This science ClipArt gallery offers 497 illustrations of geology, including structure and composition of land, minerals, and fossilized organisms.

Distortions of fossils from uplifting: 1) natural form of the shell Spirifer disjunctus (1-4), 2) shortened one-half, 3) shortened above the middle and lengthened below it, 4) upper pressed, lower drawn out, 5) like 3, 6) similar cleavage-plane, 7) lower part prolonged, 8) natural form of Spirifer giganteus (5-8).

Distortion of Fossils

Distortions of fossils from uplifting: 1) natural form of the shell Spirifer disjunctus (1-4), 2) shortened…

"Hexagonal-rhombohedral. Crystals are usually the unit rhombohedron (cleavage rhombohedron). Faces often curved, and sometimes so acurately as to form "saddle-shaped" crystals. Other forms rare." — Ford, 1912

Dolomite

"Hexagonal-rhombohedral. Crystals are usually the unit rhombohedron (cleavage rhombohedron). Faces often…

"Drainage which has been influenced by joints." -Walcott, 1901

Drainage Streamlets

"Drainage which has been influenced by joints." -Walcott, 1901

Drift material, loose material left on the surface by a retiring glacier, plays a part in wells and springs. (a) Beds of clay variously disiposed in a mass of sandy materials. (b) Wells sunk in different situations, and finding a supply of water only when a bed of clay is reached. A well on top of a hill may be shallower than one at the foot. (c) The surface of the earth. (d) Outcrop bed of clay, causing a spring. If the porous materials contain fragments of limestones, these spring waters are hard, and d. A well carried below its supplying-bed may lose its water again.

Phenomena of Wells and Springs in Drift Material

Drift material, loose material left on the surface by a retiring glacier, plays a part in wells and…

"Sand-dunes affecting land-drainage." -Geikie, 1893

Dunes

"Sand-dunes affecting land-drainage." -Geikie, 1893

Earth pillars protected by a cap of rock and due to rain erosion, Colorado.

Earth Pillars

Earth pillars protected by a cap of rock and due to rain erosion, Colorado.

A street in Charleston after the earthquake in 1886.

Earthquake

A street in Charleston after the earthquake in 1886.

On August 31, 1886, Charleston was nearly destroyed by an earthquake measuring 7.5 on the Richter scale that was felt as far away as Boston and Bermuda.

Results of the Earthquake in Charleston S.C., Aug. 31, 1886

On August 31, 1886, Charleston was nearly destroyed by an earthquake measuring 7.5 on the Richter scale…

Model of a part of the path traveled by a particle on the earth's surface during the earthquake of Tokyo, January 15, 1887.

Earthquake Path

Model of a part of the path traveled by a particle on the earth's surface during the earthquake of Tokyo,…

Diagrammatic representation of the propagation of the earthquake waves and their record by the seismograph in different parts of the earth.

Earthquake Waves

Diagrammatic representation of the propagation of the earthquake waves and their record by the seismograph…

Transverse section of the great ore chamber in the Emma mine, Utah.

Emma mine, Utah

Transverse section of the great ore chamber in the Emma mine, Utah.

Eolianite or aeolianite is any rock formed by the lithification of sediment deposited by aeolian processes; that is, the wind. In common use, however, the term refers specifically to most common form of eolianite: coastal limestone consisting of carbonate sediment of shallow marine biogenic origin, formed into coastal dunes by the wind, and subsequently lithified. It is also known as kurkar in the Middle East, miliolite in India and Arabia, and gres dunaire in the eastern Mediterranean.

Eolianite

Eolianite or aeolianite is any rock formed by the lithification of sediment deposited by aeolian processes;…

In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguishes it from contiguous layers. Each layer is generally one of a number of parallel layers that lie one upon another, laid down by natural forces. They may extend over hundreds of thousands of square kilometers of the Earth's surface. Strata are typically seen as bands of different colored or differently structured material. Individual bands may vary in thickness from a few millimeters to a kilometer or more. Each band represents a specific mode of deposition -- river silt, beach sand, coal swamp, sand dune, lava bed, etc. Eozoic strata pertains to rocks or strata older that the Paleozoic, in many of which the eozoön has been found.

Eozoic Strata

In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of rock or soil with internally…

Eroded anticlines with horizontal and with pitching axes. In the first case the strata crop out in parallel series, the oldest at the center; in the second case they converge in the direction of pitch.

