This science ClipArt gallery offers 242 illustrations of basic concepts, experiments, apparatus, and systems proving properties and concepts in electricity.

"Thomson's absolute electrometer is an adaptation of the attracted disc principle for absolute determinations. We give merely an indication of its different parts, referring to Thomson a paper for details." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Absolute Electrometer

"Thomson's absolute electrometer is an adaptation of the attracted disc principle for absolute determinations.…

An apparatus used for testing the powers of various electric batteries.

Aerial Screw

An apparatus used for testing the powers of various electric batteries.

"The alternator is a dynamo designed for the generation of alternating currents. It has collecting rings instead of a communtator so that the current is delivered just as it is generated, and a small direct current dynamo for engergizing its field magnets, the pole-pieces of which are generally very numerous." -Avery 1895

Alternator

"The alternator is a dynamo designed for the generation of alternating currents. It has collecting rings…

A meter used to test batteries.

Ammeter

A meter used to test batteries.

"Hot-wire instruments working on the sag principle can be used in any position if properly contructed, and are very portable." —Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Hot-wire Ammeter

"Hot-wire instruments working on the sag principle can be used in any position if properly contructed,…

"A much better form of electromagnetic ammeter can be constructed on a principle now extensively employed, which consists in pivoting in the strong field of a permanent magnet a small coil through which a part of the current to be measured is sent." —Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Shunted Movable Coil Ammeter

"A much better form of electromagnetic ammeter can be constructed on a principle now extensively employed,…

"When a current is passed through the instrument it causes one end of the movable system to tilt downwards, and the other end upwards; the sliding weight is then moved along the tray by means of a silk cord until equilibrium is again established." —Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Lord Kelvin's Ampere Balance

"When a current is passed through the instrument it causes one end of the movable system to tilt downwards,…

"An instrument for measuring the strength of an electric current in amperes."-Whitney, 1902

Ampere-meter

"An instrument for measuring the strength of an electric current in amperes."-Whitney, 1902

"In all the arc lamps in common use, the coil, by means of which the automatic maintenance of the arc is kept up, is placed as a shunt across the its poles."—Finley, 1917

Arc lamp

"In all the arc lamps in common use, the coil, by means of which the automatic maintenance of the arc…

"The arc lamp is essentially a device for automatically separating the carbons when the current is turned on, for 'feeding' the carbons together as they are burned away at their tips, and, in some cases, for short-circuiting the lamp in case of irregularity or accident." -Avery 1895

Arc Lamp

"The arc lamp is essentially a device for automatically separating the carbons when the current is turned…

"Illustration showing the detail of a carbon arc lamp; S, solenoid; c, clutch; w, clutch-washer; T, electromagnet; m, short circuit point; R, resistance properly adjusted." -Avery 1895

Detailed Arc Lamp

"Illustration showing the detail of a carbon arc lamp; S, solenoid; c, clutch; w, clutch-washer; T,…

"Differential arc lamp mechanism." —Croft 1917

Differential Arc Lamp

"Differential arc lamp mechanism." —Croft 1917

"Metallic flame arc lamp." —Croft 1917

Metallic Flame Arc Lamp

"Metallic flame arc lamp." —Croft 1917

"Circuits of a multiple series lamp." —Croft 1917

Multiple Series Arc Lamp

"Circuits of a multiple series lamp." —Croft 1917

"Since arc lamps are connected in series, any particular lamp that is to be extinguished must be short-circuited. The dynamo is provided with appliances for maintaining a uniform current strength regardless of the number of lamps in use on its circiuit. When the number of lamps is increased, the voltage of the dynamo is correspondingly increased. ." -Avery 1895

Arc Lamps In Series

"Since arc lamps are connected in series, any particular lamp that is to be extinguished must be short-circuited.…

"Circuits of a series arc lamp." —Croft 1917

Circuits of Arc Lamp

"Circuits of a series arc lamp." —Croft 1917

"Arc lamp mechanism with series regulating coil." —Croft 1917

Arc Lamp Series Regulating Coil

"Arc lamp mechanism with series regulating coil." —Croft 1917

"Arc lamp mechanism with shunt regulating coil." —Croft 1917

Arc Lamp with Shunt Regulating Coil

"Arc lamp mechanism with shunt regulating coil." —Croft 1917

An arc lamp or arc light is the general term for a class of lamps that produce light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc). The lamp consists of two electrodes typically made of tungsten which are separated by a gas.

