This ClipArt gallery offers 88 illustrations of textile manufacturing including ginning, scutching, carding, spinning, weaving, knitting, and finishing of cotton, wool, and other fibers. This gallery illustrates commercial scale processes. For illustrations of hand weaving, please see the Fabric Arts gallery in the Crafts section.

Any loom that uses a shuttle. Most looms use a shuttle of some sort, however there are some shuttle-less looms.

Shuttle Loom

Any loom that uses a shuttle. Most looms use a shuttle of some sort, however there are some shuttle-less…

This machine is used to weave cloth, the purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension.

Weaving Loom

This machine is used to weave cloth, the purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension.

All woven seats need a protective finish. Caned surfaces may be left natural and waxed, or they may be clear- varnished or shellacked. Shellac or varnish produces a hard glossy surface. A wax finish has a softer appearance, is easy to clean, and does not dry the cane. Also a wax finish permits tightening the seat if it stretches.

Machine For Inserting Diagonal Strips in Woven Cane Work

All woven seats need a protective finish. Caned surfaces may be left natural and waxed, or they may…

A machine for compressing bolts of cloth or waste into compact bales for shipment.

Baling Press Machine

A machine for compressing bolts of cloth or waste into compact bales for shipment.

Cotton manufacturing.  Fig. 2, flat carding machine.

Manufacturing

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 2, flat carding machine.

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 1C, differential motion gear for slubbing machine.

Motion Gear

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 1C, differential motion gear for slubbing machine.

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5C, mule spinning machine.

Mule-spinning Machine

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5C, mule spinning machine.

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5, opening machine.

Opening Machine

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5, opening machine.

Arkright's water-frame wheel, the first power spinning-wheel.

Power Spinning Wheel

Arkright's water-frame wheel, the first power spinning-wheel.

This cotton press design allowed for cotton to filter through a windlass, later received by the hoop.

Cotton Press

This cotton press design allowed for cotton to filter through a windlass, later received by the hoop.

Calico printing was the first "operation connected with the printing of cloth."- Lupton

Calico Printing

Calico printing was the first "operation connected with the printing of cloth."- Lupton

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5B, Roving machine with rack and pinion adjustment for raising and lowering bobbins to secure even winding.

Roving Machine

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5B, Roving machine with rack and pinion adjustment for raising and lowering…

"Sewing-horse. In saddlery, a sewing-clamp with its supports. a, seat; b, legs; c, c', clamping-jaws, c' hinged to c at d; e, strap fastened to c' passing through c, and attached by chain f to the foot-lever g, the latter pivoted at h; i, spring which opens the jaws when not pulled together by e; k, ratch which g engages to hold he jaws together." -Whitney, 1911

Sewing Horse

"Sewing-horse. In saddlery, a sewing-clamp with its supports. a, seat; b, legs; c, c', clamping-jaws,…

An instrument used by weavers for passing the thread of the woof from one side of the cloth to the other, between the threads of the warp; sewing machine shuttle.

Shuttle

An instrument used by weavers for passing the thread of the woof from one side of the cloth to the other,…

The term shuttle loom refers to any loom that uses a shuttle. Most looms use a shuttle of some sort, however there are some shuttle-less looms. A shuttle is a tool designed to neatly and compactly store weft yarn while weaving. Shuttles are thrown or passed back and forth through the shed, between the yarn threats of the warp in order to weave in the weft.

Shuttle for Looms

The term shuttle loom refers to any loom that uses a shuttle. Most looms use a shuttle of some sort,…

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 6C, slasher.

Slasher

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 6C, slasher.

"The operation which succeeds that of the drawing frame is slubbing, where the sliver has a certain amount of twist imparted to it, and is wound on a bobbin. In this process the end or sliver from the last head of the drawing frame is drawn out by means of three pairs of rollers, and this is twisted as it emerges from the front line of rollers by the action of vertical spindles and flyers, which at the same time wind the ends upon bobbins in successive layers." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Slubbing Frame

"The operation which succeeds that of the drawing frame is slubbing, where the sliver has a certain…

Cotton Manufacturing. Fig. 2C, Ring spinning machine.

Spinning Machine

Cotton Manufacturing. Fig. 2C, Ring spinning machine.

A cylinder of wood, plastic, cardboard, or other material on which wire, thread, or string is wound.

Rack Spool

A cylinder of wood, plastic, cardboard, or other material on which wire, thread, or string is wound.

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 2D, tappet motion: A, B, cams on shaft C, operate the tappet levers D, E by means of pedals F, and raise or lower the healds G as required.

Tappet Motion

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 2D, tappet motion: A, B, cams on shaft C, operate the tappet levers D, E…

"Tela, a loom. Although weaving was among the Greeks and Romans a distinct trade, carried on by a separate class of persons, yet every considerable domestic establishment, especially in the country, contained a loom, together with the whole apparatus necessary for the working of wool. These occupations were all supposed to be carried on under the protection of Athena or Minerva, specially denominated Ergane. When the farm or the palace was sufficiently large to admit of it, a portion of it called the histon or textrinum, was devoted to this purpose. The work was there principally carried on by female slaves, under the superintendence of the mistress of the house." &mdash Smith; 1873

Tela

"Tela, a loom. Although weaving was among the Greeks and Romans a distinct trade, carried on by a separate…

"The spinning frame, or throstle, is made with two sets of drawing rollers, one on each side. Between these the roving bobbins are placed, and the rove is drawn through them to the requisite fineness, and formed into thread by the action of the spindles and flyers, which are placed in front of each set of rollers, at such distances apart from one another as may be required for the different-sized bobbins and counts of yarn to be spun." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Throstle

"The spinning frame, or throstle, is made with two sets of drawing rollers, one on each side. Between…

"The spinning frame, or throstle, is made with two sets of drawing rollers, one on each side. Between these the roving bobbins are placed, and the rove is drawn through them to the requisite fineness, and formed into thread by the action of the spindles and flyers, which are placed in front of each set of rollers, at such distances apart from one another as may be required for the different-sized bobbins and counts of yarn to be spun." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Throstle

"The spinning frame, or throstle, is made with two sets of drawing rollers, one on each side. Between…

"An improvement of great importance in the hosiery trade was effected through the invention of the tumbler needle, patented by Mr. M. Townsend in 1858. The tumbler needle consists of a stem somewhat bulged near the point. The bulged part contains a groove in which there is hinged a short pin. The pin is so placed that, when turned to the hooked or curved point, its own point falls into a spoon-like indent, thus forming a smooth metal loop." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Tumbler Needle

"An improvement of great importance in the hosiery trade was effected through the invention of the tumbler…

"The use of the spindle and loom, sewing, braiding, etc, form the subjects of many of the paintings, as also the process of cultivating flax, beating and combing it." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian weaving

"The use of the spindle and loom, sewing, braiding, etc, form the subjects of many of the paintings,…

A machine which separated the seeds from raw cotton more rapidly than could be done by hand.

Whitney's Cotton Gin

A machine which separated the seeds from raw cotton more rapidly than could be done by hand.

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 4C, Warder's bobbin winding machine, with cam motion for raising and lowering guides to secure even winding.

Winding Machine

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 4C, Warder's bobbin winding machine, with cam motion for raising and lowering…

A wool comber from the 1400's.

Wool Comber

A wool comber from the 1400's.