Eroded Anticlines

Eroded anticlines with horizontal and with pitching axes. In the first case the strata crop out in parallel…

The curious effect of erosion. This was created by the wind.

Erosion

The curious effect of erosion. This was created by the wind.

This illustration shows a cliff, having its lower layers near the level of low tide, extending out as a platform a hundred yards wide.

Erosion

This illustration shows a cliff, having its lower layers near the level of low tide, extending out as…

"Diagram illustrating development of erosion profiles on laccolith domes." -Walcott, 1901

Erosion Development

"Diagram illustrating development of erosion profiles on laccolith domes." -Walcott, 1901

"Maps to illustrate the supposed stages in the erosion history of the Pomperaug River." -Walcott, 1901

Erosion Stages

"Maps to illustrate the supposed stages in the erosion history of the Pomperaug River." -Walcott, 1901

Erosion is the removal of solids (sediment, soil, rock and other particles) in the natural environment. It usually occurs due to transport by wind, water, or ice; by down-slope creep of soil and other material under the force of gravity; or by living organisms, such as burrowing animals, in the case of bioerosion. This figure shows the effects of erosion on the rock formation along the coast of the Mendocino Coast in California.

Mendocino Coast Erosion

Erosion is the removal of solids (sediment, soil, rock and other particles) in the natural environment.…

Diagrams showing the origins of eskers. A) A tunnel under the ice, nearly filled with sand and gravel by the subglacial stream which built up its bed to the level of the outlet. B) The same deposit after the ice melting of the supporting ice walls. Slumping has produced the characteristic steep side slopes.

Origin of Eskers

Diagrams showing the origins of eskers. A) A tunnel under the ice, nearly filled with sand and gravel…

Diagram illustrating change in facies of marine clastics, from sands and muds near the shore to calcareous beds near coral reefs, etc. Note also the overlap of the successive formations.

Change in Facies

Diagram illustrating change in facies of marine clastics, from sands and muds near the shore to calcareous…

The grandest falls in the world are those of the Niagara, 160 feet high. Though greatly inferior to many others in height, yet their volume of water is so great that they surpass all others in grandeur.

The Falls of Niagara

The grandest falls in the world are those of the Niagara, 160 feet high. Though greatly inferior to…

"Section of a clean-cut fault." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Fault

"Section of a clean-cut fault." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Section of strats, bent at a line of fault." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Fault

"Section of strats, bent at a line of fault." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Reversed fault, Liddlesdale." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Fault

"Reversed fault, Liddlesdale." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Plan of strata cut by a dip-fault." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Fault

"Plan of strata cut by a dip-fault." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

The image shows the displacement in the strata of rock that is caused by a geological fault.

Fault

The image shows the displacement in the strata of rock that is caused by a geological fault.

Fault in the round tower of Terranuova in Calabria occasioned by the earthquake of 1783.

Fault in Terranuova

Fault in the round tower of Terranuova in Calabria occasioned by the earthquake of 1783.

A fault line valley. A fault line, is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect to the rock on the other side.

Fault Line Valley

A fault line valley. A fault line, is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the…

An illustration of a clean-cut fault.

Clean-cut Fault

An illustration of a clean-cut fault.

An illustration of a dip fault disrupting the plan of strata.

Dip Fault

An illustration of a dip fault disrupting the plan of strata.

Diagram illustrating drag of strata along a fault plane.

Drag

Diagram illustrating drag of strata along a fault plane.

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect to the rock on the other side. Here, the arrow indicates the downthrow side.

Gravity Fault

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect…

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect to the rock on the other side. Here, the arrow indicates the downthrow side.

Gravity Fault

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect…

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect to the rock on the other side. Here, the arrow indicates the downthrow side.

Gravity Fault

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect…

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect to the rock on the other side. Here, the arrow indicates the downthrow side.

Gravity Fault

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect…

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect to the rock on the other side. Here, the arrow indicates the downthrow side.

Gravity Fault

A fault is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect…

A reverse fault is the opposite of a normal fault — the hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall. Reverse faults are indicative of shortening of the crust. The dip of a reverse fault is relatively steep, greater than 45°.

