The Textile Manufacturing ClipArt gallery offers 101 illustrations of ginning, scutching, carding, spinning, weaving, knitting, and finishing of cotton, wool, and other fibers. This gallery illustrates commercial scale processes. For illustrations of hand weaving, please see the Fabric Arts gallery in the Crafts section.

"A section of part of a lace machine. E is the cylinder or beam upon which the lace is rolled as made, and upon which the ends of both warp and weft threads are fastened at starting. Beneath are w, w, w, a series of trays or beams, one above the other, containing the reels of the supplies of warp threads; c, c represent the slide bars for the passage of the bobbin b with its thread from k to k, the landing bars, one on each side of the rank of warp threads; s, t are the combs which take it in turns to press together the twistings as they are made. The combs are so regulated that they come away clear from the threads as soon as they have pressed them together and fall into positions ready to perform their pressing operations again." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Lace Machine

"A section of part of a lace machine. E is the cylinder or beam upon which the lace is rolled as made,…

"Single Scutcher and Lap Machine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Lap Machine

"Single Scutcher and Lap Machine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Cotton gin lapper.

Lapper

Cotton gin lapper.

The first completely automated loom was made by Jacques Vaucanson in 1745. A different power loom was built by Edmund Cartwright in 1785. Originally, powered looms were shuttle-operated but in the early part of the 20th century the faster and more efficient shuttleless loom came into use. Today, advances in technology have produced a variety of looms designed to maximize production for specific types of material. The most common of these are air-jet looms and water-jet looms. Computer-driven looms are now also available to individual (non-industrial) weavers. Industrial looms can weave at speeds of six rows per second and faster.

Loom

The first completely automated loom was made by Jacques Vaucanson in 1745. A different power loom was…

Loom used to make textiles

Loom

Loom used to make textiles

A hand loom - front view.

Loom

A hand loom - front view.

A mechanized loom powered by a drive shaft. It eased the process of constructing fabric.

Cartwright's First Power Loom

A mechanized loom powered by a drive shaft. It eased the process of constructing fabric.

Any loom that uses a shuttle. Most looms use a shuttle of some sort, however there are some shuttle-less looms.

Shuttle Loom

Any loom that uses a shuttle. Most looms use a shuttle of some sort, however there are some shuttle-less…

This machine is used to weave cloth, the purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension.

Weaving Loom

This machine is used to weave cloth, the purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension.

All woven seats need a protective finish. Caned surfaces may be left natural and waxed, or they may be clear- varnished or shellacked. Shellac or varnish produces a hard glossy surface. A wax finish has a softer appearance, is easy to clean, and does not dry the cane. Also a wax finish permits tightening the seat if it stretches.

Machine For Inserting Diagonal Strips in Woven Cane Work

All woven seats need a protective finish. Caned surfaces may be left natural and waxed, or they may…

A machine for compressing bolts of cloth or waste into compact bales for shipment.

Baling Press Machine

A machine for compressing bolts of cloth or waste into compact bales for shipment.

Cotton manufacturing.  Fig. 2, flat carding machine.

Manufacturing

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 2, flat carding machine.

This mill was manufactured in Birmingham, England. It was possibly used as a textile mill for processing fabrics.

Mill

This mill was manufactured in Birmingham, England. It was possibly used as a textile mill for processing…

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 1C, differential motion gear for slubbing machine.

Motion Gear

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 1C, differential motion gear for slubbing machine.

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5C, mule spinning machine.

Mule-spinning Machine

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5C, mule spinning machine.

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5, opening machine.

Opening Machine

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5, opening machine.

Arkright's water-frame wheel, the first power spinning-wheel.

Power Spinning Wheel

Arkright's water-frame wheel, the first power spinning-wheel.

This cotton press design allowed for cotton to filter through a windlass, later received by the hoop.

Cotton Press

This cotton press design allowed for cotton to filter through a windlass, later received by the hoop.

Calico printing was the first "operation connected with the printing of cloth."- Lupton

Calico Printing

Calico printing was the first "operation connected with the printing of cloth."- Lupton

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5B, Roving machine with rack and pinion adjustment for raising and lowering bobbins to secure even winding.

Roving Machine

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5B, Roving machine with rack and pinion adjustment for raising and lowering…

"Sewing-horse. In saddlery, a sewing-clamp with its supports. a, seat; b, legs; c, c', clamping-jaws, c' hinged to c at d; e, strap fastened to c' passing through c, and attached by chain f to the foot-lever g, the latter pivoted at h; i, spring which opens the jaws when not pulled together by e; k, ratch which g engages to hold he jaws together." -Whitney, 1911

Sewing Horse

"Sewing-horse. In saddlery, a sewing-clamp with its supports. a, seat; b, legs; c, c', clamping-jaws,…

"a is the bobbin case; c, bobbin; b, thread wound on bobbin; d, projection from bobbin-case which keeps it from turning; e, thread leading out." —Whitney, 1889

Bobbin Detail of Wheeler and Wilson Sewing Machine

"a is the bobbin case; c, bobbin; b, thread wound on bobbin; d, projection from bobbin-case which keeps…

"a is the bobbin holder, partly opened to show hook b, and bobbin-case c; d, feed-points; e, presser-foot." —
Whitney, 1889

Bobbin Detail of Wheeler and Wilson Sewing Machine

"a is the bobbin holder, partly opened to show hook b, and bobbin-case c; d, feed-points; e, presser-foot."…

