This science ClipArt gallery offers 497 illustrations of geology, including structure and composition of land, minerals, and fossilized organisms.

"Lake filled up and converted into an alluvial plain by the three streams." -Geikie, 1893

Lake

"Lake filled up and converted into an alluvial plain by the three streams." -Geikie, 1893

"a, the massive; b, the shaly; c, the laminated; d, e, and f, the compound or irregularly bedded." -Dana, 1880

Structure of Layers

"a, the massive; b, the shaly; c, the laminated; d, e, and f, the compound or irregularly bedded." -Dana,…

"a Lepidodendron (restored); b & c impressions on back; d stem with leaves; e leaflet; f fruit of Lepidodendron, called Lepidostrobus; g showing spores in bracts of fruit." -Taylor, 1904

Lepidodedron

"a Lepidodendron (restored); b & c impressions on back; d stem with leaves; e leaflet; f fruit of Lepidodendron,…

A piece of limestone.

Limestone

A piece of limestone.

Granular crystallized limestone (marble) seen under crossed nicols.

Limestone

Granular crystallized limestone (marble) seen under crossed nicols.

Limestone polished, furrowed, and scratched by the modern glacier of Rosenlaui, Switzerland.

Limestone

Limestone polished, furrowed, and scratched by the modern glacier of Rosenlaui, Switzerland.

Diagram showing the relationship of the black sapropelitic shales, the oil producers, to the limestone beds on the left and the sands on the right.

Limestone Beds

Diagram showing the relationship of the black sapropelitic shales, the oil producers, to the limestone…

Fragment of the wall rock (limestone) included in an ancient sandstone dike; the rock is shattered and the sand (shaded) injected into the fissures.

Limestone Fragment

Fragment of the wall rock (limestone) included in an ancient sandstone dike; the rock is shattered and…

The Lisbon earthquake of 1755. It destroyed a great part of the city and its 60,000 inhabitants.

Lisbon Earthquake

The Lisbon earthquake of 1755. It destroyed a great part of the city and its 60,000 inhabitants.

A lithophysa (plural lithophysae) is a small cavity found in felsic volcanic rocks believed to be caused by expanding gases in tuffs before solidification.

Lithophysa

A lithophysa (plural lithophysae) is a small cavity found in felsic volcanic rocks believed to be caused…

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Lituola nautiloides. These shells are mostly very small, and yet through their abundance they have been very important in limestone-making.

Lituola Nautiloides

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Lituola nautiloides. These shells are mostly very small,…

Ideal section through a Maar of the Eifel showing the old crater funnel and pipe.

Maar of the Eifel

Ideal section through a Maar of the Eifel showing the old crater funnel and pipe.

Nodule of oxide of manganese from Red Clay of abyssal ocean bottom.

Oxide of Manganese

Nodule of oxide of manganese from Red Clay of abyssal ocean bottom.

"Microscopic Structure of white Statuary marble." -Geikie, 1893

Marble

"Microscopic Structure of white Statuary marble." -Geikie, 1893

"Orthorhombic. Crystals commonly tabular parallel to basal plane, showing also short prisms and low brachydomes. The brachydomes usually striated parallel to the brachy-axis. Often twinned, given coxcomb and spear-shaped groups." — Ford, 1912

Marcasite

"Orthorhombic. Crystals commonly tabular parallel to basal plane, showing also short prisms and low…

Diagrammatic section of the Marjelen Lake, the Aletsch Glacier which holds it and the valley of the Viesch into which it drains when full.

Marjelen Lake

Diagrammatic section of the Marjelen Lake, the Aletsch Glacier which holds it and the valley of the…

Section of glacier lake called the Marjelen See.

Marjelen See

Section of glacier lake called the Marjelen See.

Marmorization of chalk beds by basalt. Island of Rathlin on coast of Antrim, Ireland.

Marmorization of Chalk Beds

Marmorization of chalk beds by basalt. Island of Rathlin on coast of Antrim, Ireland.

These zones, which are separated by the parallels of latitude, are generally termed the <em>astronomical</em> or <em>mathematical zones</em> to distinguish them from others called <em>physical zones</em>, which are bounded by the lines of mean annual temperature.

Mathematical Climate Zones

These zones, which are separated by the parallels of latitude, are generally termed the astronomical

A menhir is a large upright standing stone. Menhirs may be found singly as monoliths, or as part of a group of similar stones. Their size can vary considerably; but their shape is generally uneven and squared, often tapering towards the top. Menhirs are widely distributed across Europe, Africa, and Asia, but are most numerous in Western Europe; in particular in Ireland, Great Britain and Brittany.

