber and pounding materials. His machine consisted of a wheel furnished with flat vanes around its circumference, like the boards of a paddle-wheel. Upon these vanes, steam was propelled from a close vessel, called an eolipile. A rotary motion was produced, and communicated to appropriate machinery. The results, however, of these and other discoveries made about this period, have never been rendered applicable to the purposes for which the modern steam engine is adapted." —Comstock, 1850

Brancas Engine

"In 1629 Giovanni Branca, an Italian, contrived a machine which was employed for the various purposes…

A pulley system used to reduce motion between the piston and the indicator of the steam engine. The indicator is attached by a string on the curved bottom triangle. As the piston moves, the string is pulled to record the pressure of the steam.

Reducing Motion of Piston and Indicator using Brumbo Pulley

A pulley system used to reduce motion between the piston and the indicator of the steam engine. The…

"It is usual to put the engine on center before setting the valve. First put the engine in a position where the piston has nearly completed the outward stroke, and make a mark M on the guide opposite the corner of the crosshead or at some convenient place." —Derr, 1911

Steam Engine Valve Centered with Piston

"It is usual to put the engine on center before setting the valve. First put the engine in a position…

"The upright cyclinder a, is a tube which has a funnel shaped mouth for the admission of the stream of water from the pipe b. This tube is six or eight inches in diameter, and may be from ten to twenty feet long. The arms n and o, are also tubes communicating freely with the upright one, from the opposte sides of which they proceed." -Comstock 1850

Centrifugal Mill

"The upright cyclinder a, is a tube which has a funnel shaped mouth for the admission of the stream…

"If a piece of wire gauze is held over an unlighted gas jet, the gas may be lighted on either side (figure 6), but the flame will not pass through the meshes. The wires conduct the heat away so rapidly that the gas on the other side does not get hot enough to ignite. This id the principal of the safety lamp, used in coal mines where inflammable gases collect. The lamp flame is surrounded by a wire gauze, and thus kept from igniting the dangerous gases outside." Louis Derr, 1911

Two Gas Jets Beneath Wire Gauze wiPower Generation, Steamth a Lit Flame

"If a piece of wire gauze is held over an unlighted gas jet, the gas may be lighted on either side (figure…

"A Crane is a machine for lifting weights, worked either by hand or by steam, or by hydraulic power. The most common hand form consisting of an upright revolving post and projecting arm, the jib with a fixed pulley at its extremity. The lifting chain or rope is secured to the weight, passes over the fixed pulley, and then round a drum or cylinder; suitable toothed-wheel gearing worked by a handle revolves this drum, and thus winds up or unwinds the rope or chain, and so raises or lowers the weight."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Steam Crane

"A Crane is a machine for lifting weights, worked either by hand or by steam, or by hydraulic power.…

"The upper bearing with dowel—pins and key fit into corresponding dowel holes and key—way in the bottom of the shaft, and rotate with it. When the oil is supplied to the bearing, under a high pressure, it fills the central circular space between the blocks and forces them slightly apart. The oil then escapes between the annular edges of these two blocks and is collected into a drain and returned to the original supply." —Derr, 1911

Cross Sectional View of Curtis Turbine Step Bearing

"The upper bearing with dowel—pins and key fit into corresponding dowel holes and key—way…

"Steam is admitted under pressure for a boiler into a metal cylinder behind a piston, as represented in figure 14. Its pressure drives the piston forward, doing useful work. When the piston has moved through a part of its stroke the steam supply is cut off, the stroke is completed by the expansion of the steam confined in the cylinder. By the first law of thermodynamics this expansion cools the steam, since work is done in the process; but the expansion is not adiabatic, since the cylinder and piston give up some heat to the steam within. At the end of the stroke the exhaust valve opens and the cooled steam escapes into the atmosphere or condenser through exhaust pipe A. The operation is then repeated on the other side of the piston." Louis Derr, 1911

Mechanical Drawing of a Metal Cylinder

"Steam is admitted under pressure for a boiler into a metal cylinder behind a piston, as represented…

An illustration of thermodynamic vaporization of water in a cylinder with piston. The cylinder filled with water is heated, and gradually turns into the vapor. As the water is heated, the piston moves up the cylinder. Cylinder B is saturated vapor, system with vapor and liquid, while the cylinder C is superheated vapor, containing only gas.

