This science ClipArt gallery offers 497 illustrations of geology, including structure and composition of land, minerals, and fossilized organisms.

The continents during this age consisted mainly of large, flat, marshy areas, covered with luxuriant vegetation.

Carboniferous Landscape

The continents during this age consisted mainly of large, flat, marshy areas, covered with luxuriant…

Cataract Creek rises on the slopes of Mount Bullengarook and drains across the lava flow towards the south to join Pyrites Creek. Upper Cataract Creek, near Big Canon, Colorado.

Cataract Creek

Cataract Creek rises on the slopes of Mount Bullengarook and drains across the lava flow towards the…

Cross-section of the Caucasus along the Grusinian military road. Dark beds are lava streams.

Caucasus

Cross-section of the Caucasus along the Grusinian military road. Dark beds are lava streams.

A cave is a natural underground void large enough for a human to enter.

Cave

A cave is a natural underground void large enough for a human to enter.

An illustration of a cliff with with a cave. A cave is a natural underground void large enough for a human to enter.

Cave

An illustration of a cliff with with a cave. A cave is a natural underground void large enough for a…

"Diagram to illustrate the form and relations of caverns developed by solution. The black spaces represent caverns. Some limestone sinks are represented at the surface where the roofs of caves have fallen in." -Salisbury, 1919

Cavern Formation

"Diagram to illustrate the form and relations of caverns developed by solution. The black spaces represent…

Diagram of a cavern, showing different levels of the underground stream.

Diagram of a Cavern

Diagram of a cavern, showing different levels of the underground stream.

"Section of a Limestone Cavern...A limestone hill, perforated by a cavern (b b) which communicates with the valley (v) by an opening (a). The bottom of the cavern is covered with ossiferous loam, above which lies a layer of stalagmite (d d), while stalactites hang from the roof, and by joining the floor separate the cavern into two chambers." -Geikie, 1893

Limestone Cavern

"Section of a Limestone Cavern...A limestone hill, perforated by a cavern (b b) which communicates with…

"Section of a Limestone Cavern with fallen-in roof and concealed entrance." -Geikie, 1893

Limestone Cavern

"Section of a Limestone Cavern with fallen-in roof and concealed entrance." -Geikie, 1893

A section of a cave created by percolated rain water.

Caves

A section of a cave created by percolated rain water.

Block diagram of the cuestas and lowlands of Central England.

Lowlands of Central England

Block diagram of the cuestas and lowlands of Central England.

Thin sections of chalk, as they appear under the microscope.

Chalk

Thin sections of chalk, as they appear under the microscope.

Thin sections of chalk as seen under the microscope.

Sections of Chalk

Thin sections of chalk as seen under the microscope.

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Chrysalidina gradata. These shells are mostly very small, and yet through their abundance they have been very important in limestone-making.

Chrysalidina Gradata

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Chrysalidina gradata. These shells are mostly very small,…

Natural and columnar sections at each end and in the center of a line 100 miles long and extending at right angles to the original shore line.

Clastic Deposits in the Sea

Natural and columnar sections at each end and in the center of a line 100 miles long and extending at…

Clay-iron stone concretion, Connecticut valley.

Clay-iron Stone Concretion

Clay-iron stone concretion, Connecticut valley.

Work of the waves in cutting away rocky coasts. Cliffs of Normandy; the coast has been cut back so far that the tributaries of the old river systems now enter the sea independently.

Cliffs of Normandy

Work of the waves in cutting away rocky coasts. Cliffs of Normandy; the coast has been cut back so far…

A homemade clinometer, an instrument used for measuring angles of slope.

Clinometer

A homemade clinometer, an instrument used for measuring angles of slope.

Diagram illustrating gently inclined strata, with the clinometer in proper position to measure the dip at right angles to the strike.

Clinometer Measuring Inclined Strata

Diagram illustrating gently inclined strata, with the clinometer in proper position to measure the dip…

This illustration shows coal-beds with stumps of trees rising out of the coal. The stumps always stand vertically on the bed, however much the latter may be displaced, showing that the bed was horizontal when it was formed, or when the trees were growing.

Coal Beds

This illustration shows coal-beds with stumps of trees rising out of the coal. The stumps always stand…

"Plan of coast-bars and lagoons. Coast of Florida." -Geikie, 1893

Coast Bars

"Plan of coast-bars and lagoons. Coast of Florida." -Geikie, 1893

The costal plain of an overlapping strata after the development of subsequent streams and the formation of an inner lowland. The remnant of the coastal plain now forms a cuesta ending landward in an inface, and transected by the consequent stream valley.

