This science ClipArt gallery offers 497 illustrations of geology, including structure and composition of land, minerals, and fossilized organisms.

A natural fountain of water springing out of a body of water.

Fountain

A natural fountain of water springing out of a body of water.

Diagrammatic section through the Freiburg region showing the former and present topography and the extensive erosion.

Freiburg Region

Diagrammatic section through the Freiburg region showing the former and present topography and the extensive…

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Frondicularia Annularis. These shells are mostly very small, and yet through their abundance they have been very important in limestone-making.

Frondicularia Annularis

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Frondicularia Annularis. These shells are mostly very small,…

Disgrams illustrating the mode of formation of the frontal apron-plain and its relation to the terminal moraine.

Frontal Apron Plain

Disgrams illustrating the mode of formation of the frontal apron-plain and its relation to the terminal…

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Fusulina cylindrica. These shells are mostly very small, and yet through their abundance they have been very important in limestone-making.

Fusulina Cylindrica

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Fusulina cylindrica. These shells are mostly very small,…

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Fusulina cylindrica. These shells are mostly very small, and yet through their abundance they have been very important in limestone-making.

Fusulina Cylindrica

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Fusulina cylindrica. These shells are mostly very small,…

Fusulina cylindrica, a typical foraminiferal shell forming rocks in the later Paleozoic. A single shell enlarged and partly sectioned to show interior.

Fusulina Cylindrica

Fusulina cylindrica, a typical foraminiferal shell forming rocks in the later Paleozoic. A single shell…

Ganoids were ancient fish from the Paleozoic time. The image is of the Holoptychius.

Ganoid

Ganoids were ancient fish from the Paleozoic time. The image is of the Holoptychius.

"Garnets distributed through a mica schist." -Dana, 1883

Garnet

"Garnets distributed through a mica schist." -Dana, 1883

"Gem Sculpture is the glyptic art, or lithoglyptics; the art of representing designs on precious stones, either in raised work (cameos) or by figures cut into or below the surface (intaglios)."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Intaglio Engraved Gem

"Gem Sculpture is the glyptic art, or lithoglyptics; the art of representing designs on precious stones,…

Section of the lower Genesee River from Lake Ontario to Rochester, N.Y.

Genesee River

Section of the lower Genesee River from Lake Ontario to Rochester, N.Y.

"A concretionary stone or pebble, hollow inside, and often having the walls of the cavity lined with crystals." -Whitney, 1911

Quartz Geode

"A concretionary stone or pebble, hollow inside, and often having the walls of the cavity lined with…

Geysers are boiling springs which, at intervals more or less regular, shoot out huge columns of water with great violence.

Geyser in Eruption

Geysers are boiling springs which, at intervals more or less regular, shoot out huge columns of water…

Giant Geyser of the Yellowstone. The eruptions of this geyser occur at intervals of 7 to 12 days, and last for full 60 minutes at each eruption. The column is thrown to heights of 200 to 250 feet.

Giant Geyser of the Yellowstone

Giant Geyser of the Yellowstone. The eruptions of this geyser occur at intervals of 7 to 12 days, and…

"GEYSERITE. The variety of opaline silica deposited about the orifices of geysers. It occurs white or grayish, porous, in stalactitic, filamentous, or cauliflower-like forms." -Whitney, 1911

Geyserite

"GEYSERITE. The variety of opaline silica deposited about the orifices of geysers. It occurs white or…

Icelandic geysers "The Geyser" and "Strokr."

Icelandic Geysers

Icelandic geysers "The Geyser" and "Strokr."

Modern Foraminiferal types - Globigerina.

Globigerina

Modern Foraminiferal types - Globigerina.

Globigerina ooze from the deep sea. Besides the foraminiferal shells there are pteropods, ostracods, and other organic structures.

Globigerina Ooze

Globigerina ooze from the deep sea. Besides the foraminiferal shells there are pteropods, ostracods,…

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Globigerina rubra. These shells are mostly very small, and yet through their abundance they have been very important in limestone-making.

Globigerina Rubra

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Globigerina rubra. These shells are mostly very small,…

Goethite is a mineral composed of an iron hydrate crystallizing in soil and other low temperature environments.

Goethite

Goethite is a mineral composed of an iron hydrate crystallizing in soil and other low temperature environments.

"An important part of the study of crystallography consists in the measuring and classifying of the interfacial angles on the crystals of all minerals. These measurements are accomplished by means of instruments known as goniometers." — Ford, 1912

Contact goniometer

"An important part of the study of crystallography consists in the measuring and classifying of the…

A grain of sand as it appears under a microscope.

Grain of Sand

A grain of sand as it appears under a microscope.

