This science ClipArt gallery offers 36 illustrations of crystalline forms, creation, and reactions of various compounds and elements in chemistry.

"The mineral corundum which includes the precious stones ruby, sapphire, and topaz, contains alumina, or aluminum oxide, Al2O3. It is found in nature crystallized in rhombohedral forms, having a specific gravity of 3.9, and is scarcely inferior in hardness to diamond." —Hallock 1905

Aluminum

"The mineral corundum which includes the precious stones ruby, sapphire, and topaz, contains alumina,…

A cut of a gemstone. A brilliant cut stone has fifty-eight facets.

Brilliant Cut

A cut of a gemstone. A brilliant cut stone has fifty-eight facets.

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside of which is moistened with water and treated with chlorine gas to form a solution of Gold Chloride. This is then run off, and the gold precipitated , usually by means of Ferrous Sulphate or charcoal.

Chlorination Barrel

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside…

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside of which is moistened with water and treated with chlorine gas to form a solution of Gold Chloride. This is then run off, and the gold precipitated , usually by means of Ferrous Sulphate or charcoal.

Chlorination Barrel (End Section)

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside…

This illustration shows how to make chlorine by using hydrochloric acid and permanganate crystals.

Chlorine

This illustration shows how to make chlorine by using hydrochloric acid and permanganate crystals.

"The crystalline form of copper sulphate." — Hallock, 1905

Copper Sulphate

"The crystalline form of copper sulphate." — Hallock, 1905

In the gold extraction process, finely crushed ores are leached in vats with a very diluted solution of Potassuim Cyanide (KCN), containing 0.05 to 0.3 percent KCN (or its equivalent, Sodium Cyanide, NaCN) which is allowed to remain for twelve to twenty-four hours to dissolve the gold.

Cyanide Leaching Tank (Gold Extraction)

In the gold extraction process, finely crushed ores are leached in vats with a very diluted solution…

"One crystalline form of diamond." —Hallock 1905

Diamond

"One crystalline form of diamond." —Hallock 1905

"One crystalline form of diamond." —Hallock 1905

Diamond

"One crystalline form of diamond." —Hallock 1905

"One crystalline form of diamond." —Hallock 1905

Diamond

"One crystalline form of diamond." —Hallock 1905

"One crystalline form of diamond." —Hallock 1905

Diamond

"One crystalline form of diamond." —Hallock 1905

This illustration shows a Double Brilliant (sometimes called Lisbon) cut gem.

Double Brilliant Cut

This illustration shows a Double Brilliant (sometimes called Lisbon) cut gem.

Figure A shows cotton fibers which are smooth on the surface, where as figure B shows woolen fibers that are covered with scales.

Fibers

Figure A shows cotton fibers which are smooth on the surface, where as figure B shows woolen fibers…

This illustration shows the first stage in the manufacturing of glue. The material used for making the glue (either animal bone or hide) is soaked in a milk of lime (or in some cases, Hydrochloric or Sulfurous acid) to purify and loosen particles.

First Stage in Glue Manufacturing

This illustration shows the first stage in the manufacturing of glue. The material used for making the…

"The second form of carbon, known as graphite, is a leaden-gray solid with a metallic luster and a specific gravity of 2 to 2.2, which crystallizes." —Hallock 1905

Graphite

"The second form of carbon, known as graphite, is a leaden-gray solid with a metallic luster and a specific…

This illustration shows the gems worn on the breast plate of the high priest of the Hebrews. Each of these gems is mentioned in the Bible.
1) Cornelian (Reuben)
2) Topaz (Simeon)
3) Emerald (Levi)
4) Ruby (Judah)
5) Sapphire (Issachar)
6) Diamond (Zebulon)
7) Hyacinth (Dan)
8) Agate (Naphtali)
9) Amethyst (Gad)
10) Chrysolite (Asher)
11) Sardonyx (Joseph)
12) Jasper (Benjamin)

Hebrew Breastplate

This illustration shows the gems worn on the breast plate of the high priest of the Hebrews. Each of…

Illustrated are some of the cases in which the priceless herbarium of Linnaeus is kept. An herbarium is a catalogue of dried and labeled plant specimens.

