This gallery includes 137 illustrations of several sea star and sea urchin species. Sea stars, also called starfish, are echinoderms that are in the shape of a star, with typically five arms. Sea urchins are echinoderms tha are small, spiny sea creatures shaped like a sphere or globe.

"Transverse section of the arm of a Starfish near the disc. Diagrammatic. Lettering as in preceding figure. a.r., ambulacral rafter (ossicle); ov., ovary, containing ova." -Galloway, 1915

Starfish Arm Section

"Transverse section of the arm of a Starfish near the disc. Diagrammatic. Lettering as in preceding…

"Diagram showing arrangement of the nervous matter in Starfish. c, ganglionated ring about the mouth; o, mouth; r.n., radial nerve in each arm." -Galloway, 1915

Starfish Nervous System

"Diagram showing arrangement of the nervous matter in Starfish. c, ganglionated ring about the mouth;…

"Starfish is a popular name for any individual of the family Asteridæ, a familiar object on the Atlantic coasts. The body is more or less star shaped, and consists of a central portion, or disk, surrounded by five or more lobes, or arms, radiating from the body and containing prolongations of the viscera. The mouth is situated in the center of the lower surface of the body, and the anus is either absent or on the upper surface. Locomotion is effected by means of peculiar tube-like processes, which are protruded from the under surface of the arms. They possess in a high degree the power of reproducing lost members and abound in all seas. [Pictured]Common Starfish, reproducing rays"—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Common Starfish

"Starfish is a popular name for any individual of the family Asteridæ, a familiar object on the…

"Starfish is a popular name for any individual of the family Asteridæ, a familiar object on the Atlantic coasts. The body is more or less star shaped, and consists of a central portion, or disk, surrounded by five or more lobes, or arms, radiating from the body and containing prolongations of the viscera. The mouth is situated in the center of the lower surface of the body, and the anus is either absent or on the upper surface. Locomotion is effected by means of peculiar tube-like processes, which are protruded from the under surface of the arms. They possess in a high degree the power of reproducing lost members and abound in all seas. [Pictured]Common Starfish (Asterias rubens)"—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Common Starfish

"Starfish is a popular name for any individual of the family Asteridæ, a familiar object on the…

"Asterias rubens. Digestive system. an, anus; card. st, cardiac division of the stomach; int. caec, intestinal caeca; madr, madreporite; ply. caec, pyloric caeca; pyl. st, pyloric division of the stomach." -Parker, 1900

Common Starfish

"Asterias rubens. Digestive system. an, anus; card. st, cardiac division of the stomach; int. caec,…

A diagram of a radiata (the starfish) whose organization is much less complete than that of most other animals. Label: 1, mouth.

Diagram of a Starfish

A diagram of a radiata (the starfish) whose organization is much less complete than that of most other…

"Starfish is a popular name for any individual of the family Asteridæ, a familiar object on the Atlantic coasts. The body is more or less star shaped, and consists of a central portion, or disk, surrounded by five or more lobes, or arms, radiating from the body and containing prolongations of the viscera. The mouth is situated in the center of the lower surface of the body, and the anus is either absent or on the upper surface. Locomotion is effected by means of peculiar tube-like processes, which are protruded from the under surface of the arms. They possess in a high degree the power of reproducing lost members and abound in all seas. [Pictured]Eyed Cribella (Cribella oculata)"—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Eyed Cribella Starfish

"Starfish is a popular name for any individual of the family Asteridæ, a familiar object on the…

"Starfish is a popular name for any individual of the family Asteridæ, a familiar object on the Atlantic coasts. The body is more or less star shaped, and consists of a central portion, or disk, surrounded by five or more lobes, or arms, radiating from the body and containing prolongations of the viscera. The mouth is situated in the center of the lower surface of the body, and the anus is either absent or on the upper surface. Locomotion is effected by means of peculiar tube-like processes, which are protruded from the under surface of the arms. They possess in a high degree the power of reproducing lost members and abound in all seas. [Pictured] Lesser Sand-star (Ophiura albida)"—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Lesser Sand-Star Starfish

"Starfish is a popular name for any individual of the family Asteridæ, a familiar object on the…

"Starfish is a popular name for any individual of the family Asteridæ, a familiar object on the Atlantic coasts. The body is more or less star shaped, and consists of a central portion, or disk, surrounded by five or more lobes, or arms, radiating from the body and containing prolongations of the viscera. The mouth is situated in the center of the lower surface of the body, and the anus is either absent or on the upper surface. Locomotion is effected by means of peculiar tube-like processes, which are protruded from the under surface of the arms. They possess in a high degree the power of reproducing lost members and abound in all seas. [Pictured]Gibbous Starlet (Asterina gibbosa)"—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Lesser Sand-star Starfish

"Starfish is a popular name for any individual of the family Asteridæ, a familiar object on the…

"The organs of motion are similar, consisting of a multitude of small feet called <em>ambulacra</em>, which are protruded through a number of perforations left for this purpose in their calcareous coverings." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Underside of a starfish

"The organs of motion are similar, consisting of a multitude of small feet called ambulacra,…

"Stomechinus intermedius. a, portion of ambulacral area; b, poriferous zones; c, two interambulacral plates; d, primary tubercles." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Stomechinus intermedius

"Stomechinus intermedius. a, portion of ambulacral area; b, poriferous zones; c, two interambulacral…

"Apical disc of sea-urchin. In the centre is the periproct bearing the anus; around it are five genital or inter-radial plates (g.), one of which is modified as the madreporite (m.); beyond these five ocular or radial plates (o.); i.r.a., an inter-radial or inter-ambulacral area, with spines only; r.a., a radial or ambulacral area, with spines and openings for tube-feet." -Thomson, 1916

Sea Urchin

"Apical disc of sea-urchin. In the centre is the periproct bearing the anus; around it are five genital…

A fossil of Echinothuria floris, a species of sea urchin "having the plates of the shell overlapping or movably connected by soft parts." -Whitney, 1911

Urchin Fossil

A fossil of Echinothuria floris, a species of sea urchin "having the plates of the shell overlapping…

The Heart Urchin (Echinocardium cordatum) is sea urchin in the Loveniidae family.

Heart Urchin

The Heart Urchin (Echinocardium cordatum) is sea urchin in the Loveniidae family.

The Hawaiian Rock Urchin (Echinometra oblongata) is a sea urchin, here "with spines in part removed to show the plates of the test." -Whitney, 1911

Hawaiian Rock Urchin

The Hawaiian Rock Urchin (Echinometra oblongata) is a sea urchin, here "with spines in part removed…

Sea urchin: the heavy projections are the spines; the long, slender ones are the tube feet.

Sea Urchin

Sea urchin: the heavy projections are the spines; the long, slender ones are the tube feet.

Phormosoma luculentum is a species of Sea Urchin in the class Echinoidea.

Sea Urchin

Phormosoma luculentum is a species of Sea Urchin in the class Echinoidea.