The Magnetism ClipArt gallery offers 52 illustrations showing magnetism, magnetic forces, principles, and tools used to measure the magnetism of the Earth.

"Magnetic hysteresis in armature core. Unlike poles are induced in the core opposte the poles of the field magnet. Since on account of the rotation of the core the induced poles are reversed a thousand or more times a minute, considerable energy is required to change the positions of the molecules f the iron for each reversal, resulting in the generation of heat at the expense of a portion of the energy required to drive the armature." -Hawkins, 1917

Magnetic Hysteresis in Armature Core

"Magnetic hysteresis in armature core. Unlike poles are induced in the core opposte the poles of the…

"Distribution of magnetic lines through a ring armature. Since the lines follow the metal of the ring instead of penetrating the interior no electromotive force is induced in that portion of the winking lying on the interior surface of the ring. There is, therefore, a large amount of dead wire or wire that is ineffective in inducing electromotive force; that is the chief objective to the ring type of armature." -Hawkins, 1917

Distribution of Magnetic Lines, Ring Armature

"Distribution of magnetic lines through a ring armature. Since the lines follow the metal of the ring…

"The horizontal angular distance between two meridians. <em>Magnetic A.</em> the horizontal angular distance of the magnetic from the geographical meridian. <em>A. compass</em>; a variety of ship's compass." &mdash; Williams, 1889

Azimuth

"The horizontal angular distance between two meridians. Magnetic A. the horizontal angular…

"Action of current on solenoids. To demonstrate this fact experimentally, a solenoid is constructed as shown...Te solenoid is then moveable about a vertical axis, and if a rectilinear current QP be passed beneath it, which at the same time traverses the wires of the solenoid, the latter is seem to turn and set at right angles to the lower current..." -Hawkins, 1917

Current on Solenoids

"Action of current on solenoids. To demonstrate this fact experimentally, a solenoid is constructed…

"Dipping needle, a magnetic needle mounted on a horizontal support, and free to move in a vertical plane. The dipping needle is used to test the force of the earth's magnetism at different places on its surface." -Foster, 1921

Dipping Needle

"Dipping needle, a magnetic needle mounted on a horizontal support, and free to move in a vertical plane.…

"Magnets so construted as to be temporarily magnetized in this way are called electromagnets" -Atkinson 1903

Electromagnet

"Magnets so construted as to be temporarily magnetized in this way are called electromagnets" -Atkinson…

"Pith ball pendulum or electroscope; the figures illustrate also electrical attraction and repulsion." -Hawkins, 1917

Electroscope Attraction and Repulsion

"Pith ball pendulum or electroscope; the figures illustrate also electrical attraction and repulsion."…

"Around a vertical conductor carrying a heavy current, place a peice of paper and sprinkle iron filling on the paper. Notice that the iron particles arrange themselves in distinct circular whirls around the wire, as shown." -Avery 1895

Magnetic Field Due to Current

"Around a vertical conductor carrying a heavy current, place a peice of paper and sprinkle iron filling…

"If the conducting wire is bent into the form shown, the lines of force will pas around the wire from one face of the loop to the other, and in the direction indicated by the 'rule of thumb' just given." -Avery 1895

Magnetic Field Around a Current Carrying Wire

"If the conducting wire is bent into the form shown, the lines of force will pas around the wire from…

A magnet that is the shape of a 'U' or a horseshoe type shape. Wires wound around the core must be wound as shown, with a bridge between the two poles.

Horseshoe Electromagnet

A magnet that is the shape of a 'U' or a horseshoe type shape. Wires wound around the core must be wound…

"The magnetic poles of the earth do notc oincide with its geographical poles and, condequently, in some places, the magnetic needle does not point ot the geographical north. The angle that the axis of a compass-bneedle makes with the geographical meridian at any place is called the declination or variation of the needle at that place...Lines drawn through places on the earth where the declination is the sam are called isogonic lines, as shown." -Avery 1895

Isogonic Lines of Earth

"The magnetic poles of the earth do notc oincide with its geographical poles and, condequently, in some…

