This science ClipArt gallery offers 31 illustrations of the wheel and axle. Wheels and axles are composed of a wheel affixed to the end of an axle, and is used to convert rotational into linear motion, most often for the purpose of lifting.

Three arrangements of link bars and steering arms of motor carriage forward axles.

Carriage Axles

Three arrangements of link bars and steering arms of motor carriage forward axles.

"The capstan is a familiar example of this form of wheel and axle. It is used by sailors for warping vessels up to a dock, raising anchors, &c.; and consists of a massive piece of timber, round which a rope passes. This is surmounted by a circular head, perforated with holes, into which, when the instrument is to be used, strong bars, called handspikes, are inserted." —Quackenbos 1859

Capstan

"The capstan is a familiar example of this form of wheel and axle. It is used by sailors for warping…

"A combination of wheels and axles, as shown, is called a train. The wheel in a train to which motion is imparted from a wheel on another shaft by such means as a belt or gearing, is called the driven wheel or follower; the hweel that imparts the motion is called the driver." —Hallock 1905

Train

"A combination of wheels and axles, as shown, is called a train. The wheel in a train to which motion…

The manner in which the wheels of a railway car orient themselves around a curve. The outer and inner wheels turn on different diameters.

Wheel Position

The manner in which the wheels of a railway car orient themselves around a curve. The outer and inner…

"The large wheel a, is supposed to stand over the well, and b, a smaller wheel, is fixed in the water. The rope is extended between the two wheels, and rises on one side in a perpendicular disrection. On turning the wheel by the crank d, the water is brought up by the friction of the rope." -Comstock 1850

Rope Machine

"The large wheel a, is supposed to stand over the well, and b, a smaller wheel, is fixed in the water.…

"The Savart wheel consists of a heavy metal toothed wheel that may be put in rapid revolution by pulling a cord wound upon its axis. Set such a wheel in rapid motion and hold the edge of a card against its teeth. As the speed of the wheel diminishes, the shrill tone produced by the rapid vibrations of the card correspondingly falls in pitch." — Avery, 1895

Savart wheel

"The Savart wheel consists of a heavy metal toothed wheel that may be put in rapid revolution by pulling…

"This machine carried a number of spindles turned by cords or belts from the same wheel, and operated by hand. It was a very simple affair, but it spun at first eight threads then sixteen, and within the inventor's own lifetime eighty, thus doing the work of many spinning wheels."—Webster, 1920

Spinning Jenny

"This machine carried a number of spindles turned by cords or belts from the same wheel, and operated…

A spinning machine which produced a stronger thread than the spinning jenny.

Arkwright's Spinning Machine

A spinning machine which produced a stronger thread than the spinning jenny.

A spinning machine invented by Samuel Crompton. It spins textile fibers into yarn by an intermittent process.

Spinning Mule

A spinning machine invented by Samuel Crompton. It spins textile fibers into yarn by an intermittent…

"A band or cord (E) connected the large wheel with the small wheel (D). Another cord (F) connected the small wheel with the grooved pulley, or wharve, on the spindle (C). The revolutions of the large wheel turned the small wheel very rapidly, thus communicating motion to the spindle through the wharve."—Webster, 1920

A Spinning Wheel

"A band or cord (E) connected the large wheel with the small wheel (D). Another cord (F) connected the…

An early spinning wheel.

Spinning Wheel

An early spinning wheel.

"System of Wheels.—As the wheel and axle is only a modification of the simple lever, so a system of wheels acting on each other, and transmitting the power to the resistance, is only another form of the compound lever. The first wheel a, by means of the teeth, or cogs, around its axle, moved the second wheel, b, with a force equal to that of a lever, the long arm of which extends from the center to the circumference of the wheel, where the power p is suspended, and the short arm from the same center to the ends of the cogs. The dotted line c, passing through the center of the wheel a, shows the position of the lever, as the wheel now stands." —Comstock, 1850

System of Wheels

"System of Wheels.—As the wheel and axle is only a modification of the simple lever, so a system…

"[This illustration] shows a third form of the wheel and axle. Here the axle A is vertical, instead of horizontal. A bar inserted in its head, at the extremity of which the hand is applied, takes the place of the wheel." —Quackenbos 1859

Vertical Wheel and Axle

"[This illustration] shows a third form of the wheel and axle. Here the axle A is vertical, instead…

A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring or drilling to access ground water in underground aquifers. The well water is drawn by an electric submersible pump, a vertical turbine pump, a hand pump or a mechanical pump.