Thermodynamic Vaporization Diagram using Water in Cylinder with Piston

An illustration of thermodynamic vaporization of water in a cylinder with piston. The cylinder filled…

A eight cylinder Bentley superheated steam engine fitted to a tractor. The steam is used to move the piston.

Bentley Eight Cylinder Diagonal Tandem Compound Superheated Steam Engine for Tractor

A eight cylinder Bentley superheated steam engine fitted to a tractor. The steam is used to move the…

"In this engine the cam—shaft by which the steam and exhaust valves are operated is situated midway of the shaft." —Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910

Sheppee Motor Company Compact Double Acting SUperheated Engine

"In this engine the cam—shaft by which the steam and exhaust valves are operated is situated midway…

"An eccentric on the main shaft gives an oscillating motion to a circular disc called the wrist plate, pivoted at the center of the cylinder. It transmits motion to each of the four valves through adjustable links known as steam rods or exhaust rods, according to whether they move the admission or exhaust valves." —Derr, 1911

Steam Engine with Reynolds Corliss Gear

"An eccentric on the main shaft gives an oscillating motion to a circular disc called the wrist plate,…

"Handle A opens and closes valves B and G. Steam is injected through pipe S which flushes any air/water out of C. G is closed and cold water enters through I causing a vacuum drawing water up through F." —Quackenbos 1859

Savery's Engine

"Handle A opens and closes valves B and G. Steam is injected through pipe S which flushes any air/water…

"The steam engine is a powerful device for utilizing the energy involved in the elasticity and expansive force of steam as a motive power. It is a real heat-engine, transforming heat into mechanical energy." — Avery, 1895

Steam engine

"The steam engine is a powerful device for utilizing the energy involved in the elasticity and expansive…

An illustration of a rotary steam engine. The steam turbine system was invented by Branca in 1629. Steam spins the turbine to turn a series of gears, generating power.

Steam Rotary Engine

An illustration of a rotary steam engine. The steam turbine system was invented by Branca in 1629. Steam…

Illustration showing a twin cylinder steam engine fitted to a sentinel wagon. The steam expands and compresses as the piston oscillates. This oscillation rotates both the piston shaft and cam shaft, attached to the wheel.

Twin Cylinder Steam Engine Fitted to Sentinel Wagons

Illustration showing a twin cylinder steam engine fitted to a sentinel wagon. The steam expands and…

"The marine turbine of this type (Curtis turbine) installed in the U.S. Cruiser Salem had seven pressure stages with four velocity steps in the first stage, and three in each of the others. Steam passes from the steam chest through the nozzles, each of which may be closed by a valve operated from the governor. The number open at any one time depends upon the load." —Derr, 1911

Cross Sectional View of U.S.S Salem Steam Engine Showing Curtis Turbines

"The marine turbine of this type (Curtis turbine) installed in the U.S. Cruiser Salem had seven pressure…

"Used a boiler to produce steam, chambers to condense it, and drive the pistons of the engine." —Quackenbos 1859

Watt's Double-Acting Condensing Steam-Engine

"Used a boiler to produce steam, chambers to condense it, and drive the pistons of the engine." —Quackenbos…

"George Stephenson is emphatically the engineer to whose intelligence and perseverance we owe the introduction of railroads into England, and consequently into the United States. It was at Killingworth Colliery that he constructed his first locomotive." -Lupton

George Stephenson's First Locomotive

"George Stephenson is emphatically the engineer to whose intelligence and perseverance we owe the introduction…

"Now if the plate were shaped as shown, so that the direction of the jet were completely reversed turned through 180 degrees, there would be an additional pressure on the plate, due to the reaction of the jet leaving it. This, neglecting friction, would be equal to the original impulse, thus making the total force on plate 2 F instead of F. It is quite evident that if the force is twice as great, the work must be double." —Derr, 1911

Force Measurement by Deflecting Water Jet 180 Degrees

"Now if the plate were shaped as shown, so that the direction of the jet were completely reversed turned…

"The force-pump differs from others in having its piston solid, or without a valve, and also in having a side pipe with a valve opening outwards, through which the water is forced to any height required, or against any pressure that may oppose it." -Marshall

Steam-engine Force Pump

"The force-pump differs from others in having its piston solid, or without a valve, and also in having…

A cross sectional view of a four stage vertical Riedler—Stumpf turbine. The steam enters and exit, indicated by the arrows. The steam spins a series of turbines located in the middle at a high pressure. As the turbine spins, the shaft, located in the middle, produces useable energy.