Arc Light

An arc lamp or arc light is the general term for a class of lamps that produce light by an electric…

Arc lighting, which used two carbon rods conducting electricity to produce light. -Atkinson 1903

Carbon Arc Lighting

Arc lighting, which used two carbon rods conducting electricity to produce light. -Atkinson 1903

"The drum armature differs from the shuttle armature chiefly in that it employs many coils instead of one. The cylindrical iron core is made of thin disks of soft iron in insulated from each other, thus minimizing the 'local currents' and the heating effects thereof." — Avery, 1895

Drum armature

"The drum armature differs from the shuttle armature chiefly in that it employs many coils instead of…

"Gramme ring armature with six coils." — Hawkins, 1917

Gramme ring armature

"Gramme ring armature with six coils." — Hawkins, 1917

"Ring armature of four pole dynamo; diagram of winding and connections, showing direction of the indced currents. the currents in the winding under the upper N and S poles are opposed to each other and flow to the external circuit by the positive brush 1, and back to this half of the armature by the negative brushes 3 and 4...The armature is said to be 'cross connected.' " -Hawkins, 1917

Ring Armature

"Ring armature of four pole dynamo; diagram of winding and connections, showing direction of the indced…

"Consists of a coil of wire wound in two broad grooves plowed on opposite sides of an iron cylinder." — Avery, 1895

Siemens armature

"Consists of a coil of wire wound in two broad grooves plowed on opposite sides of an iron cylinder."…

"Represents in diagram the arrangement of the battery, resistance, and galvanometer. There are two keys, K and K, , placed in the circuit whose uses will be subsequently explained for the present, the diagram will be considered as if these keys did not exist, and as if the current flowed permanently through. the circuits as is indicated by the arrow-heads." (Britannica, 1891)

Arrangement of Battery, Resistance, and Galvanometer

"Represents in diagram the arrangement of the battery, resistance, and galvanometer. There are two keys,…

"The coil is of flat, rectangular shape, with a narrow central opening just large enough to allow one of the magnets of the astatic system to swing freely. The other magnet swings over a graduated circle placed on the top of the coil, and serves also as an index. Sometimes a mirror and scale are substituted for the index and graduated circle. The sole on which the coil stands is movable on a fixed piece which can be levelled by means of three screws." &mdash Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Astatic Multiplier

"The coil is of flat, rectangular shape, with a narrow central opening just large enough to allow one…

A machine that generates electrical charge using friction.

Atkinson Topler-Holtz Machine

A machine that generates electrical charge using friction.

"If an excited substance be brought near a ball made of pith, or cork, suspended by a silk thread, the ball will, in the first place, approach the electric, as at a, indicating an attraction towards it, and if the position of the electric will allow, the ball will come into contact with the electric, and adhere to it for a short time, and whill then recede from it, showing that it is repelled, as at b." -Comstock 1850

Electrical Attraction

"If an excited substance be brought near a ball made of pith, or cork, suspended by a silk thread, the…

"A current is caused to pass from the mercury through C along the radius of the disc A through the field of magnetic force due to the horse-shoe magnet NO. The result is that the wheel rotates in the direction indicated by the arrow." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Barlow Apparatus

"A current is caused to pass from the mercury through C along the radius of the disc A through the field…

"An electric bell consists mainly of an electromagnet, E, and a vibrating armature that carries a hammer, H, that strikes a bell. One terminal of the magnet coils is connected to the binding-post, and the other terminal to the flexible support of the armature. The armature carries a spring that rests lightly against the tip of an adjustable screw at C. This screw is connected to the other binding-post. The bell is connected to a battery of 2 or 3 cells in series, a key, a push-button, P, or some other device for closing the circuit being placed in the line." -Avery 1895