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Grammostomum phyllodes. These shells are mostly very small, and yet through their abundance they have been very important in limestone-making.

Grammostomum Phyllodes

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Grammostomum phyllodes. These shells are mostly very small,…

Granite texture, holocrystalline.

Granite

Granite texture, holocrystalline.

"Section showing Granite nucleus, with strata lying on its flanks, the overlapping and continuous portions of which have been denuded off." -Taylor, 1904

Granite Section

"Section showing Granite nucleus, with strata lying on its flanks, the overlapping and continuous portions…

"Various species of Graptolites, from the Silurian rocks." -Taylor, 1904

Graptolites

"Various species of Graptolites, from the Silurian rocks." -Taylor, 1904

"Block of Stone containing Graptolites. GRAPTOLITE. A specimen or a species of Paleozoic coelenterate organisms, commonly supposed to be hydrozoans, resembling the living sertularians." -Whitney, 1911

Graptolites in Stone

"Block of Stone containing Graptolites. GRAPTOLITE. A specimen or a species of Paleozoic coelenterate…

"Suppose a to be a gravel hill, and b a strata of clay or rock, impervious to water. The fluid percolating through the gravel would reach the impervious strata, along which it would run until it found an outlet at c at the foot of the hill, where a spring would be formed." — Wells, 1857

Gravel Hill

"Suppose a to be a gravel hill, and b a strata of clay or rock, impervious to water. The fluid percolating…

"Diagram illustrating the position of the groundwater surface (the dotted line) in a region of undulating topography." -Salisbury, 1919

Groundwater Position

"Diagram illustrating the position of the groundwater surface (the dotted line) in a region of undulating…

The diagram shows the source of groundwater: water falls into porous ground (a), flows underground to be brought to the surface in another location.

Groundwater Source

The diagram shows the source of groundwater: water falls into porous ground (a), flows underground to…

Work of the waves in cutting away rocky coasts. Successive stages in the destruction of the island of Helgoland.

Destruction of Helgoland

Work of the waves in cutting away rocky coasts. Successive stages in the destruction of the island of…

Hemimorphite is a sorosilicate mineral consisting of hydrous zinc silicate.

Hemimorphite

Hemimorphite is a sorosilicate mineral consisting of hydrous zinc silicate.

Hesperus Mountain, showing wedges and sheets of trachyte intruded into the shales, from the laccolith of Mt. Moss.

Hesperus Mountain

Hesperus Mountain, showing wedges and sheets of trachyte intruded into the shales, from the laccolith…

Heulandite is the name of a series of tecto-silicate minerals of the zeolite group.

Heulandite

Heulandite is the name of a series of tecto-silicate minerals of the zeolite group.

Diagram showing the relative magnitude of the hiatus in the various sections in a compound regressive-transgressive series.

Magnitude of the Hiatus

Diagram showing the relative magnitude of the hiatus in the various sections in a compound regressive-transgressive…

This is an illustration of an island with an altitude of two thousand feet or more. It is surrounded by coral-reefs.

High Island

This is an illustration of an island with an altitude of two thousand feet or more. It is surrounded…

Diagrammatic sections representing the development of hog-backs. I, a simple anticlinal ridge consisting of hard and soft sediments overlying crystallinew rocks; II, the same after erosion and development of hog-backs (uniclines) on opposite sides; III, the same region after peneplanation and further arching; IV, development of the hog-backs in the second cycle of erosion.

Development of Hog-backs

Diagrammatic sections representing the development of hog-backs. I, a simple anticlinal ridge consisting…

Hog-backs (RR) changing into cuestas (CC) and these into steps (HH) by progressive flattening of strata; UU, oldland; TT, inner lowland; SS, second lowland; P, plateau between steps; V, nose; Z, outlier.

Hog-back Diagram

Hog-backs (RR) changing into cuestas (CC) and these into steps (HH) by progressive flattening of strata;…

This illustration shows exceptions to horizontal rock formations. When a river empties ino a lake or sea, the bottom of which, near its mouth, is more or less inclined, the deposits of detritus made by the river will for a while conform to the slope of the bottom.

Horizontal Rock

This illustration shows exceptions to horizontal rock formations. When a river empties ino a lake or…

Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals. Hornblende is not a recognized mineral in its own right, but the name is used as a general or field term, to refer to a dark amphibole.

Hornblende

Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals. Hornblende is not a recognized mineral in its…

When a single large mass of rock is caught between two faults it is spoken of as a "horse."

Horse

When a single large mass of rock is caught between two faults it is spoken of as a "horse."

Profile of the Hudson River from New York City through the Highlands, showing the fjord-like excavation above the mouth and the gradual northward rise of the peneplane.