"Experiment illustrating Lenz's Law. If a copper ring be held in front of an ordinary elecromagnet, and the current circulating through the coil of the magnet be in such a direction as to magnetize the core as indicated b the letters S N, then as the current increases in the coil more and more of the lines of force proceeeding from N pass through the ring OO from left to right." -Hawkins, 1917

Lenz's Law

"Experiment illustrating Lenz's Law. If a copper ring be held in front of an ordinary elecromagnet,…

"Lines of force of a circular loop. If a current flow through the loop in the direction indicated, the lines of force both inside and outside the loop, will cross the plane of the loop at right angles, and all those which cross the loop on the inside will pass through the plane in one direction...while all on the outside will return through the plane in the opposite direction." -Hawkins, 1917

Lines of Force

"Lines of force of a circular loop. If a current flow through the loop in the direction indicated, the…

"Lines of force in a circular loop. If the loop pass through a piece of cardboard at right angles to its plane, and the curent flow as indicated, the dotted lines on the cardboard will represent the direction of the lines of force in the plane of the cardboard." -Hawkins, 1917

Lines of Force

"Lines of force in a circular loop. If the loop pass through a piece of cardboard at right angles to…

A bar or mass of steel or iron to which the peculiar properties of the loadstone have been imparted, either by contact or by other means.

Magnet

A bar or mass of steel or iron to which the peculiar properties of the loadstone have been imparted,…

"The coils of wire may begin near one pole of the magnet and terminate near the other, or the wire may consist of shorter pieces wound over each other, on any part of the magnet. In either case, the ends of the wire, where several pieces are used, must be soldered to two strips of tinned sheet copper, for the combined positive and negative poles of the wires. To form the magnet, these pieces of copper are made to commnicate with the poles of the battery, by means of cups containing mercury, as shown in the figure, or by any other method." &mdash;Comstock, 1850

Magnet

"The coils of wire may begin near one pole of the magnet and terminate near the other, or the wire may…

"If a magnet is cut or broken into two or more pieces, each piece becomes a separate magnet, with north and south poles in the same relative positions as in the original magnet...But if the pieces be pressed closely together, their poles dissapear leaving only the two original poles." -Atkinson 1903

Effect of Breaking a Magnet

"If a magnet is cut or broken into two or more pieces, each piece becomes a separate magnet, with north…

"The two most common forms of artificial magnets are the bar magnet and the horseshoe magnet. The first of these is a straight bar of iron and steel; the second is U-shaped." &mdash; Avery, 1895

Horseshoe magnet

"The two most common forms of artificial magnets are the bar magnet and the horseshoe magnet. The first…

An illustration of a horseshoe shaped magnet.

Horseshoe Magnet

An illustration of a horseshoe shaped magnet.

An illustration of a rectangle shaped steel magnet with "consequent poles at a and b." -Century, 1889

Rectangle Shaped Steel Magnet

An illustration of a rectangle shaped steel magnet with "consequent poles at a and b." -Century, 1889

"Effect of breaking a magnet into several parts. If a magnetized needle be broken, each part will be found to be a complete magnet having a N and S pole." -Hawkins, 1917

Separating a magnet

"Effect of breaking a magnet into several parts. If a magnetized needle be broken, each part will be…

An illustration of magnetic curves, "the name given to those curves in which an infinite number of very needles would arrange themselves when placed round a magnet and at liberty to move round an axis." -Century, 1886

Magnetic Curves

An illustration of magnetic curves, "the name given to those curves in which an infinite number of very…

"The region about a magnet in which its magnetic forces can be detected is called the magnetic field. This can be graphically represented by placing a piece of cardboard over the magnet and sprinkling ironn fillings on the paper, gently tapping at the same time." -Hawkins, 1917

Magnetic Field

"The region about a magnet in which its magnetic forces can be detected is called the magnetic field.…

"Tracing lines of force with a suspended magnet." -Hawkins, 1917

Tracing magnetic field lines

"Tracing lines of force with a suspended magnet." -Hawkins, 1917

"Experiment showing lines of force in the magnetic field surrounding a conductor carrying an electric current." -Hawkins, 1917

Magnetic Field

"Experiment showing lines of force in the magnetic field surrounding a conductor carrying an electric…

Figure showing magnetic lines of force from a magnet, as well as both north and south poles.