Electric Bell

"An electric bell consists mainly of an electromagnet, E, and a vibrating armature that carries a hammer,…

An illustration of an electric bell. "The magnetizing coils are a a, and they are connected with their terminals at binding posts b1, b2. When these binding posts are connected with the electric current and the circuit is closed, the armature, at d, will be attracted, and will push the hammer e upon the bell. When the armature is attracted, the spring f leaves the screw contact g, against which it rests." -Foster, 1921

Electric Bell

An illustration of an electric bell. "The magnetizing coils are a a, and they are connected with their…

"Boit's experiment which proved tat the charge resides on the surface." -Hawkins, 1917

Boit's Experiment

"Boit's experiment which proved tat the charge resides on the surface." -Hawkins, 1917

This receptacle consists of the metal box designed for connections to a wiring system.

Outlet Box

This receptacle consists of the metal box designed for connections to a wiring system.

A box containing one or more resistance coils.

Resistance Box

A box containing one or more resistance coils.

A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit.

Circuit Breaker

A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit…

A device used to measure an unknown resistance of a resistor by balancing two legs of a bridge circuit.

Wheatstone Bridge

A device used to measure an unknown resistance of a resistor by balancing two legs of a bridge circuit.

An illustration of the connections for a capacity test on a battery.

Connections for Capacity Test

An illustration of the connections for a capacity test on a battery.

Carbon electrodes are formed by molding mixtures of graphite powder and pitch into solid pieces and then heating to high temperatures. The pitch is converted to carbon that holds the structure together.

Carbon Electrode

Carbon electrodes are formed by molding mixtures of graphite powder and pitch into solid pieces and…

This illustration shows rays attracted to a magnet, and exerting force upon the object against which they are striking.

Cathode

This illustration shows rays attracted to a magnet, and exerting force upon the object against which…

"Cavallo's electroscope embodies the double pendulum principle. It consists of two fine silver wires loaded with small pieces of cork or pith, and suspended inside a small glass cylinder. Through the cap which closes the cylinder passes the stout wire from which the pendulums are suspended. This wire ends in a thimble-shaped dome A, which comes down very nearly to the cap; the outside of the cap is part of the wire and covered with sealing wax, and the object of the dome is to keep moisture from the stem, so that the electroscope could be used in the open air even in rainy weather." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Cavallos Electroscope

"Cavallo's electroscope embodies the double pendulum principle. It consists of two fine silver wires…

"Series lighting circuits." —Croft 1920

Series Circuit

"Series lighting circuits." —Croft 1920

A rod with a slender wire coiled loosely around it.

Coil around rod

A rod with a slender wire coiled loosely around it.

A device used to transform electricity into different voltages and amperages.

Induction Coil

A device used to transform electricity into different voltages and amperages.

"If the connections of the armature coils are reversed at the moment when the current in the coils is reversed, the induced currents will all flow in the same direction in the external circuit. There are many different ways of connecting armature coils with their commutators. The numbered loops represent the armature coils joined in series as in the ring armature." — Avery, 1895

Commutator

"If the connections of the armature coils are reversed at the moment when the current in the coils is…

"Condensers of a the flat type, consisting of tin-foil conductors separated by thin, flat dielectric sheets, usually of micca, are much used. To obtain large area, and hence great capacity, they are arranged alternately in two series. A condenser of this type has a capacity of one microfarad, weighs 6 or 7 pounds." — Avery, 1895

Condenser

"Condensers of a the flat type, consisting of tin-foil conductors separated by thin, flat dielectric…

"Construction of condenser for an induction coil." — Hawkins, 1917

Condenser

"Construction of condenser for an induction coil." — Hawkins, 1917

An illustration of a key for a condenser.

Key for Condenser Page

An illustration of a key for a condenser.

An electric condenser made out of electric plates.

Electric Condenser

An electric condenser made out of electric plates.

