The Food Processing Industry ClipArt gallery offers 26 illustrations of food processing equipment and practices.

"The Chinapatam Sugar-mill consists of a mortar made by cutting down some hard-wood tree to within 2 or 3 feet of the ground, and hollowing the top of the portion left standing in the ground into the form of a mortar, A. A small hole is then bored obliquely through from the bottom of the cavity to the outside, and a pipe, f, conveys the juice into a jar, g. B is a cylindrical piece of wood, sharpened at each end, to act as a pestle, which is kept in its place with sufficient pressure by the lever C and the ropes at E. Two men are required: one at I has a basket supplied with small lengths of freshly-cut cane, which he places, two or three at a time, in the mortar, and when necessary, removes the crushed ones; the other man sits on the other end of the train, balancing it, and at the same time drives oxen which are attached to the end of the beam D, and keep the movable parts of the mill constantly turning round." — Chambers, 1881

Chinapatam Sugar-mill

"The Chinapatam Sugar-mill consists of a mortar made by cutting down some hard-wood tree to within 2…

A barrel churn.

Churn

A barrel churn.

A slow cooker is a countertop steam cooking appliance that maintains a relatively low temperature compared to other cooking methods, for hours. This allows unattended cooking of pot roast, stew and other dishes.

Steam Feed Cooker and Evaporator

A slow cooker is a countertop steam cooking appliance that maintains a relatively low temperature compared…

"Jacobs evaporator consists of a plain rectangular shallow pan of any convenient length and width, made with a sheet metal bottom and wooden sides. The side pieces are grooved or notched on the inner faces to receive thin board partitions or divisions, extending from side to side, and separating the pan into any convenient number of compartments. These partitions rest loosely upon the bottom, allowing the juice to flow under from one division to the other, while the scum which rises to the surface as the juice moves slowly along, is held back The division boards fit loosely in the grooves in the sides, and may be changed or removed at pleasure." -Commissioner, 1865

Jacobs Pan

"Jacobs evaporator consists of a plain rectangular shallow pan of any convenient length and width, made…

"The Harris pan has the same general form and construction as the foregoing, except that the partitions are made of metal and riveted to the bottom, with openings at short intervals for the under flow of juice fro one division or compartment to another. The furnace and the fire are so regulated that the juice boils through the entire length of the pan, and the sirup is brought off in a finished state, entering in a continuous stream as green juice, and being discharged continuously from the opposite end as sirup. The partitions being riveted to the bottom, serve to hold the thin metal of which the bottoms are usually composed even and level." -Commission, 1865

Harris pan

"The Harris pan has the same general form and construction as the foregoing, except that the partitions…

"In this mode of evaporating a variety of plans and arrangements for connivence are employed. The pans are made in the form of a shallow box, with a common sheet-iron, galvanized iron, or copper bottom, frequently with flaring sides or shores, on which the scum collects and remains until removed at the convenience of the operator. These pans are frequently made with partitions, which divide them into two or more compartments, into which the juice, as it becomes defecated and partly concentrated in one, is successively transferred to the next." -Commissioner, 1865

Intermittent evaporation process

"In this mode of evaporating a variety of plans and arrangements for connivence are employed. The pans…

"A form of dough-making machine in common use. It consists of a trough or box, the lower portion of which is semi-cylindrical, hung on a spindle, with a series of iron crossbars revolving inside. It is made to be worked by either hand or steam-power, and of various sizes, as required by bakers. In this machine the whole of the operations connected with setting the sponge, breaking the sponge, and mixing the dough, are performed. The gearing is arranged to give a fast motion for setting the sponge, and a slow motion towards the close of the dough making, when it is desireable to draw out the mass in order to give it a "skin," or smooth superficial texture." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Kneading Machine

"A form of dough-making machine in common use. It consists of a trough or box, the lower portion of…

"A kneading-machine of a highly approved form, used in the great Scipion bakery of Paris, the invention of M. Boland. Externally it is like the former, and it is also geared to move at two rates of rapidity. It has further an adjustment by which the force of the motion is increased while its rate is diminished." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Kneading Machine

"A kneading-machine of a highly approved form, used in the great Scipion bakery of Paris, the invention…

"The trough is a castiron basin, which turns on a vertical axis. The interior is provided with a kneader, shaped like a lyre, which first works up the dough and then divides it during the entire period of operation. Two other implements are also used, of a helical form, to draw out and inflate the dough in all directions, part by part, as is practised in kneading by hand." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Kneading Machine

"The trough is a castiron basin, which turns on a vertical axis. The interior is provided with a kneader,…

A bottling machine is a commercial enterprise whose output is the bottling of beverages for distribution. A bottler is a company which mixes drink ingredients and fills up cans and bottles with the drink.