Herbarium Cabinet

Illustrated are some of the cases in which the priceless herbarium of Linnaeus is kept. An herbarium…

This illustration shows pure hydrogen being collected by passing electricity through a dilute acid.

Hydrogen

This illustration shows pure hydrogen being collected by passing electricity through a dilute acid.

This illustration shows a beaker full of sulphuric acid and a stick of zinc, giving off hydrogen.

Hydrogen

This illustration shows a beaker full of sulphuric acid and a stick of zinc, giving off hydrogen.

This illustration shows moist phosophorus oxidizing to get the oxygen out of the enclosed area.

Oxidation

This illustration shows moist phosophorus oxidizing to get the oxygen out of the enclosed area.

This illustration shows oxygen escaping leaves when they are placed in water and then in sunlight.

Oxygen Release

This illustration shows oxygen escaping leaves when they are placed in water and then in sunlight.

"At the freezing point [phosphorus] hardens, becomes brittle, and shows, on being broken, evidences of crystalline structure, the crystals being dodecahedral." —Hallock 1905

Phosphorus

"At the freezing point [phosphorus] hardens, becomes brittle, and shows, on being broken, evidences…

"A (010) cleavage flake of plagioclase." -Johannsen, 1908

Plagioclase

"A (010) cleavage flake of plagioclase." -Johannsen, 1908

"Cross-sections at right angles to both (001) and (010) showing (+) and (-) character of extinction in plagioclase feldspars." -Johannsen, 1908

Plagioclase Feldspars

"Cross-sections at right angles to both (001) and (010) showing (+) and (-) character of extinction…

"The (010) face of a Carlsbad twin of plagioclase." -Johannsen, 1908

Plagioclase Twin

"The (010) face of a Carlsbad twin of plagioclase." -Johannsen, 1908

This illustration shows a tower filled with quicklime, being used to filter out gas from water vapor.

Quicklime

This illustration shows a tower filled with quicklime, being used to filter out gas from water vapor.

This furnace is used to purify a gold concentrate. The gold concentrates, if non-pyritic, are treated in grinding pans in the bottom of which mercury is placed. The amalgam (mercury alloy), after squeezing out the excess mercury, is heated in the retort, to distil (separate) off the rest and leave the gold, which is then melted and cast into bars of gold bullion of varying fineness.

Retort Furnace for Gold Bullion

This furnace is used to purify a gold concentrate. The gold concentrates, if non-pyritic, are treated…

A rose cut is a cut of gemstone. In this cut, the upper surface is shaped into triangular facets of nearly equal size throughout.

Rose Cut

A rose cut is a cut of gemstone. In this cut, the upper surface is shaped into triangular facets of…

The Scarabaeus gem is a gem carved to look like a scarab beetle.

Scarabaeus (Side View)

The Scarabaeus gem is a gem carved to look like a scarab beetle.

The Scarabaeus gem is a gem carved to look like a scarab beetle.

Scarabaeus (Top View)

The Scarabaeus gem is a gem carved to look like a scarab beetle.

A split cut is a cut of gemstone. It is similar to a trap cut.

Split Cut

A split cut is a cut of gemstone. It is similar to a trap cut.

"One allotropic forms of sulphur, that of a lemon-yellow brittle solid, crystallizing in orthorhombic octahedrons." —Hallock 1905

Suphur

"One allotropic forms of sulphur, that of a lemon-yellow brittle solid, crystallizing in orthorhombic…

"An allotrope of sulphur, when heated to 115 degrees Celcius, will cool to be yellowish-brown, needle-shaped crystals, derived from an oblique prism." —Hallock 1905

Sulphur

"An allotrope of sulphur, when heated to 115 degrees Celcius, will cool to be yellowish-brown, needle-shaped…

This illustration shows a bottle of sulphuric acid.

Sulphuric Acid

This illustration shows a bottle of sulphuric acid.

A Trap Cut is a cut of gemstone. Emeralds are commonly cut this way.

Trap Cut

A Trap Cut is a cut of gemstone. Emeralds are commonly cut this way.

This illustration shows a wash box used for removing lime from materials used in glue manufacturing.

Wash Box for Removing Lime

This illustration shows a wash box used for removing lime from materials used in glue manufacturing.