"When all of the positive plates are connected on one side, and all of the negative plates are connected on the other side, as shown, the cells are said to be joined in parallel, or in multiple arc." -Avery 1895

Parallel Connection

"When all of the positive plates are connected on one side, and all of the negative plates are connected…

"When several cells are conected so that the positive plate of one is joined to the negative plate of the next...they are said to be grouped or joined in series." -Avery 1895

Series Connection

"When several cells are conected so that the positive plate of one is joined to the negative plate of…

"Side view of built up armature core. The sheet metal ring sections containing the teeth are fastened into dovetail notches in the spider as shown." — Hawkins, 1917

Armature core

"Side view of built up armature core. The sheet metal ring sections containing the teeth are fastened…

"One of the best-known instruments of this [electrometer] class is Coulomb's torsion-balance, which consists essentially of gilt ball, i, carried at the end of a horizontal shellac needle that is suspended by a fine silver wire from the top of a tube that rises from the cover of the enclosing glass cylinder. A vertical insulating rod passing through the cover carries a handle, a, and a gilt ball, e, at its ends." -Avery 1895

Coulomb's Torsion-Balance

"One of the best-known instruments of this [electrometer] class is Coulomb's torsion-balance, which…

"Take the zinc from the tumbler of acid and, while it is yet wet, rub thereon a few drops of mercury...replace the zinc in the acid, and notice that no bubbles are given off. Place a copper strip in the solution...bring the strips together at their upper ends as shown. Connect the metals and observe the result." -Avery 1895

Current Electricity

"Take the zinc from the tumbler of acid and, while it is yet wet, rub thereon a few drops of mercury...replace…

In the electrical distribution utility industry a cutout is a combination fuse and switch used in primary overhead feeder lines and taps to protect step down transformers from current surges and overloads.

Electric Cut Out

In the electrical distribution utility industry a cutout is a combination fuse and switch used in primary…

"D is a needle, formed of light silver wire, suspended by a fine glass fiber, from a torsion head A. Below the needle is a piece of sheet metal NE, divided half through by a notch in the middle, and then bent in opposite directions on both sides of the notch, so that, when looked at end on, it appears like a Y." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Dellman's Electrometer

"D is a needle, formed of light silver wire, suspended by a fine glass fiber, from a torsion head A.…

"In the Deprez-d'Arsonval dead-beat galvanometer, a moveable coil is suspended between the poles of a string, permanent U-magnet that is fixed. The coil consists of many turns of fine wire the terminals of which above and below serve as the supporting axis. Within the coil is an iron tube that is supported form the back, and that serves to concentrate the magnetic field. The passage of current turns the coil, and sets it so that its plane encloses a larger number of liens of force. this movement of the coil turns the mirror by means of which the angles of deflection are read with a telescope and scale." -Avery 1895

Deprez-d'Arsonval Dead-Beat Reflecting Galvanometer

"In the Deprez-d'Arsonval dead-beat galvanometer, a moveable coil is suspended between the poles of…

"C is an insulated disc, over which is suspended another disc, hung from the arm of a balance, and connected with the earth. A weight w is put in a scale attached to the other arm of the balance. The insulated disc is connected with the internal armature B of a Leyden jar, whose outer armature is in connection with the suspended disc, Electricity is conveyed to B, and the quantity q measured by a small Lane's jar A, until the electric attraction at C is just sfficient to turn the balance." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Disc Electrometer

"C is an insulated disc, over which is suspended another disc, hung from the arm of a balance, and connected…

"Distrbution of electrification on a charged hollow sphere. If an insulated conductor d be inserted through the opening in the sphere and brought in contact with the interior surface and afterwards carefully removed, it will be found, by testing with the gold leaf electroscope, tat it has recieved no charge. If touched to the outside, however, the conductor will recieve part of the charge." -Hawkins, 1917

Distribution of Charge

"Distrbution of electrification on a charged hollow sphere. If an insulated conductor d be inserted…

"In order to make the winding and connections clear, one coil and the commutator is shown assembled, although the latter is not put in place until after all the sections have been wound, the ends of the wires being temporarily twisted together until all can be soldered to the risers." — Hawkins, 1917

Siemens' drum winding

"In order to make the winding and connections clear, one coil and the commutator is shown assembled,…

"Dry Pile Electroscope." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Dry Pile Electroscope

"Dry Pile Electroscope." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893