This ClipArt gallery offers 88 illustrations of textile manufacturing including ginning, scutching, carding, spinning, weaving, knitting, and finishing of cotton, wool, and other fibers. This gallery illustrates commercial scale processes. For illustrations of hand weaving, please see the Fabric Arts gallery in the Crafts section.

A bundle of goods corded for transportation.

Bale

A bundle of goods corded for transportation.

A bale-breaking machine.

Bale-breaking Machine

A bale-breaking machine.

Cotton bales on a horse drawn buggy.

Cotton Bales

Cotton bales on a horse drawn buggy.

Cotton Manufacturing. Fig. 5C, beam warping machine.

Beam Warping Machine

Cotton Manufacturing. Fig. 5C, beam warping machine.

A small cylindrical piece of wood or metal with a border at one or both ends, on which thread is wound; a kind of spool.

Bobbin

A small cylindrical piece of wood or metal with a border at one or both ends, on which thread is wound;…

An sectional illustration of a carding machine. Carding is the processing of brushing raw or washed fibers to prepare them as textiles. A large variety of fibers can be carded, anything from dog hair, to llama, to soy fiber (a fiber made from soy beans), to polyester. Cotton and wool are probably the most common fibers to be carded. Not all fibers are carded; Flax and bast, for example, is retted then threshed.

Sectional View of a Carder

An sectional illustration of a carding machine. Carding is the processing of brushing raw or washed…

"Roller and Clearer Carding Machine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Carding Machine

"Roller and Clearer Carding Machine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Cotton Manufacturing. Fig. 3B, roller carding machine.

Carding Machine

Cotton Manufacturing. Fig. 3B, roller carding machine.

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 3, churka gin: cotton is crushed between wooden rollers by hand power.

Churka Gin

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 3, churka gin: cotton is crushed between wooden rollers by hand power.

Manufacturing and sale of clothing.

Clothing

Manufacturing and sale of clothing.

"Combing Machine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Combing Machine

"Combing Machine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

An illustration of a cotton chute in Savannah, Georgia.

Cotton Bundles

An illustration of a cotton chute in Savannah, Georgia.

A cotton press yard of the Cotton Centennial in the 1884 World's Fair in New Orleans, Louisiana.

Cotton Centennial

A cotton press yard of the Cotton Centennial in the 1884 World's Fair in New Orleans, Louisiana.

This illustration shows the machine used to compress cotton.

Cotton Compresser

This illustration shows the machine used to compress cotton.

"The Cotton-Gin, a machine that processes cotton."—E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

Cotton Gin

"The Cotton-Gin, a machine that processes cotton."—E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

A section of the cotton gin, showing the cotton passing frrom the feeder over the cylinders.

Cotton Gin

A section of the cotton gin, showing the cotton passing frrom the feeder over the cylinders.

Eli Whitney's cotton gin, which made the production of cotton many times more efficient.

Cotton Gin

Eli Whitney's cotton gin, which made the production of cotton many times more efficient.

A Cotton Gin (short for cotton engine) is a machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers from the seedpods and the sometimes sticky seeds, a job previously done by workers. These seeds are either used again to grow more cotton or, if badly damaged, are disposed of. It uses a combination of a wire screen and small wire hooks to pull the cotton through the screen, while brushes continuously remove the loose cotton lint to prevent jams. The term "gin" is an abbreviation for engine, and means "machine".

Cotton Gin

A Cotton Gin (short for cotton engine) is a machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers…

An illustration of a modified cotton gin.

Cotton Gin

An illustration of a modified cotton gin.

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 2, roller gin.

Cotton Gin

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 2, roller gin.

This mechanical drawing of a cotton gin depicts internal moving parts, where the machine was intended to separate cotton fibers from seeds.

Cotton Gin Machine

This mechanical drawing of a cotton gin depicts internal moving parts, where the machine was intended…

"Three-cylinder Opener, Beater, and Lap Machiine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Cotton Machine

"Three-cylinder Opener, Beater, and Lap Machiine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Cotton manufacture. Fig. 1, saw gin.

Cotton Manufacture

Cotton manufacture. Fig. 1, saw gin.

Spinning cotton in a mill.

Cotton Mill

Spinning cotton in a mill.

Looms in a cotton mill.

Cotton Mill

Looms in a cotton mill.

An illustration of a cotton mill in Columbus, Georgia. A cotton mill is a factory housing spinning and weaving machinery. Cotton was the leading sector in the Industrial Revolution, as a cotton spinning was mechanized in mills.

Cotton Mill

An illustration of a cotton mill in Columbus, Georgia. A cotton mill is a factory housing spinning and…

A machine used in the 19th century to open cotton.

Cotton Opener

A machine used in the 19th century to open cotton.

This illustration shows the tool used for pressing and baling cotton.

Cotton Press

This illustration shows the tool used for pressing and baling cotton.

An illustration of a cotton press which presses the cotton into compressed bundles which is helpful in transporting.

Cotton Press

An illustration of a cotton press which presses the cotton into compressed bundles which is helpful…

An image showing the process of picking cotton and then loading it upon merchant ships.

Picking and Loading Cotton

An image showing the process of picking cotton and then loading it upon merchant ships.

A short fruit limb of cotton bolls.

Short fruit limb of cotton bolls

A short fruit limb of cotton bolls.

An illustration of a river boat stacked with bundles of cotton.

Transporting Cotton

An illustration of a river boat stacked with bundles of cotton.

Whitney's cotton gin had a permanent influence on America's slavery. With-out a cotton-gin a slave could seperate only 1 pound of cotton a day. With the cotton-gin, a slave could seperate a thousand pounds.