Hudson River

Profile of the Hudson River from New York City through the Highlands, showing the fjord-like excavation…

Diagram to illustrate the underground extension of inclined strata which crop out on the surface, and the former relationship of the two inclined beds.

Inclined Strata

Diagram to illustrate the underground extension of inclined strata which crop out on the surface, and…

Diagram illustrating the relationships of dip and strike of the inclined strata of an outcropping series of ledges. The strike is represented by the horizontal line; the dip by the line at right angles to the strike.

Inclined Strata Dip and Strike

Diagram illustrating the relationships of dip and strike of the inclined strata of an outcropping series…

Diagram illustrating the deflection of outcrop of an inclined stratum, from the true strike on a horizontal surface to false strike on an inclined surface.

Deflection of Outcrop of an Inclined Stratum

Diagram illustrating the deflection of outcrop of an inclined stratum, from the true strike on a horizontal…

Models showing deflection of outcrop of dipping strata on sloping surfaces. Slope of valley 40 degrees, dip of strata 20 degrees.

Deflection of Outcrop of Inclined Strata

Models showing deflection of outcrop of dipping strata on sloping surfaces. Slope of valley 40 degrees,…

Models showing deflection of outcrop of dipping strata on sloping surfaces. Slope of valley 20 degrees, dip of strata 50 degrees.

Deflection of Outcrop of Inclined Strata

Models showing deflection of outcrop of dipping strata on sloping surfaces. Slope of valley 20 degrees,…

"A mountain and spring, showing how the principle of the syphon operates to produce the effect described. Suppose there is a crevice, or hollow in the rock from a to b, and a narrow fissure leading from it, in the form of the syphon, b c. The water from the rill fe, filling the hollow, up to the line a d, it will then discharge itself through the syphon, and continue to run until the water is exhausted down to the l g of the syphon b, when it will cease. Then the water from the rills continuing to run until the hollow is again filled up to the same line, the syphon again begins to act, and again discharges the contents of the reservoir as before, and thus the spring p, at one moment flows with great violence and the next moment ceases entirely." —Comstock, 1850

Intermitting Spring

"A mountain and spring, showing how the principle of the syphon operates to produce the effect described.…

Isoclinal folds, outcrop of strata in which there is a certain repetition of similar beds, which by their fossils or otherwise are recognized to be repetitions of the same strata.

Isoclinal Fold

Isoclinal folds, outcrop of strata in which there is a certain repetition of similar beds, which by…

Isoclinal folds, restoration as two anticlines and a syncline.

Isoclinal Fold

Isoclinal folds, restoration as two anticlines and a syncline.

Isoclinal folds, restoration as two synclines separated by an anticline.

Isoclinal Fold

Isoclinal folds, restoration as two synclines separated by an anticline.

This illustration shows a jointed structure. In this drawing, there are two systems of joints or divisional planes in the same region, crossing one another, and the undermining of a bluff of jointed beds and tumbling down of masses leads to the production of forms like those of fortifications or broken walls.

Jointed Rock

This illustration shows a jointed structure. In this drawing, there are two systems of joints or divisional…

Plan of the joints in the chalk cliffs of Treport, showing how they influence the process of erosion.

Joints

Plan of the joints in the chalk cliffs of Treport, showing how they influence the process of erosion.

"Ideal landscape of the Oolitic period." -Taylor, 1904

Jurassic Landscape

"Ideal landscape of the Oolitic period." -Taylor, 1904

Thin section of Jurassic oolite showing the characteristic zonal structure.

Jurassic Oolite

Thin section of Jurassic oolite showing the characteristic zonal structure.

Section of the Kammerbuhl, showing the probable former outline of the volcano and old volcanic plug.

Kammerbuhl

Section of the Kammerbuhl, showing the probable former outline of the volcano and old volcanic plug.

Diagrams to illustrate the mode of formation of kettle holes in glacial deposits.

Formation of Kettle Holes

Diagrams to illustrate the mode of formation of kettle holes in glacial deposits.

Ideal section of La Plata Mountain, Colorado, showing the supposed original form of the laccolith of Mt. Moss.

La Plata Mountain

Ideal section of La Plata Mountain, Colorado, showing the supposed original form of the laccolith of…

"Conduit of Tilford laccolith, showing porphyry (P) breaking across limestone (L)." -Walcott, 1901

Laccolith

"Conduit of Tilford laccolith, showing porphyry (P) breaking across limestone (L)." -Walcott, 1901

"Plan of a lake entered by three streams (c, d, e), each of which deposits a cone of sediment (a, b) at its mouth." -Geikie, 1893

Lake

"Plan of a lake entered by three streams (c, d, e), each of which deposits a cone of sediment (a, b)…