Water Elevating Device

A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring or drilling…

The top portion of a well with a crank to retrieve the bucket.

Well Bucket

The top portion of a well with a crank to retrieve the bucket.

A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis, facilitating movement or transportation.

Wheel

A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis, facilitating movement or transportation.

"The wheel and axle consists of a wheel united to a cylinder in such a way that they may turn together on a common axis. It is a modified lever of the first or second class." — Avery, 1895

Wheel and axle

"The wheel and axle consists of a wheel united to a cylinder in such a way that they may turn together…

"The wheel and axle consists of two cylinders of different diameters, rigidly connected, so that they turn together about a common axis." — Hallock, 1905

Wheel and Axle

"The wheel and axle consists of two cylinders of different diameters, rigidly connected, so that they…

"It consists of two wheels, one of which is larger than the other, but the small one passes through the larger, and hence both have a common centre, on which they turn." -Comstock 1850

Wheel and Axle

"It consists of two wheels, one of which is larger than the other, but the small one passes through…

"This figure represents the machine endwise, so as to show in what manner the lever operates. The two weights hanging in opposition to each other, the one on the wheel at a, and the other on the axle at b, act in the same manner as if they were conected by the horizontal lever a b, passing from one to the other, having the common centre, c, as a fulcrum between them." -Comstock 1850

Wheel and Axle

"This figure represents the machine endwise, so as to show in what manner the lever operates. The two…

"To change the direction, it is only necessary that the rope by which the weight is to be raised, should be carried in a line perpendicular to the axis of the machine, sto the place below where the weight lies, and there be let fall over a pulley." -Comstock 1850

Wheel and Axle

"To change the direction, it is only necessary that the rope by which the weight is to be raised, should…

"The wheel and axle consists of a wheel united to a cylinder in such a way that they may turn together on a common axis. It is a modified lever of the first or second class." -Avery 1895

Wheel and Axle with Rope and Bucket

"The wheel and axle consists of a wheel united to a cylinder in such a way that they may turn together…

"Considered as a lever, the fulcrum is at the common axis, while the arms of the lever are the radii of the wheel and of the axle. The usual arrangement is to take ac, the radius of the wheel, as the power arm, and bc , the radius of the axle, as the weight arm." -Avery 1895

Wheel and Axle

"Considered as a lever, the fulcrum is at the common axis, while the arms of the lever are the radii…

"...the mechanical advantage of this machine (wheel and axle) equal the ratio between the radii, diameters, or circumferences of the wheel and of the axle." -Avery 1895

Wheel and Axle with Rope and Bucket

"...the mechanical advantage of this machine (wheel and axle) equal the ratio between the radii, diameters,…

"The wheel and axle is simply a revolving lever of the first kind. One application of the lever can not move a body any great distance; but, by means of the wheel and axle, the action of the lever is continued uninterruptedly." —Quackenbos 1859

Wheel and Axle

"The wheel and axle is simply a revolving lever of the first kind. One application of the lever can…

"Instead of having a rope attached to it, the wheel is often provided with projecting pins, as shown, to which the hand is directly applied." —Quackenbos 1859

Wheel and Axle with Spokes

"Instead of having a rope attached to it, the wheel is often provided with projecting pins, as shown,…

A wheel having cogs or teeth set at right angles with its plane. Commonly used in watches.

Crown Wheel

A wheel having cogs or teeth set at right angles with its plane. Commonly used in watches.

An image of an old-fashioned wheel. It was most likely used on a steam coach or carriage in the nineteenth century.

Old-Fashioned Wheel

An image of an old-fashioned wheel. It was most likely used on a steam coach or carriage in the nineteenth…

"A still more common form, much used in drawing water from wells and loaded buckets from mines, is shown [here]. Instead of a wheel, we have here a winch, or handle, attached to the axle." —Quackenbos 1859

Winch

"A still more common form, much used in drawing water from wells and loaded buckets from mines, is shown…

A cylinder or roller for raising weights, turned by a crank or lever, with a rope or chain attached to the weight.

Windlass

A cylinder or roller for raising weights, turned by a crank or lever, with a rope or chain attached…

"Windlass.—The common windlass for drawing water is another modification of the wheel and axle. The winch, or crank, by which it is turned, is moved around by the hand, and there is no difference in the principle, whether a whole wheel is turned, or a single spoke. The winch, therefore, answers to the wheel, while the rope is taken up, and the weight raised by the axle, as already described." —Comstock, 1850

Windlass

"Windlass.—The common windlass for drawing water is another modification of the wheel and axle.…