This science ClipArt gallery offers 497 illustrations of geology, including structure and composition of land, minerals, and fossilized organisms.

"View on Roche-Mouttonnee Creek, Colorado." -Dana, 1883

Roche-Moutonnee Creek

"View on Roche-Mouttonnee Creek, Colorado." -Dana, 1883

Rock in the water.

Rock

Rock in the water.

An illustration of a man standing upon stacked rocks.

Rock formation

An illustration of a man standing upon stacked rocks.

Section across Western New York, showing the rock formations exposed on the Niagara River and on the shores of Lake Erie.

New York Rock Formation

Section across Western New York, showing the rock formations exposed on the Niagara River and on the…

An illustration of a view from Rock City.

Rock Formation

An illustration of a view from Rock City.

"Diagrammatic structure section of the Wasatch Range in Ogden Canyon." -Lee, 1915

Rock Layers Showing Geological Periods

"Diagrammatic structure section of the Wasatch Range in Ogden Canyon." -Lee, 1915

"Cross section of Marsh Creek valley at McCammon, Idaho." -Lee, 1915

Rock Layers Showing Types of Rock

"Cross section of Marsh Creek valley at McCammon, Idaho." -Lee, 1915

Arched rock is a natural limestone arch formed during the Nipissing post-glacial period, a period of high Lake Huron levels following the end of the Wisconsin glaciation. Arch Rock stands on the Lake Huron shoreline 146 feet above the water.

Arched Rock

Arched rock is a natural limestone arch formed during the Nipissing post-glacial period, a period of…

Basaltic rock is a common extrusive volcanic rock. Fingal's Cave is a sea cave composed of basaltic rocks on the uninhabited island of Staffa, in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. It has a naturally arched roof, and with the eerie sounds produced by the echoes of waves, it has the atmosphere of a natural cathedral.

Basaltic Rock

Basaltic rock is a common extrusive volcanic rock. Fingal's Cave is a sea cave composed of basaltic…

Illustration of curved and contoured rocks near Old Head of Kinsale.

Contoured Rocks

Illustration of curved and contoured rocks near Old Head of Kinsale.

Sugar Loaf is a 75-foot-high landlocked rock or stack in the interior of Mackinac Island in Lake Huron. Created by erosion during the period of postglacial Lake Algonquin, Sugar Loaf is the largest post-glacial erosion feature in the Straits of Mackinac.

Sugar Loaf Rock

Sugar Loaf is a 75-foot-high landlocked rock or stack in the interior of Mackinac Island in Lake Huron.…

Diagram showing the interrelations of the Endogenetic rocks.

Endogenetic Rocks

Diagram showing the interrelations of the Endogenetic rocks.

A diagram of the interrelations of the Exogenetic rocks.

Exogenetic Rocks

A diagram of the interrelations of the Exogenetic rocks.

An illustration of a group of three rocks.

Group of Rocks

An illustration of a group of three rocks.

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Rotalia globulosa. These shells are mostly very small, and yet through their abundance they have been very important in limestone-making.

Rotalia Globulosa

This illustration shows the calcareous shell Rotalia globulosa. These shells are mostly very small,…

Volcanic sills - Salisbury Crag in Edinburgh, Scotland.

Salisbury Crag

Volcanic sills - Salisbury Crag in Edinburgh, Scotland.

"Vertical section through a Gulf Coast salt dome." -Johnson, 1916

Salt Dome

"Vertical section through a Gulf Coast salt dome." -Johnson, 1916

An illustration of a section of a sand-filter bed.

Sand-Filter Bed

An illustration of a section of a sand-filter bed.

Section of a sandbank in the bed of the Arve at its confluence with the Rhone, showing the stratification of deposits where currents meet.

Sandbank Deposits

Section of a sandbank in the bed of the Arve at its confluence with the Rhone, showing the stratification…

Erosion forms of a jointed sandstone.

Sandstone

Erosion forms of a jointed sandstone.

Along the south shore of Lake Superior is a sandstone once regarded as belonging to the Potsdam, but probably, in part , of the age of the Calciferous, in which we search in vain for any of those fossil remains so common in Minnesota. Whaterver its geological age, the Lake Superior sandstone is a formation of remarkable interest. This section across Lake Superior shows (a) water level. (b) trap outburst north of the lake, (c) trap outburst forming Isle Royale, (d) trap outburst forming Kewenaw Point, (e) Lake Superior sandstone and conglomerate. Eözoic and other rocks underlying the sandstone (f).

Sandstone

Along the south shore of Lake Superior is a sandstone once regarded as belonging to the Potsdam, but…

Cross-bedding in Sylvania sandstone.

Sandstone with Cross-bedding

Cross-bedding in Sylvania sandstone.