Cross Sectional View of Four Stage Vertical Riedler Stumpf Turbine

A cross sectional view of a four stage vertical Riedler—Stumpf turbine. The steam enters and exit,…

"In 1854, Mr. Fowler exhibited his patent steam-draining apparatus at the Lincoln meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society of England; and from this time may be dated the practical history of cultivation of the land byy steam; for the idea that such an apparatus could be wrought advantageously in other field-operations entered the mind of a practical farmer, Mr. Smith of Woolston, near Bletchley; and under the direction of Mr. Fowler, he got construced an apparatus with modifications." — Chambers, 1881

Fowler's Steam-engine

"In 1854, Mr. Fowler exhibited his patent steam-draining apparatus at the Lincoln meeting of the Royal…

"The governor cam rod operates a plate cam having a curved slot so shaped that it takes place of both the knock—off and the safety cam. The steam arm is keyed to the valve spindle and carries at its lower end a steel die which is free to slip up and down a small amount." —Derr, 1911

Steam Engine Brown Releasing Gear

"The governor cam rod operates a plate cam having a curved slot so shaped that it takes place of both…

"The steam arm is keyed to the valve spindle which passes loosely through a bracket on which the bell—crank lever turns, and the spindle is packed to make a steam—tight joint where it enters the cylinder. Motion of the steam rod toward the right will turn the bell—crank lever and raise the hook stud." —Derr, 1911

Close up of Reynolds Corliss Gear from Steam Engine

"The steam arm is keyed to the valve spindle which passes loosely through a bracket on which the bell—crank…

An illustration of the steam engine with Walschaert gear system on rail tracks. The piston moves the long shaft connected to the wheel. The lever adjusts the rods on top up and the lower ones down to rotate the wheels opposite from the arrows.

Steam Engine with Walschaert Gear on Railroad

An illustration of the steam engine with Walschaert gear system on rail tracks. The piston moves the…

An illustration of a Corliss steam engine to generate 5000 kW of electricity. The turbines to create electricity is located on the right hand side and the large circular casing in the left. The steam enters the system at a high pressure to turn the turbines.

5000 kW Corliss and Curtis Steam Engine for Electric Generation

An illustration of a Corliss steam engine to generate 5000 kW of electricity. The turbines to create…

"By placing the condensers underneath the turbine, as is frequently done at the present time, not only may a considerable amount of floor space be saved, but the turbine can more readily exhaust into the condenser. As we have already seen, at high vacuum the volume of steam is very large, and the exhaust pipe from the turbine will be proportionally large." —Derr, 1911

Corliss Steam Engine Generator Plan

"By placing the condensers underneath the turbine, as is frequently done at the present time, not only…

A cross sectional view of Rateau electric generator turbine by Western Electric Company. Steam is used to turn the turbine to generate electricity. The turbine rotates at 1500 revolutions per minute and operates at 1500 horsepower.

Cross Section View of Rateau Turbine Electric Generator by Western Electric Company

A cross sectional view of Rateau electric generator turbine by Western Electric Company. Steam is used…

A De Laval steam turbine connected to a generator. The turbine generates electricity by turning the shaft. The turbine is operates by providing steam into the vanes.

De Laval Steam Turbine Connected to Generator

A De Laval steam turbine connected to a generator. The turbine generates electricity by turning the…

"The bearings are of the plain ring—oiling type, usually provided with water jackets. The shaft not being unduly long, there is little danger of whipping, and the speeds of rotation not being very high, special precautions are not necessary. Sometimes the turbines are supported by three bearings, the high and intermediate states being separated from the low by a third bearing." —Derr, 1911

DeLaval Steam Electric Generator

"The bearings are of the plain ring—oiling type, usually provided with water jackets. The shaft…

A cross sectional view of the Pearsons turbine for generating electricity. The turbines, located in P are turned by steam, generating electricity.