Eli Whitney's Cotton-Gin

Whitney's cotton gin had a permanent influence on America's slavery. With-out a cotton-gin a slave could…

A primitive cotton-gin used to seperate seeds from the cotton.

Primitive Cotton-Gin

A primitive cotton-gin used to seperate seeds from the cotton.

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 4D, Dobby motion: The knife beam (A), rises and falls with the motion of the loom, and the hooks in the upright position (B) rise and fall with (A); a revolving drum (D), fitted with pegs (E), forces back the springs (F), and y the rods (H) with hooks (G) are thrown back, and the healds attached to these do not rise with (A).

Dobby Motion

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 4D, Dobby motion: The knife beam (A), rises and falls with the motion of…

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 4B, drawing frame.

Drawing Frame

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 4B, drawing frame.

Mather and Platt's Horizontal Drying Machine

Drying Machine

Mather and Platt's Horizontal Drying Machine

Diagram showing the Horizontal Drying Machine threaded with cloth

Drying Machine Diagram

Diagram showing the Horizontal Drying Machine threaded with cloth

Diagram showing the Horizontal Drying Machine threaded with cloth

Drying Machine Diagram

Diagram showing the Horizontal Drying Machine threaded with cloth

An illustration of a dye-jigger.

Dye-Jigger

An illustration of a dye-jigger.

An illustration of an automated dye-vat.

Automated Dye Vat

An illustration of an automated dye-vat.

"Self-stripping Flat Carding Machine" — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Flat Carding Machine

"Self-stripping Flat Carding Machine" — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

A machine that separates the seeds, seed hulls, and other small objects from the fibers of cotton.

Cotton Gin

A machine that separates the seeds, seed hulls, and other small objects from the fibers of cotton.

Invented by Eli Whitney, the cotton gin is a machine that quickly separates the cotton from the seeds.

Cotton Gin

Invented by Eli Whitney, the cotton gin is a machine that quickly separates the cotton from the seeds.

A machine seed in separating the seeds from the cotton fiber.

Cotton Gin

A machine seed in separating the seeds from the cotton fiber.

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 1D, hand loom.

Hand Loom

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 1D, hand loom.

An illustration of a man hauling cotton.

Hauling Cotton

An illustration of a man hauling cotton.

One of the sets of vertical cords or wires in a loom, forming the principal part of the harness that guides the warp threads.

Wire Heddle

One of the sets of vertical cords or wires in a loom, forming the principal part of the harness that…

Originally the Jacquard machines were mechanical, and the fabric design was punched in pattern cards which were joined together to form a continuous chain. The Jacquards often were small and only independently controlled a relatively few warp ends. This required a number of repeats across the loom width. Larger capacity machines, or the use of multiple machines, allowed greater control, with fewer repeats, and hence larger designs to be woven across the loom width.

Jacquard Machine and Harness

Originally the Jacquard machines were mechanical, and the fabric design was punched in pattern cards…

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5D, Jacquard motion.  The hooks are held upright by rods connected by spiral springs, a card pressing against the ends of these, pierced with holes opposite the ends of the rods connected with the required hooks; the arrangement of holes in the card thus determines the pattern which is woven.

Jacquard Motion

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5D, Jacquard motion. The hooks are held upright by rods connected by spiral…

"The modern system of cotton manufacture dates no further back than back 1760. Prior the mechanical inventions of Hargeaves, Arkwright, Crompton and Cartwright, the arts of spinning and weaving were entirely domestic, and the instruments of manipulation much the same as those which had been in use in the East for centuries before." -Lupton

The Spinning Jenny

"The modern system of cotton manufacture dates no further back than back 1760. Prior the mechanical…

An illustration of a jute opener.

Jute Opener

An illustration of a jute opener.

An illustration of a jute softening machine.

Jute Softening Machine

An illustration of a jute softening machine.

"A section of part of a lace machine. E is the cylinder or beam upon which the lace is rolled as made, and upon which the ends of both warp and weft threads are fastened at starting. Beneath are w, w, w, a series of trays or beams, one above the other, containing the reels of the supplies of warp threads; c, c represent the slide bars for the passage of the bobbin b with its thread from k to k, the landing bars, one on each side of the rank of warp threads; s, t are the combs which take it in turns to press together the twistings as they are made. The combs are so regulated that they come away clear from the threads as soon as they have pressed them together and fall into positions ready to perform their pressing operations again." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Lace Machine

"A section of part of a lace machine. E is the cylinder or beam upon which the lace is rolled as made,…

"Single Scutcher and Lap Machine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Lap Machine

"Single Scutcher and Lap Machine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Cotton gin lapper.

Lapper

Cotton gin lapper.

The first completely automated loom was made by Jacques Vaucanson in 1745. A different power loom was built by Edmund Cartwright in 1785. Originally, powered looms were shuttle-operated but in the early part of the 20th century the faster and more efficient shuttleless loom came into use. Today, advances in technology have produced a variety of looms designed to maximize production for specific types of material. The most common of these are air-jet looms and water-jet looms. Computer-driven looms are now also available to individual (non-industrial) weavers. Industrial looms can weave at speeds of six rows per second and faster.

Loom

The first completely automated loom was made by Jacques Vaucanson in 1745. A different power loom was…

Loom used to make textiles

Loom

Loom used to make textiles

A hand loom - front view.

Loom

A hand loom - front view.

A mechanized loom powered by a drive shaft. It eased the process of constructing fabric.

Cartwright's First Power Loom

A mechanized loom powered by a drive shaft. It eased the process of constructing fabric.