A detail of the Wheeler and Wilson Sewing Machine. "s, thread-leader; t, face-plate covering...; v, presser thumb-screw; w, thread-check; x, tension-nut by which tension is regulated; y, tension-pulley around which the thread is wound, and which is caused to turn less or more easily by the nut x; z, thread-guide and controller; z2, presser-foot." —Whitney, 1889

Detail of Wheeler and Wilson Sewing Machine

A detail of the Wheeler and Wilson Sewing Machine. "s, thread-leader; t, face-plate covering...; v,…

"a, is the frame; b, shaft-crank which rocks the hook-shaft; e, receiving its motion from the double crank on the upper shaft e in the arm g through the shaft-connection c; d, band-wheel turned by a band (not shown) from a wheel on treadle-shaft below the table; f, feed-cam; h, feed-bar; i, bobbin-case; j, rotating hook which is attached to e and oscillates with it; k, bobbin-holder; l, presser; m, presser-spring; n, needle-bar link; o, needle-bar; p, take-up lever; q, take-up cam; r, spool-holder...." —Whitney, 1889

Wheeler and Wilson Sewing Machine

"a, is the frame; b, shaft-crank which rocks the hook-shaft; e, receiving its motion from the double…

A detailed illustration of one of the most collected sewing machines of all time. Today, many of these machines, over a century old, are still in use.

Willcox and Gibbs Sewing Machine

A detailed illustration of one of the most collected sewing machines of all time. Today, many of these…

An instrument used by weavers for passing the thread of the woof from one side of the cloth to the other, between the threads of the warp; sewing machine shuttle.

Shuttle

An instrument used by weavers for passing the thread of the woof from one side of the cloth to the other,…

The term shuttle loom refers to any loom that uses a shuttle. Most looms use a shuttle of some sort, however there are some shuttle-less looms. A shuttle is a tool designed to neatly and compactly store weft yarn while weaving. Shuttles are thrown or passed back and forth through the shed, between the yarn threats of the warp in order to weave in the weft.

Shuttle for Looms

The term shuttle loom refers to any loom that uses a shuttle. Most looms use a shuttle of some sort,…

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 6C, slasher.

Slasher

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 6C, slasher.

"The operation which succeeds that of the drawing frame is slubbing, where the sliver has a certain amount of twist imparted to it, and is wound on a bobbin. In this process the end or sliver from the last head of the drawing frame is drawn out by means of three pairs of rollers, and this is twisted as it emerges from the front line of rollers by the action of vertical spindles and flyers, which at the same time wind the ends upon bobbins in successive layers." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Slubbing Frame

"The operation which succeeds that of the drawing frame is slubbing, where the sliver has a certain…

Cotton Manufacturing. Fig. 2C, Ring spinning machine.

Spinning Machine

Cotton Manufacturing. Fig. 2C, Ring spinning machine.

A cylinder of wood, plastic, cardboard, or other material on which wire, thread, or string is wound.

Rack Spool

A cylinder of wood, plastic, cardboard, or other material on which wire, thread, or string is wound.

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 2D, tappet motion: A, B, cams on shaft C, operate the tappet levers D, E by means of pedals F, and raise or lower the healds G as required.

Tappet Motion

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 2D, tappet motion: A, B, cams on shaft C, operate the tappet levers D, E…

"The spinning frame, or throstle, is made with two sets of drawing rollers, one on each side. Between these the roving bobbins are placed, and the rove is drawn through them to the requisite fineness, and formed into thread by the action of the spindles and flyers, which are placed in front of each set of rollers, at such distances apart from one another as may be required for the different-sized bobbins and counts of yarn to be spun." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Throstle

"The spinning frame, or throstle, is made with two sets of drawing rollers, one on each side. Between…

"The spinning frame, or throstle, is made with two sets of drawing rollers, one on each side. Between these the roving bobbins are placed, and the rove is drawn through them to the requisite fineness, and formed into thread by the action of the spindles and flyers, which are placed in front of each set of rollers, at such distances apart from one another as may be required for the different-sized bobbins and counts of yarn to be spun." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Throstle

"The spinning frame, or throstle, is made with two sets of drawing rollers, one on each side. Between…

"An improvement of great importance in the hosiery trade was effected through the invention of the tumbler needle, patented by Mr. M. Townsend in 1858. The tumbler needle consists of a stem somewhat bulged near the point. The bulged part contains a groove in which there is hinged a short pin. The pin is so placed that, when turned to the hooked or curved point, its own point falls into a spoon-like indent, thus forming a smooth metal loop." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Tumbler Needle

"An improvement of great importance in the hosiery trade was effected through the invention of the tumbler…

A machine which separated the seeds from raw cotton more rapidly than could be done by hand.

Whitney's Cotton Gin

A machine which separated the seeds from raw cotton more rapidly than could be done by hand.

A man seated on a stool holds a skein of yarn as a standing woman winds it. In the background is a large table and chair.

Winding a Skein of Yarn

A man seated on a stool holds a skein of yarn as a standing woman winds it. In the background is a large…

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 4C, Warder's bobbin winding machine, with cam motion for raising and lowering guides to secure even winding.

Winding Machine

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 4C, Warder's bobbin winding machine, with cam motion for raising and lowering…

A young woman sitting on a chair reading a book as she spins

Young Woman Reading and Spinning

A young woman sitting on a chair reading a book as she spins

A wool comber from the 1400's.

Wool Comber

A wool comber from the 1400's.