Pearsons Turbine for Electricity Generator

A cross sectional view of the Pearsons turbine for generating electricity. The turbines, located in…

"Turbines require very much smaller foundations than reciprocating engines reciprocating engines of the same power, and these foundations will therefore cost very much less. It is hard to get a direct comparison between turbines and reciprocating engines as a class, because the foundations for high—speed reciprocating engines will not be as massive as for the heavier, low—speed engines." —Derr, 1911

Westinghouse Turbo Steam Engine Generator Plan

"Turbines require very much smaller foundations than reciprocating engines reciprocating engines of…

"The Zoelly turbine has been developed rather extensively abroad, and is being manufactured largely through a syndicate of builders including some American firms. It is a turbine essentially of the Rateau type, a multi—pressure—stage turbine, but it has fewer stages, usually not over ten for condensing and five for non—condensing." —Derr, 1911

Zoelly Condensing Turbine Electric Generator

"The Zoelly turbine has been developed rather extensively abroad, and is being manufactured largely…

"In the Curtis turbine, steam is admitted through a series of valves, the number of which depends upon the capacity of the machine. The valves are arranged to open successively, two—thirds of them being open at full load. The action of the valves is so regulated that they are either fully open or fully closed. Any increasing load is taken care of by the opening of an additional valve, this valve closing when the load falls off." —Derr, 1911

Sectional View of Governor for Varying Number of Nozzles Opened

"In the Curtis turbine, steam is admitted through a series of valves, the number of which depends upon…

"An admission of steam occurs about once in every thirty revolutions at approximately full load. The pilot valve is continually oscillating, thus preventing any liability of sticking, but its period of oscillation is varied directly by the governor. Steam, therefore, enters the turbine in puffs, the duration of which depends upon the load; at slight overloads the valve would be constantly open." —Derr, 1911

Turbine Governor for Varying Time of Admission

"An admission of steam occurs about once in every thirty revolutions at approximately full load. The…

"Watt's method of regulation, which consists in varying the pressure of the steam supplied to the engine by opening or closing more or less a valve in the supply pipe."—Finley, 1917

Watt's governor

"Watt's method of regulation, which consists in varying the pressure of the steam supplied to the engine…

"Grasshopper-beam. a, rocking pillar; b, radius-bar of the parallel motion which secures verticality to the piston-rod. GRASSHOPPER-BEAM. A form of working-beam used in some steam-engines." -Whitney, 1911

Grasshopper-Beam

"Grasshopper-beam. a, rocking pillar; b, radius-bar of the parallel motion which secures verticality…

"If a jet with the velocity V strikes the bucket at an angle a, its velocity A B could be resolved into two components —one C B at right angles to the shaft, and one C A parallel to the shaft. The one at right angles to the shaft, commonly known as the velocity of whirl, would produce a rotative impulse equal to Vcosa, and V1, the velocity of the vane necessary for maximum efficiency." —Derr, 1911

Jet Steam Stream Hitting Curved Vane

"If a jet with the velocity V strikes the bucket at an angle a, its velocity A B could be resolved into…

"It is placed horizontally with the pivot, B, resting on a support opposite the crosshead when in mid—position. If the pivot B is adjusted to the proper height and at the right distance from the cross head, the cord from the indicator may be attached to the pin E without any pulleys."—Derr, 1911

Horizontal Pivot Pantograph for Motion Reduction between Piston and Steam Engine Indicator

"It is placed horizontally with the pivot, B, resting on a support opposite the crosshead when in mid—position.…

A pantograph used to reduce motion of the piston. At point D, a string is attached to the indicator, measuring pressure of steam in cylinder. The pantograph is attached to a solid surface on top. As the piston moves, the pantograph pulls the string.

Motion Reduction using Pantograph of Piston Connected to Indicator of Steam Engine

A pantograph used to reduce motion of the piston. At point D, a string is attached to the indicator,…

"Steam enters at E and gradually expands in volume until it exhausts at G. The rotor is usually built in three different diameters to facilitate mechanical construction and to avoid excessively small and excessively large vanes. It is thus possible to use a large number of vanes of the same size." —Derr, 1911

Cross Sectional View of Parsons Turbine

"Steam enters at E and gradually expands in volume until it exhausts at G. The rotor is usually built…

A piston system from a quadruple expansion engine showing the movement of steam. Steam first enters the first piston, then expanded into the first intermediate piston. This pushes the piston down, then the steam enters the second intermediate to push the piston up. The steam then enters the low piston, where the steam exits the system.

Quadruple Expansion Engine Piston

A piston system from a quadruple expansion engine showing the movement of steam. Steam first enters…

A piston diagram from a triple expansion steam engine. The three cylinders are designed at high, medium, and low pressures, with receiver between each cylinders. This design divides work between the three piston to increase efficiency.

Piston of a Triple Expansion Steam Engine

A piston diagram from a triple expansion steam engine. The three cylinders are designed at high, medium,…

A portable, external, combustion heat engine that converts steam in to mechanical work.