Group of Menhirs

A menhir is a large upright standing stone. Menhirs may be found singly as monoliths, or as part of…

Four varieties of mollusks from the Mesozoic time: "391, Exogyra costata; 392, Inoceramus problematicus; 393, Gryphaea vesicularis; 394, G. Pitcheri." -Dana, 1883

Mesozoic Mollusks

Four varieties of mollusks from the Mesozoic time: "391, Exogyra costata; 392, Inoceramus problematicus;…

Cross-section of the Michigan Basin showing the rimming cuestas which are largely submerged.

Michigan Basin

Cross-section of the Michigan Basin showing the rimming cuestas which are largely submerged.

Cross-section of the Michigan Basin based on well sections. Owing to the exaggeration of the vertical scale, the folds appear more prominent than they are in reality.

Michigan Basin

Cross-section of the Michigan Basin based on well sections. Owing to the exaggeration of the vertical…

"Homestake open cut, sills in Cambrian, showing Algonkian schist below." -Walcott, 1901

Rock Mining

"Homestake open cut, sills in Cambrian, showing Algonkian schist below." -Walcott, 1901

"Ideal landscape of the Miocene period." -Taylor, 1904

Miocene Landscape

"Ideal landscape of the Miocene period." -Taylor, 1904

"Classification of Miocene rocks in Florida." -Scott, 1981

Miocene Rocks

"Classification of Miocene rocks in Florida." -Scott, 1981

An ancient mollusk from the Paleozoic time, Goniatites Marcellensis from the Hamilton group.

Goniatites Mollusk Fossil

An ancient mollusk from the Paleozoic time, Goniatites Marcellensis from the Hamilton group.

An ancient mollusk from the Carboniferous Age, the Archimedes reversa.

Archimedes Mollusk

An ancient mollusk from the Carboniferous Age, the Archimedes reversa.

Section of the massif of Mont Dore, France, showing the succession of eruptions and the outline of the old volcano.

Mont Dore, France

Section of the massif of Mont Dore, France, showing the succession of eruptions and the outline of the…

Crest of northern frontal moraine, looking northwest.

Frontal Moraine

Crest of northern frontal moraine, looking northwest.

Section of frontal moraine on side of Warner Street, Glouchester, Massachusetts.

Section of Frontal Moraine

Section of frontal moraine on side of Warner Street, Glouchester, Massachusetts.

Where two glacial streams unite, their adjoining lateral moraines become confluent and are continued as a medial moraine.

Medial Moraine

Where two glacial streams unite, their adjoining lateral moraines become confluent and are continued…

Bird's eye view of about 2 square miles of terminal moraine. Lakes shown by horizontal shading; swamps are dotted.

Terminal Moraines

Bird's eye view of about 2 square miles of terminal moraine. Lakes shown by horizontal shading; swamps…

The parts of a volcano illustrated with Mount Vesuvius: "a, the cone; b, summit cinder-cone; c, Somma, part of former outline of crater; d, Hermitage (now Observatory); e, Portici; f, Herculaneum; g, Torre del Greco." -Dana, 1883

Mount Vesuvius

The parts of a volcano illustrated with Mount Vesuvius: "a, the cone; b, summit cinder-cone; c, Somma,…

Picture of a mountain erupting.

Mountain

Picture of a mountain erupting.

"Rupture of a Mountain.&mdash;There is no doubt, but in the operations of nature, great effects are sometimes produced among mountains, by a small quantity of water finding its way to a reservoir in the crevices of the rocks far beneath. Suppose, in the interior of a mountain, there should be a space of ten yards square, and an inch deep, filled with water, and closed up on all sides; and suppose that, in the course of time, a small fissure, no more than an inch in diameter, should be openeing by the water, from the height of two hundred feet above, down to this little reservoir. The consequence might be, that the side of the mountain would burst asunder, for the pressure, under the circumstances supposed, would be equal to the weight of five thousand tons." &mdash;Comstock, 1850

Mountain Rupture

"Rupture of a Mountain.—There is no doubt, but in the operations of nature, great effects are…

Ideal cross-section of the laccoliths of Mt. Holmes, after restoration.

Mt. Holmes

Ideal cross-section of the laccoliths of Mt. Holmes, after restoration.

Section of the Mt. Holmes bysmalith.

Mt. Holmes Bysmalith

Section of the Mt. Holmes bysmalith.