"A sandy stratum, a a, acting as a filter, occupies an inclined position between two other strata impervious to water, such as clay, the water being absorbed by the superficial parts of the strata, as at a a (which may be of very great extent), will penetrate through its whole depth, and, finding no egress below on account of the basin-like form of the stratum, or from its resting at the lower termination upon a compact rock, will accumulate." — Wells, 1857

Sandy Stratum

"A sandy stratum, a a, acting as a filter, occupies an inclined position between two other strata impervious…

"Branches, and fruit (Lepidostrobus) of Lepidodendron)." -Taylor, 1904

Scale Tree

"Branches, and fruit (Lepidostrobus) of Lepidodendron)." -Taylor, 1904

A typical foraminiferal shell shaped more or less like a football in form (diagrammatical view).

Schwagerina Verbecki

A typical foraminiferal shell shaped more or less like a football in form (diagrammatical view).

"In sedimentary deposits, however, some variation from horizontality may be produced by the slope of the sea-bottom in certain cases." -Dana, 1880

Sedimentary Deposits

"In sedimentary deposits, however, some variation from horizontality may be produced by the slope of…

The floor of the sea was first formed or rocks that had cooled from a state of fusion. The few islands that existed were but exposed portions on the floor. The debris scattered over this foundation would be arranged in layers, as water always arranges its sediments. The coarser materials would be transported by the more powerful action and deposited in one place. The finer materials would be carried beyond and deposited in a remoter region. Here we see (a) the primordial igneous crust, (b) a sea-side cliff gnawed by the waves, (c) the ordinary sea-level, (d) the ruins of the cliff with the coarser deposited near the shore, and the finer floated to greater depths.

Shore Erosion and Distribution of Sediments

The floor of the sea was first formed or rocks that had cooled from a state of fusion. The few islands…

One of the seismograms of the Messina earthquake of December 28, 1908, as registered at Gottingen, Germany.

Seismogram

One of the seismograms of the Messina earthquake of December 28, 1908, as registered at Gottingen, Germany.

Diagrammatic view, from above, of a seismograph.

Seismograph

Diagrammatic view, from above, of a seismograph.

The Ewing seismograph, constructed to record all three movements. Three pendulums are arranged to swing in the manner of a bracket or a gate, in three planes, at right angles to one another. Two of them are placed vertically and oscillate in a horizontal manner.

The Ewing Seismograph

The Ewing seismograph, constructed to record all three movements. Three pendulums are arranged to swing…

"inverted Vertical Pendulum Seismograph. Marvin System. A stiff vertical tube, pivoted at its bottom end, carries a very heavy mass near its upper end, and is rendered stable or astatic by the elastic reaction of a central steel rod which has its bottom end firmly fixed inside the heavy mass and its top end attached to the framework on the pier. The horizontal motion of the ground and pier relative to the steady mass is magnified 120 times and inscribed on smoked-paper record-sheets by two sets of multiplying levers. One records the north-south, the other the east-west component of motion." -Whitney, 1911

Pendulum Seismograph

"inverted Vertical Pendulum Seismograph. Marvin System. A stiff vertical tube, pivoted at its bottom…

"Seismoscope. a, heavy mass supported by loop at point near center of gravity; b, point on which upper side of loop rests; c, long needle projecting from upper side of loop; d, conducting-wire; e, binding-post; f, long arm of lever pivoted at k; g, point where end of lever rests on end of needle; h, mercury-cup." -Whitney, 1911

Seismoscope

"Seismoscope. a, heavy mass supported by loop at point near center of gravity; b, point on which upper…

Cross-sections of shallow basins, separated a) by a simple anticline, b) by two anticlines and a syncline.

Shallow Basins

Cross-sections of shallow basins, separated a) by a simple anticline, b) by two anticlines and a syncline.

A foraminiferal shell or the Miliola type. Note that each new chamber covers all preceding ones. Important limestone builder.

A Foraminiferal Shell

A foraminiferal shell or the Miliola type. Note that each new chamber covers all preceding ones. Important…

Unconformity at Siccar Point, Berwick, Scotland. Folded and truncated Siluro-Ordovician beds and Old Red Sandstone beds.

Siccar Point, Berwick, Scotland

Unconformity at Siccar Point, Berwick, Scotland. Folded and truncated Siluro-Ordovician beds and Old…

"a Sigillaria (restored); b leaflet; c & d impressions on bark; e section of stem; f portion of cylinder, magnified." -Taylor, 1904

Sigillaria

"a Sigillaria (restored); b leaflet; c & d impressions on bark; e section of stem; f portion of cylinder,…

The bark of Sigillaria Groeseri, an extinct arborescent plant.

Sigillaria Bark

The bark of Sigillaria Groeseri, an extinct arborescent plant.