Portable Steam-Engine

A portable, external, combustion heat engine that converts steam in to mechanical work.

"An instrument of the pump kind for raising water, especially when that liquid is mixed with solid matter. It acts by the condensation of waste steam sent into a reservoir, the water rushing up into the vacuum formed by the condensation." -Marshall

Water Pulsometer

"An instrument of the pump kind for raising water, especially when that liquid is mixed with solid matter.…

"The direct—acting steam pump has the steam piston at one end of a rod and the water position at the other end. The steam pressure acts directly on the piston; no fly light, and there is no revolving mass to carry by the dead points." —Derr, 1911

Direct Acting Steam Pump

"The direct—acting steam pump has the steam piston at one end of a rod and the water position…

"Steam pumps are force pumps operated by steam acting on the piston of a steam engine directly connected to the pump, and in many cases cast with the pump. A section of a double-acting steam pump, showing the steam and water cylinders, with other details, is illustrated [here]." —Hallock 1905

Steam Pump

"Steam pumps are force pumps operated by steam acting on the piston of a steam engine directly connected…

An illustration showing the application of a jet condenser to pump a well. The steam enters the engine and leaves as exhaust. The exhaust steam is cooled by the well water in the jet condenser, then gets pumped into a separator. One stream exits into the sewer, and the remainder is pumped to the boiler as liquid and recycled into the condenser as steam.

Application of Steam Engine Jet Condenser used to Pump Well Water

An illustration showing the application of a jet condenser to pump a well. The steam enters the engine…

A sliced view of a jet condenser with pump. The steam enters at D, while cold water enters at A. The steam and water mixes in E, then enters the pump chamber F. The water mixture is pumped out of the system through pipe G.

Steam Engine Jet Condenser with Pump

A sliced view of a jet condenser with pump. The steam enters at D, while cold water enters at A. The…

"If a pair of concave mirrors be set facing each other, as shown in figure 7, and a source of heat be placed in the focus of one, a thermometer in the focus of the other will quickly show a rise in temperature though the mirrors are many feet apart." Louis Derr, 1911

A Pair of Concave Mirrors Set Facing Each Other

"If a pair of concave mirrors be set facing each other, as shown in figure 7, and a source of heat be…

"This occurs in horizontal engines when the valve is set on top of the cylinder instead of on one side. By means of the rocker AG the valve may receive its proper motion." —Derr, 1911

Steam Engine Valve with Lap Connected to Rocker

"This occurs in horizontal engines when the valve is set on top of the cylinder instead of on one side.…

This illustrates how to determine the force required to turn a connecting rod of a steam engine.

Connecting Rod of a Steam Engine

This illustrates how to determine the force required to turn a connecting rod of a steam engine.

"Savery's Steam Engine. The adjoining figure illustrates the apparatus employed by Savory. It consists of a furnace and a boiler B; from the latter, two pipes, furnished with stop-cocks C, proceed to two steam vessels S, only one of which is shown in the figure, the other being immediately behind it. Into the bottom of each of these steam vessels is inserted a branching pipe, connected with a descending main pipe D, and an ascending main pipe A; each branching pipe is furnished with valves a, b, which open upwards, and prevent, by their action, the return of any water which may have been forced up through them." —Comstock, 1850

Savery Engine

"Savery's Steam Engine. The adjoining figure illustrates the apparatus employed by Savory. It consists…

"Since the valve must move a distance equal to the outside lap before admission can take place, it is evident that the eccentric can no longer be at right angles to the crank at the beginning of the stroke, but must be ahead of the right—angle point by an amount equal to AOC." —Derr, 1911

Valve with Lap of Steam Engine at Extreme Left with Exhaust Ports Open

"Since the valve must move a distance equal to the outside lap before admission can take place, it is…

"Newcomen's Atmospheric Steam-Engine. A, A, working-beam; B, boiler from which steam is admitted through the steam-cock; c, to the cylinder C; F, rod, serving to lift a small pump; i, injection-cock; P, piston; S, blow-valve, or snifting-valve; T, tank; W, weights."-Whitney, 1902.

Steam Engine

"Newcomen's Atmospheric Steam-Engine. A, A, working-beam; B, boiler from which steam is admitted through…

A machine for utilizing the elastic force of steam as a motive power, and now constructed in a variety of forms. The power of heat to do work when combined with other elements in the form of steam was known to some extent to the modern.

Steam Engine

A machine for utilizing the elastic force of steam as a motive power, and now constructed in a variety…