This science ClipArt gallery offers 41 illustrations of geography, showning apsects and properties of earth and the development and changes in land.

Contour lines never cross on the ground but in rare cases as an overhanging cliff they may cross on the map.

Contour Lines

Contour lines never cross on the ground but in rare cases as an overhanging cliff they may cross on…

A contour about to cross a stream runs up one side and down the other, making a V where it crosses, the angle of the V pointing up stream. Contour lines representing spurs between stream lines are generally U shaped with the bottom or rounded part of the U pointing down hill.

Contour Lines

A contour about to cross a stream runs up one side and down the other, making a V where it crosses,…

Contour lines.

Contours

Contour lines.

Crag and tail, a term used to designate a peculiar hill conformation. a, crag; b, tail (boulder clay, drift, etc.); c, hollow in front of crag.

Crag and Tail

Crag and tail, a term used to designate a peculiar hill conformation. a, crag; b, tail (boulder clay,…

The Dead Sea and the convent of Santa Saba, on the Brook Kidron.

Dead Sea

The Dead Sea and the convent of Santa Saba, on the Brook Kidron.

The diagram shows how to determine North by sun and plumb line.

Determining North

The diagram shows how to determine North by sun and plumb line.

A range of cliffs that form part of the British coastline facing the Strait of Dover and France. Historically, the cliffs have served as a symbolic guard against any attacks and threats coming in from Continental Europe and the English Channel.

The Cliffs of Dover

A range of cliffs that form part of the British coastline facing the Strait of Dover and France. Historically,…

"The sun is so far away that it would appear at the same angle from Philadelphia, St. Louis, and Denver, and if it were noon at one of these places, it would be noon at the others. Vertical lines at the three places would be parallel. But when it is noon at St. Louis, it is 1 P.M. at Philadelphia and 11 A.M. at Denver." -Dryer, 1901

Earth Curvature

"The sun is so far away that it would appear at the same angle from Philadelphia, St. Louis, and Denver,…

"A fault is a fracture accompanied by displacement of the strata." -Dryer, 1901

Fault

"A fault is a fracture accompanied by displacement of the strata." -Dryer, 1901

Eroded anticline

Eroded Anticline

Eroded anticline

Eroded syncline.

Eroded Syncline

Eroded syncline.

Cross section of an eroded anticline.

Eroded Anticline

Cross section of an eroded anticline.

Cross section of an eroded syncline.

Eroded Syncline

Cross section of an eroded syncline.

An overthrust anticline of a strata fold.

Overthrust Anticline Folds

An overthrust anticline of a strata fold.

An overthrust anticline of a strata fold.

Overthrust Anticline Folds

An overthrust anticline of a strata fold.

"A syncline is a downfolding of the strata in the form of a trough, as at a...An anticline is an upfolding of the strata in the form of an arch, as at b." -Dryer, 1901

Strata Folds

"A syncline is a downfolding of the strata in the form of a trough, as at a...An anticline is an upfolding…

A fossil of rain drops with ripple marks.

Fossils

A fossil of rain drops with ripple marks.

An illustration with multiple instruments used for navigation. These items include a globe, compass, map and books.

Globe

An illustration with multiple instruments used for navigation. These items include a globe, compass,…

This globe is a carved work of art.

Globe

This globe is a carved work of art.

An instrument used in geography to measure angles of the sun at different times of the day.

Heliotrope

An instrument used in geography to measure angles of the sun at different times of the day.

An image of a hill, valley, and river.

Hill

An image of a hill, valley, and river.

Hills covered with trees.

Hills

Hills covered with trees.

"Lava has been forced not only into vertical cracks, but also between the layers of stratified rock, where it has hardened and forms more or less horizontal sills. In some instances the quantity of liquid rock forced into one locality is sufficient to raise the overlying strata into a dome which appears upon the surface of a mountain. Such accumulation of igenous material in the midst of sedimentary rocks are called laccolites." -Dryer, 1901

Laccolite

"Lava has been forced not only into vertical cracks, but also between the layers of stratified rock,…

A meander river with oxbow lakes. An oxbow lake is a U-shaped lake formed when a wide meander of a river is cut off.