Coastal Plain

The costal plain of an overlapping strata after the development of subsequent streams and the formation…

Diagrammatic section of coastal plain strata formed in a retreating sea (off-lapping series).

Coastal Plain Strata

Diagrammatic section of coastal plain strata formed in a retreating sea (off-lapping series).

A mass of coccoliths; a marine pelagic plant of low order covered with calcereous plates.

Coccolithophora

A mass of coccoliths; a marine pelagic plant of low order covered with calcereous plates.

This illustration shows a more or less perfect columnar structure, due to constraction on cooling, is exemplified often by igneous rocks.

Columnar Rock

This illustration shows a more or less perfect columnar structure, due to constraction on cooling, is…

Diagram showing the relationship of the strata in five successive sections, in a compound regressive-transgressive series. The intercalated sandstone xy encloses the hiatus.

Compound Regressive-Transgressive Series

Diagram showing the relationship of the strata in five successive sections, in a compound regressive-transgressive…

Development of concentric ridges in anticlinal structures. A) An anticlinal or cigar-shaped mountain results from the position of the hard rock. B) The anticlinal mountain A is replaced by an anticlinal valley because of the position of the strata.

Concentric Ridges in Anticlinal Structures

Development of concentric ridges in anticlinal structures. A) An anticlinal or cigar-shaped mountain…

Development of concentric ridges in synclines. A) a region with synclinal or canoe-shaped folds. B) The synclinal valley shown in A is replaced by a mountain because of the occurrence of a hard stratum in the center.

Concentric Ridges in Synclines

Development of concentric ridges in synclines. A) a region with synclinal or canoe-shaped folds. B)…

A mineral having convex elevations and concave depressins looking like shells.

Conchoidal

A mineral having convex elevations and concave depressins looking like shells.

This illustration shows a rock made up of rounded concretions, having a concentric structure.

Concretionary Structure

This illustration shows a rock made up of rounded concretions, having a concentric structure.

This illustration shows a rock made up of flattened or disk-shaped concretions.

Concretionary Structure

This illustration shows a rock made up of flattened or disk-shaped concretions.

This illustration shows a rock made up of all kinds of concretionary objects.

Concretionary Structure

This illustration shows a rock made up of all kinds of concretionary objects.

"Curved and contorted rocks, near Old Head of Kinsale." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Contorted Rocks

"Curved and contorted rocks, near Old Head of Kinsale." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Hall's Experiment illustrating contortion" of rocks." -Geikie, 1893

Contortion of Rocks

"Hall's Experiment illustrating contortion" of rocks." -Geikie, 1893

This is an illustration of a relatively flat island, surrounded by coral-reefs.

Coral Island

This is an illustration of a relatively flat island, surrounded by coral-reefs.

Chain-coral (Halysites catenulatus).

Chain-Coral

Chain-coral (Halysites catenulatus).

Section of Corndon Hill, in Shropshire, England; the type of the phacolith.

Corndon Hill

Section of Corndon Hill, in Shropshire, England; the type of the phacolith.

Section of Crater Lake and its rim, with the probable outline of Mount Mazama.

Crater Lake

Section of Crater Lake and its rim, with the probable outline of Mount Mazama.

Profile section of Crater Lake National Park.

Crater Lake National Park

Profile section of Crater Lake National Park.

Craterlets formed during the Calabrian earthquake of 1783.

Craterlets

Craterlets formed during the Calabrian earthquake of 1783.

Cromlech: Lanyon Quoit near Penzance.

Cromlech

Cromlech: Lanyon Quoit near Penzance.

Cross-bedding of the Eolian type in the Orange sand or La Fayette Formation, Mississippi Central Railroad, Oxford, Mississippi.

Eolian Cross-bedding

Cross-bedding of the Eolian type in the Orange sand or La Fayette Formation, Mississippi Central Railroad,…

Eolian type of cross-bedding in ancient limestones, formed of uniform lime-sand grains south of St. Louis.

Eolian Cross-bedding

Eolian type of cross-bedding in ancient limestones, formed of uniform lime-sand grains south of St.…

Eolian type of cross-bedding in ancient limestones, formed of uniform lime-sand grains south of St. Louis.

Eolian Cross-bedding

Eolian type of cross-bedding in ancient limestones, formed of uniform lime-sand grains south of St.…

Natural Crystal. 1, Fluorite.

Crystal

Natural Crystal. 1, Fluorite.

Block diagram illustrating the formation of three cuestas and lowlands by normal drainage on the peneplaned strata which surround the old Ontario dome on the south and west.