Section through the Simplon massif, along the axis of the Great Simplon tunnel from the Rhone Valley, Switzerland to the Val Diveria, Italy.

Simplon Massif

Section through the Simplon massif, along the axis of the Great Simplon tunnel from the Rhone Valley,…

A piece of rock in which slaty cleavage has been developed, as shown by the fine lines; the coarser bands represent the original bedding planes, now compressed and contorted.

Slaty Cleavage

A piece of rock in which slaty cleavage has been developed, as shown by the fine lines; the coarser…

"Diagram showing the genetic relations of the different soil classes."—Finley, 1917

Classes of soil

"Diagram showing the genetic relations of the different soil classes."—Finley, 1917

"A crumb of soil (magnified). The white spaces represent air."—Finley, 1917

Crumb of soil

"A crumb of soil (magnified). The white spaces represent air."—Finley, 1917

A flow of water from the interior of the earth, caused by the water resulting from rain or snow.

Spring

A flow of water from the interior of the earth, caused by the water resulting from rain or snow.

A spring made from runoff water in a mountain.

Intermittent Spring

A spring made from runoff water in a mountain.

Two cases of springs: "In one, the water descends through the porous bed e to the layer d, which is relatively impervious. The water flows along this layer until it comes to the surface, and there the water flows out as a spring, s'. In the other, the water moves underground through the porous layer b, under pressure, until it reaches a crack which leads up to the surface...s." -Salisbury, 1919

Springs

Two cases of springs: "In one, the water descends through the porous bed e to the layer d, which is…

"Deep-seated Springs (s, s') rising through joints at a fault (f)." -Geikie, 1893

Deep-Seated Springs

"Deep-seated Springs (s, s') rising through joints at a fault (f)." -Geikie, 1893

Simple or surface springs: (d) stratum, (e) clay, (c) pervious bed, (a) strata, (b) valley.

Simple Springs

Simple or surface springs: (d) stratum, (e) clay, (c) pervious bed, (a) strata, (b) valley.

North-south cross-section of the St. Gothard Massif, Switzerland, showing the fan-folds.

St. Gothard Massif, Switzerland

North-south cross-section of the St. Gothard Massif, Switzerland, showing the fan-folds.

"Monoclinic. Uniform in cruciform twins. Commonly tabular parallel to clinopinacoid. Crystals usually in sheaflike aggregates." — Ford, 1912

Stilbite

"Monoclinic. Uniform in cruciform twins. Commonly tabular parallel to clinopinacoid. Crystals usually…

An illustration of undulating strata cut by a fault with alternate throw in opposite directions.

Diagram of Undulating Strata Cut by a Fault

An illustration of undulating strata cut by a fault with alternate throw in opposite directions.

A geological dip of strata.

Strata Dip

A geological dip of strata.

"Diagram suggesting the type of structure possessed by the simple folding of strata. The diagram shows the folded surface was worn down." -Salisbury, 1919

Strata Folding

"Diagram suggesting the type of structure possessed by the simple folding of strata. The diagram shows…

Strata folding after erosion. "No further folding is shown, and erosion has isolated the hard layers as mountain ridges." -Salisbury, 1919

Strata Folding

Strata folding after erosion. "No further folding is shown, and erosion has isolated the hard layers…

This image shows the foldings in strata.

Strata Folding

This image shows the foldings in strata.

"Generalized columnar section, northern Black Hills." -Walcott, 1901

Strata Thickness

"Generalized columnar section, northern Black Hills." -Walcott, 1901

An illustration of a plan of strata transversed by a diminishing strike fault.

Strata Transversed by a Diminshing Strike Fault

An illustration of a plan of strata transversed by a diminishing strike fault.

An illustration of strata bent at a line of fault. In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguishes it from contiguous layers. Each layer is generally one of a number of parallel layers that lie one upon another, laid down by natural forces.

Strata with Fault Line

An illustration of strata bent at a line of fault. In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural:…

Anticlinal strata is a geological fold upwards with the oldest layer at the core.

Anticlinal Strata

Anticlinal strata is a geological fold upwards with the oldest layer at the core.

Synclinal strata is a geological fold downwards.

Synclinal Strata

Synclinal strata is a geological fold downwards.

"In some places a series of strata A, having a certain dip, rest directly upon the eroded surface of another series, having the same dip." — Hinman, 1888

Uncomformable strata

"In some places a series of strata A, having a certain dip, rest directly upon the eroded surface of…

These diagrams show the unconformity of strata. "In some places a series of strata A, having a certain dip, rest directly upon the eroded surface of another series, having either the same dip (B), or an entirely different one (C)." -Hinman, 1888

Unconformable Strata

These diagrams show the unconformity of strata. "In some places a series of strata A, having a certain…