River Meander

A meander river with oxbow lakes. An oxbow lake is a U-shaped lake formed when a wide meander of a river…

A scene in the mountains with trees and water running by.

Mountain

A scene in the mountains with trees and water running by.

A table, in the sense of a landform, is a hill, flank of a mountain, or mountain that has a flat top. This landform has numerous names in addition to table which include, tuya, tepui, mesa, portrero, butte, and table mountain.

Table Mountain

A table, in the sense of a landform, is a hill, flank of a mountain, or mountain that has a flat top.…

An illustration of a mountainous landscape.

Mountainous Landscape

An illustration of a mountainous landscape.

Monarch of mountains of north cape.

Mountains

Monarch of mountains of north cape.

Monarch of mountains of Straight of Gibraltar.

Mountains

Monarch of mountains of Straight of Gibraltar.

"At 1, a series of compressed folds has been worn down to a plain, the surface of which is formed by the edges of the nearly vertical strata. At 2 an anticline has been reduced to a valley, and at 3 a syncline is left standing as a ridge made up of concave strata like a pile of platters. The ridges at 4 are projections of hard strata above the more easily eroded ones on either side." -Dryer, 1901

Appalachian Mountains

"At 1, a series of compressed folds has been worn down to a plain, the surface of which is formed by…

A peninsula with a lighthouse on it.

Peninsula

A peninsula with a lighthouse on it.

The development of polyconic projection: portraying a spherical object like the earth, on a flat surface.

Polyconic Projection

The development of polyconic projection: portraying a spherical object like the earth, on a flat surface.

"Sterogram of Jura Mountains...The Jura Mountains in France and Switzerland consist of a series of parallel ridges and valleys in which each ridge is an anticline and each valley is a syncline." -Dryer, 1901

Mountain Sterogram

"Sterogram of Jura Mountains...The Jura Mountains in France and Switzerland consist of a series of parallel…

It is hotter at noon than at sunrise and sunset because there is a greater thickness of air for the horizontal sun rays to pass through at sunrise and sunset.

Sun Rays

It is hotter at noon than at sunrise and sunset because there is a greater thickness of air for the…

"By downward corrasion a stream cuts a steep-sided trench of its own width, but weathering, gravitation, and the wash of the rain widen it and make the sides sloping." a, a young V-shaped valley; b and c, deeper; d, flood-plain condition. -Dryer, 1901

Valley Development

"By downward corrasion a stream cuts a steep-sided trench of its own width, but weathering, gravitation,…

"If the walls of the valley contain strata of unequal hardness, the form is modified by the projection of hard layers and the retreat of the softer ones." -Dryer, 1901

Unequal Valley Development

"If the walls of the valley contain strata of unequal hardness, the form is modified by the projection…

"If the strata are not horizontal, various unsymmetrical forms are produced." -Dryer, 1901

Usymmetrical Valley Development

"If the strata are not horizontal, various unsymmetrical forms are produced." -Dryer, 1901

Vertical interval is the difference in elevation between adjacent contours.

Vertical Interval

Vertical interval is the difference in elevation between adjacent contours.

"Ideal section of a volcano." -Dryer, 1901

Volcano

"Ideal section of a volcano." -Dryer, 1901

"If a compass is not available, a watch can be used. Hold the watch flat in the hand and with the hour hand pointing in the direction of the sun; a direction halfway between the hour hand and 12 is south." -Finch, 1920

Watch Compass

"If a compass is not available, a watch can be used. Hold the watch flat in the hand and with the hour…

The diagram shows how to determine North using a watch and the location of the sun.

Watch Compass

The diagram shows how to determine North using a watch and the location of the sun.