Cuestas and Lowlands

Block diagram illustrating the formation of three cuestas and lowlands by normal drainage on the peneplaned…

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Cuneolina pavonia. These shells are mostly very small, and yet through their abundance they have been very important in limestone-making.

Cuneolina Pavonia

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Cuneolina pavonia. These shells are mostly very small,…

"Cut Gems. A, brilliant; B, rose; C, goute de suif; D, en cabochon." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Cut Gems

"Cut Gems. A, brilliant; B, rose; C, goute de suif; D, en cabochon." —The Encyclopedia Britannica,…

Diagrammatic cross-section of a cut off basin, and the deposits formed in it after complete evaporation.

Cut-off Basin

Diagrammatic cross-section of a cut off basin, and the deposits formed in it after complete evaporation.

In the Dakotah (Dakota) Territory, the area know as the Bad Lands, is a sunken area thirty miles wide and ninety miles long. It is a type of arid terrain where softer sedimentary rocks and clay-rich soils have been extensively eroded by wind and water. From the bottom of this sunken plain rise domes, pinnacles, monuments, and massive walls. The most impressive feature of this scene is the multitude of fossil bones which appear built into the massive masonry of this mimic architecture.

Bad Lands of Dakota

In the Dakotah (Dakota) Territory, the area know as the Bad Lands, is a sunken area thirty miles wide…

"Deformation of shale by porphyry, Burlington Railroad, east of Whitetail Gulch." -Walcott, 1901

Shale Deformation

"Deformation of shale by porphyry, Burlington Railroad, east of Whitetail Gulch." -Walcott, 1901

Devil's Wall (Teufelsmauer) near Oschitz, Bohemia. A basaltic dike.

Devil's Wall

Devil's Wall (Teufelsmauer) near Oschitz, Bohemia. A basaltic dike.

"Diabantite, ore material, and agate in vesicle of main basalt. The radial mass occupying the center is diabantite, the opaque material surrounding it is magnetite or ilmenite, and the outer rim is agate." -Walcott, 1901

Diabantite

"Diabantite, ore material, and agate in vesicle of main basalt. The radial mass occupying the center…

"The largest diamond ever found in Brazil weighed 254 and a half carats, and was discovered in 1853 by a [African-American] in the river Bogageno; it is known as the "Star of the South." It was sold to the Gaekwar of Baroda for $450,000."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Star of the South Diamond

"The largest diamond ever found in Brazil weighed 254 and a half carats, and was discovered in 1853…

"Another important diamond is the one at the point of the scepter of the Russian empire, known as the Orloff, which weighs 194 and three quarters carats. At one time it formed the eye of an idol in the temple of Seringham in Mysore, whence it was stolen. It was in the throne of Nadir Shah, and after his murder it was bought by an Armenian merchant in 1772 at the price of 450,000 silver rubles and the title of nobility. By the gift of Prince Orloff, a favorite of Catherine II., from whom it derived its name, it came into her possession. Some writers believe that this and the Koh-i-Nur are the two parts of the 'Great Mogul' diamond."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

The Great Mogul Diamond

"Another important diamond is the one at the point of the scepter of the Russian empire, known as the…

"Most of the great diamonds distinguished for beauty and size have very interesting histories. one of the most famous is the Koh-i-Nur, or Koohinoor, 'Mountain of Light.' The legend is that it was carried by the hero Karna, whose deeds are celebrated in the 'Mahabharata.' It made its first appearance in history in the 14th century, when Ala-ed-din brought it to Delhi. At that time it was supposed to weigh 793 carats."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

The Kohinur Diamond

"Most of the great diamonds distinguished for beauty and size have very interesting histories. one of…

A major group of eukaryotic algae, one of the most common type of phytoplankton. Most diatoms are unicelular, although some form chains or simple colonies.

Diatom

A major group of eukaryotic algae, one of the most common type of phytoplankton. Most diatoms are unicelular,…

Dikes at the base of the Serra del Solfizio, Etna.

Dikes

Dikes at the base of the Serra del Solfizio, Etna.

"Dip, in geology, the name given to the angle of slope of inclined rock strata, as dip in the diagram...The horizontal direction at right angles to the line of dip is called the strike, shown by st in the diagram." -Foster, 1921

Dip

"Dip, in geology, the name given to the angle of slope of inclined rock strata, as dip in the diagram...The…

"Section showing displacement of strata by a fault. a and a were once a continuous mass of rock." -Whitney, 1911

Displacement of Strata

"Section showing displacement of strata by a fault. a and a were once a continuous mass of rock." -Whitney,…