Magnetic Field

Figure showing magnetic lines of force from a magnet, as well as both north and south poles.

"Oersted's experiements are illustrated...which shows, at A, B, C and D, the four different positions which a balanced magnetic needle tends to assume when placed parallel to a wire through wich an electric current is flowing in the different directions indicated by the arrows..." -Atkinson 1903

Deflection of te Magnetic Needle by the Electric Current

"Oersted's experiements are illustrated...which shows, at A, B, C and D, the four different positions…

"Magnetic field of a solenoid. This is best observed by cutting a piece of cardboard and fitting it around the solenoid, as shown." -Hawkins, 1917

Magnetic field, solenoid

"Magnetic field of a solenoid. This is best observed by cutting a piece of cardboard and fitting it…

"A bar of steel which is a magnet, suspended in such a way that it can freely turn to the north or south." &mdash;Wells, 1857

Magnetic Needle

"A bar of steel which is a magnet, suspended in such a way that it can freely turn to the north or south."…

If a magnetized bar or needle be suspended at its centre of gravity so as to move freely in a horizontal plane, after a few oscillations it will come to rest, with one of it ends pointing nearly to the geographical north pole of the earth.

The Magnetic Needle

If a magnetized bar or needle be suspended at its centre of gravity so as to move freely in a horizontal…

"Experiment illustrating the molecular theory of magnetism. Coarse steel filings are placed inside a small glass tube and the contents magnetized. It will be found that filing which at first had no definite arrangement will rearrange themselves under the influence of magnetic force, and assume symmetrical position, each one lying in line with, or parallel to its neighbor, as shown in the lower figure." -Hawkins, 1917

Magnetism

"Experiment illustrating the molecular theory of magnetism. Coarse steel filings are placed inside a…

"Illustrating Maxwell's 'corkscrew rule' for relative directions of current and lines of force...a current flow through the wire ab in the direction from a to b, the magnetic lines will encircle the wire in the direction of the curved arrow ro which shows the direction in which the corkscrew must be turned to advance in the direction of the arrow n." -Hawkins, 1917

Maxwell's Corkscrew Rule

"Illustrating Maxwell's 'corkscrew rule' for relative directions of current and lines of force...a current…

"Bring the two ends of the wire into contact, and thus close the circuit. The needle instantly flies around as though it was trying to place itself at right angles to the wire. Break the circuit, and the needle swings back to its north and south position. Twist the wires together, and bend the conductor into a loop so that the current passes above the needle in one direction and beneath the needle in the other direction. The deflection of the needle will be greater than before." &mdash; Avery, 1895

Needle, compass

"Bring the two ends of the wire into contact, and thus close the circuit. The needle instantly flies…

"A small bar magnet suspended in such a manner as to allow it to assume its chosen position relative to the earth is a magnetic needle. The needle may turn in a horizontal plane, it is a horizontal needle; e.g., the mariner's or the surveyor's compass. If it turns freely in a vertical plane, it constitutes a dipping-needle." &mdash; Avery, 1895

Dipping needle

"A small bar magnet suspended in such a manner as to allow it to assume its chosen position relative…

A pair of opposite poles attracting, the magnetic force shown by iron filings.

Attractive poles

A pair of opposite poles attracting, the magnetic force shown by iron filings.

The outline of a bar magnet, and the influence of its poles on a surface covered with iron filings.

Magnetic polse

The outline of a bar magnet, and the influence of its poles on a surface covered with iron filings.

A pair of similar magnetic poles repelling, the magnetic forces shown by iron filings.

Repelling poles

A pair of similar magnetic poles repelling, the magnetic forces shown by iron filings.