Mud cracks are created when a mud-flat is exposed to air or sun to dry.

Mud Cracks

Mud cracks are created when a mud-flat is exposed to air or sun to dry.

Section of the Nashvile dome, showing the center eroded into a topographic basin or encircled lowland, the so-called Central Basin of Tennessee.

Nashville Dome

Section of the Nashvile dome, showing the center eroded into a topographic basin or encircled lowland,…

North-south section across western New York, showing the three cuestas and lowlands and the tilting of the peneplane.

New York Peneplane

North-south section across western New York, showing the three cuestas and lowlands and the tilting…

The edge of the Niagara escarpment. NS, showing the position of the ancient Iroquois Beach (IB) and the relation of the Iroquois level to that of Lake Ontario.

Niagara Escarpment

The edge of the Niagara escarpment. NS, showing the position of the ancient Iroquois Beach (IB) and…

This illustration represents a section of the rocks along the river below Niagara Falls. It gives some idea of the alterations which occur in the strata.

Niagara Falls

This illustration represents a section of the rocks along the river below Niagara Falls. It gives some…

Section of Niagara River from Lake Ontario to the Falls.

Niagara River

Section of Niagara River from Lake Ontario to the Falls.

The nitrate is found on the east side of a low range of hills from fifteen to ninety miles back from the sea. It is in the form of rocky stratum with layers of salt rock and sand above it, although sometimes it lies on the top of the ground.

Diagram of Nitrate Bed

The nitrate is found on the east side of a low range of hills from fifteen to ninety miles back from…

"Schematic of nitrogen cycling associated with litter disposal on broiler farms." -Hatzell, 1995

Nitrogen Cycles and Litter Disposal

"Schematic of nitrogen cycling associated with litter disposal on broiler farms." -Hatzell, 1995

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Nodosaria vulgaris. These shells are mostly very small, and yet through their abundance they have been very important in limestone-making.

Nodosaria Vulgaris

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Nodosaria vulgaris. These shells are mostly very small,…

Nummulite limestone.

Nummulite Limestone

Nummulite limestone.

Nummulite limestone.

Nummulite Limestone

Nummulite limestone.

Shell of a Nummulite cut transversely and in part horizontally.

Shell of a Nummulite

Shell of a Nummulite cut transversely and in part horizontally.

A nummulite, a coiled fossil.

Nummulites

A nummulite, a coiled fossil.

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Nummulites nummularia. These shells are mostly very small, and yet through their abundance they have been very important in limestone-making.

Nummulites Nummularia

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Nummulites nummularia. These shells are mostly very small,…

Diagram showing the junction of the Oatka and Dale Valleys near Warsaw. The Dale is a hanging valley on the side of the over-deepened Oatka.

Oatka and Dale Valleys

Diagram showing the junction of the Oatka and Dale Valleys near Warsaw. The Dale is a hanging valley…

Shifts in the two obelisks in the convent of St. Bruno, Calabrian earthquake of 1783.

Obelisk Shifts

Shifts in the two obelisks in the convent of St. Bruno, Calabrian earthquake of 1783.

Natural and columnar section to illustrate compound offlapping and overlapping series.

Compound Offlapping and Overlapping Series

Natural and columnar section to illustrate compound offlapping and overlapping series.

Section to illustrate the relationships of strata formed by a compound, transgressing, retreatal and transgressive movement of the sea with the resulting overlapping, offlapping and overlapping series separated by a compound sandstone of emergence and submergence.

Offlaps Followed by Overlap

Section to illustrate the relationships of strata formed by a compound, transgressing, retreatal and…

"Idealized section through a dome showing sand-filled channels in cross-section, points of accumulation of oil and gas, and direction of migration." -Johnson, 1916

Oil Accumulation

"Idealized section through a dome showing sand-filled channels in cross-section, points of accumulation…

Modern Foraminiferal types - Orbulina.

Orbulina

Modern Foraminiferal types - Orbulina.

Diagram showing the relationships of the Ordovician sandstones to the Silurian limestones on the Vlightberg at Rondout, New York.

Ordovician Sandstone and Silurian Limestone

Diagram showing the relationships of the Ordovician sandstones to the Silurian limestones on the Vlightberg…

Diagram showing the relationships of the Ordovician sandstones to the Silurian limestones on the Vlightberg at Rondout, New York before the last folding.

Ordovician Sandstone and Silurian Limestone

Diagram showing the relationships of the Ordovician sandstones to the Silurian limestones on the Vlightberg…