Reverse Fault

A reverse fault is the opposite of a normal fault — the hanging wall moves up relative to the…

"Diagram showing a reverse or overthrust fault (b)." -Lee, 1915

Reverse Fault

"Diagram showing a reverse or overthrust fault (b)." -Lee, 1915

"The two faults of larger throw, by which a single sheet of trap is represented in three ridges, are proved by the threefold repetition of series of beds comprising sandstone, conglomerate, and amygdaloidal trap, shale, and heavy trap." -Walcott, 1901

Strike Fault

"The two faults of larger throw, by which a single sheet of trap is represented in three ridges, are…

A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust with resulting movement of each side against the other. Here, the arrow indicates the upthrust side.

Thrust Fault

A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust with resulting movement of each side…

A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust with resulting movement of each side against the other. Here, the arrow indicates the upthrust side.

Thrust Fault

A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust with resulting movement of each side…

A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust with resulting movement of each side against the other. Here, the arrow indicates the upthrust side.

Thrust Fault

A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust with resulting movement of each side…

A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust with resulting movement of each side against the other. Here, the arrow indicates the upthrust side.

Thrust Fault

A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust with resulting movement of each side…

Diagram illustrating the offset of strata produced by vertical slipping along an inclined plane, when the fault is oblique with reference to the strata. The dotted outline restores the fault scarp and gives the appearance immediately after faulting, before erosion has removed this portion of the block.

Thrust Fault Diagram

Diagram illustrating the offset of strata produced by vertical slipping along an inclined plane, when…

An illustration of a trough fault.

Trough Fault

An illustration of a trough fault.

Diagram illustrating various types of fault.

Various Types of Fault

Diagram illustrating various types of fault.

Diagram illustrating block faulting, and the initial stage in the formation of block mountains.

Block Faulting

Diagram illustrating block faulting, and the initial stage in the formation of block mountains.

"Diagram showing normal faults (a)." -Lee, 1915

Normal Faults

"Diagram showing normal faults (a)." -Lee, 1915

"Fossil Oolitic fish tooth…section of tooth magnified." -Taylor, 1904

Fish Tooth Fossil

"Fossil Oolitic fish tooth…section of tooth magnified." -Taylor, 1904

Diagram of an ancient fissure in fine Upper Silurian limestone, etc., filled with rounded grains of sand, secondarily enlarged, and including fragments of the wall rock.

Fissure in Limestone

Diagram of an ancient fissure in fine Upper Silurian limestone, etc., filled with rounded grains of…

Fissures produced by the Charleston Earthquake of 1886.

Fissures

Fissures produced by the Charleston Earthquake of 1886.

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Flabellina rugosa. These shells are mostly very small, and yet through their abundance they have been very important in limestone-making.

Flabellina rugosa

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Flabellina rugosa. These shells are mostly very small,…

Section across the Livingston and Lewis ranges, with the Flattop Mountain, a synclinal mountain, and Chief Mountain, a remnant of an overthrust fault block. The strata are more complexly folded than is here shown.

Flattop Mountain, a Synclinal Mountain

Section across the Livingston and Lewis ranges, with the Flattop Mountain, a synclinal mountain, and…

This illustration shows a rock formation with folds or flexures in strata. a x represents the axis or axial plane of the fold.

Flexures

This illustration shows a rock formation with folds or flexures in strata. a x represents the axis or…

Machine for producing folded strata.

Machine for Producing Folded Strata

Machine for producing folded strata.

"Fossil Foraminifera (Nummulites) in limestone." -Thomson, 1916

Foraminifera

"Fossil Foraminifera (Nummulites) in limestone." -Thomson, 1916

When the remains of an animal or plant are exposed to the air or buried in dry earth, they generally decompose and pass off almost entirely as gasses; but when buried under water or in damp earth, their preservation is probable. Therefore, the species most likely to become fossilized are those living in water or marshes, or in the neighborhood of water or marshes.

Fossil Encrinite

When the remains of an animal or plant are exposed to the air or buried in dry earth, they generally…

"Fossil Plant from Coal Measures of Pennsylvania."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Fossil Plant

"Fossil Plant from Coal Measures of Pennsylvania."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

"Microscopical section of Fossil Wood, from clay iron-stone nodules; Oldham." -Taylor, 1904

Fossil Wood

"Microscopical section of Fossil Wood, from clay iron-stone nodules; Oldham." -Taylor, 1904