"Right hand rule to determine the direction of magnetic field around a conductor carrying a current. The thumb of the right hand is placed along the conductor, pointing in the direction in which the current is flowing, then...the finger tips will point in the direction of the magnetic whirls." -Hawkins, 1917

Right Hang Rule

"Right hand rule to determine the direction of magnetic field around a conductor carrying a current.…

"Right hand palm rule to determine the direction of the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a current." -Hawkins, 1917

Right Hand Rule

"Right hand palm rule to determine the direction of the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a…

"A rule for direction of induced current which in some cases, is more conveniently applied than Fleming's rule." -Hawkins, 1917

Right Hand Rule

"A rule for direction of induced current which in some cases, is more conveniently applied than Fleming's…

"Fleming's rule for direction of induced current. Extend the thumb, forefinger and middle finger of the right hand [as shown]. Place the hand [so that] the thumb will point in the direction in which the conductor moves, the forefinger in the direction of the lines of force (N to S), then will the middle finger point in the direction in which the induced current flows." -Hawkins, 1917

Right Hand Rule of Induced Current

"Fleming's rule for direction of induced current. Extend the thumb, forefinger and middle finger of…

"The palm rule for direction of induced current: If the palm of the right hand be held against the direction of the lines of force, the thumb in the direction of the motion, then the fingers will point in the direction of the induced current." -Hawkins, 1917

Right Hand Rule, Palm

"The palm rule for direction of induced current: If the palm of the right hand be held against the direction…

"Right hand rule for polarity of a solenoid: If the solenoid be grasped in the right hand, so that the fingers point in the direction in which the current is flowing in the wires, the thumb extended will point in the direction of the north pole [of the solenoid]." Hawkins, 1917

Right Hand Rule, Solenoid

"Right hand rule for polarity of a solenoid: If the solenoid be grasped in the right hand, so that the…

"A coil of wire through which an elecric current is flowing shows magnetic properties similar to those of an electromagnet, b much weaker than those of a similar coil having a soft iron core. Such a coil, if suspended...will assume a north and south position..." -Atkinson 1903

Solenoid

"A coil of wire through which an elecric current is flowing shows magnetic properties similar to those…

"Illustrating the effects of introducing an iron core into a solenoid. In the upper firgure, the air space or 'air core' surrounded by the solenoid offers considerable resistance to the passage of magnetic lines, allowing only a small number to pass through. If a pieve of iron be introduced, as in the lower figure, the number of lines will be greatly increased." -Hawkins, 1917

Effect of a metal core in a solenoid

"Illustrating the effects of introducing an iron core into a solenoid. In the upper firgure, the air…

"Mutual action of solenoids. When two solenoids traversed by a current are allows to act on each other...attraction and repulsion will take place just as in the case of two magnets." -Hawkins, 1917

Solenoid, attraction

"Mutual action of solenoids. When two solenoids traversed by a current are allows to act on each other...attraction…

"Method of winding magnet spool so that the two ends of the coil will come to the outside. This method has also been used for induction coils, where it is desirable to keep the ends of the wire away from the core and primary coil." &mdash; Hawkins, 1917

Magnetic spool

"Method of winding magnet spool so that the two ends of the coil will come to the outside. This method…

"The instant this is done and the galvanic circle completed, the needle will deviate from its north and south position, turning towards the east or west, according to the direction in which the galvanic circle flows." -Comstock 1850

Uniting Wire above the Needle

"The instant this is done and the galvanic circle completed, the needle will deviate from its north…

"Direction of the needle when placed at a right angle to the uniting wire." -Comstock 1850

Wire at Right Angle to the Uniting Wire

"Direction of the needle when placed at a right angle to the uniting wire." -Comstock 1850

"Uniting wire below the needle." -Comstock 1850

Uniting Wire Below the Needle

"Uniting wire below the needle." -Comstock 1850

"...with the uniting wire on the east side." -Comstock 1850

Wire on the East Side of the Uniting Wire

"...with the uniting wire on the east side." -Comstock 1850

"Direction of the needle when placed vertical next to the uniting wire." -Comstock 1850

Wire at the Vertical of the Uniting Wire

"Direction of the needle when placed vertical next to the uniting wire." -Comstock 1850