Bottling Machine

A bottling machine is a commercial enterprise whose output is the bottling of beverages for distribution.…

The invention concerns an apparatus and process for making foods coated in bread crumbs. The apparatus has a crumbing apparatus for converting loaves, of bread into bread crumbs; a coating location whereto fresh crumbs are delivered from the crumbing apparatus; and a conveyor for transporting substrate food to the coating location for coating with the crumbs and for transporting coated food away from the coating location.

Bread Crumbing Machine

The invention concerns an apparatus and process for making foods coated in bread crumbs. The apparatus…

The building with its machinery, where grinding or some process of manufacturing is carried on.

Mill

The building with its machinery, where grinding or some process of manufacturing is carried on.

An illustration of Barker's mill.

Barker's Mill

An illustration of Barker's mill.

A grinding mill is a unit operation designed to break a solid material into smaller pieces. The grinding of solid matters occurs under exposure of mechanical forces that trench the structure by overcoming of the interior bonding forces. After the grinding the state of the solid is changed: the grain size, the grain size disposition and the grain shape.

Bed Pan Grinding Mill

A grinding mill is a unit operation designed to break a solid material into smaller pieces. The grinding…

Machining process used to create cider, allowing for different types of apples to be mixed for juicing.

Cider Mill

Machining process used to create cider, allowing for different types of apples to be mixed for juicing.

A mill which grounds grain into flour. This flour mill is located on a body of water.

Floating Flour Mill

A mill which grounds grain into flour. This flour mill is located on a body of water.

A grinding mill is a unit operation designed to break a solid material into smaller pieces. There are many different types of grinding mills and many types of materials processed in them. "A, bedstone; b, runner; e, step or ink; f, bridge-tree; n, eye; o, hoop; p, hopper; q, shoe; r, sprout; s, damsel; 2, lighter-screw; 3, husk." -Century, 1889

Grinding Mill

A grinding mill is a unit operation designed to break a solid material into smaller pieces. There are…

A grinding mill is a unit operation designed to break a solid material into smaller pieces. There are many different types of grinding mills and many types of materials processed in them. "A, bedstone; b, runner; g, bush; h, spindle; i, driver; j, balancerynd; k, cockeye; l, cockhead; n, eye; p, hopper; q, shoe; s, damsel." -Century, 1889

Grinding Mill

A grinding mill is a unit operation designed to break a solid material into smaller pieces. There are…

This tool was used to break a larger material into smaller pieces or sections.

Grinding Mill

This tool was used to break a larger material into smaller pieces or sections.

Women grinding grain in a mortar. The hole for receiving the grain was in the center of the upper millstone, and in the operation of grinding the lower stone was filed and the upper stone turned by means of a handle. The meal came out at the edges and was collected on a cloth spread under the mill  on the ground.

Using A Mortar

Women grinding grain in a mortar. The hole for receiving the grain was in the center of the upper millstone,…

An illustration of a cheese press

Cheese Press

An illustration of a cheese press

This machine is for sizing oranges, featuring an orange guide way. The discharge points determine the various sizes of the oranges, whereby oranges will be caught between the surfaces of the roller and the guide way.

Orange Sizer

This machine is for sizing oranges, featuring an orange guide way. The discharge points determine the…

"This term is applied indiscriminately to evaporators with steam-pipe, whether arranged in the form of a coil, or, as more commonly used, in a rectangular series, In some the steam is admitted through a main pipe, from which others lead off at right angles, terminating in a similar main, which receives and carries off the condensed water of all...Still another, and the most convenient plan, thought not without some objectives, consists in admitting the steam at one end of the coil allowing it to ass progressively through the whole, driving the condensed water, which it will do, though imperfectly, before it." -Commissioner, 1865

Steam-coil evaporator

"This term is applied indiscriminately to evaporators with steam-pipe, whether arranged in the form…

A filter, sieve, or the like for straining liquids.

Pulp Separation Strainer

A filter, sieve, or the like for straining liquids.

"The vacuum-pan is in universal use in all European sugar-refineries, and in all well-provided sugar-plantations. It is generally made of copper, of a spherical form, and from six to nine feet in diameter. The bottom is double, leaving a space of an inch or two for the admission of steam between the two bottoms, and there is generally a long coiled copper pipe of three or four inches diameter above the inner bottom, so as to still further increase the amount of heating surface." — Chambers, 1881

Vacuum-pan

"The vacuum-pan is in universal use in all European sugar-refineries, and in all well-provided sugar-plantations.…

"This machine consists of two vertical shafts, carrying radial arms. These arms pass each other in opposite directions, so that, in addition to a tearing action on the dough, which the knives have on passing each other, they have a screw action, pressing the dough down on one side and up on the other. The vessels containing the dough are made of wood, of an oval form, to correspong with the action of the machine." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Vertical Mixer

"This machine consists of two vertical shafts, carrying radial arms. These arms pass each other in opposite…