This science ClipArt gallery offers 100 illustrations of meteorology, which is the study of weather and air conditions. Included in this section are images of meteorological tools, air currents and patterns, and more.

Abbe's Marine Nephoscope for observing direction and motion of a cloud. The horizontal mirror reflects the sky, matching the cloud's motion.

Abbe's Marine Nephoscope Horizontal Compass Projection

Abbe's Marine Nephoscope for observing direction and motion of a cloud. The horizontal mirror reflects…

Abbe's Marine Nephoscope for observing direction and motion of a cloud using a compass. The compass measures the direction of the cloud moving, while the center metal reflects the sky.

Abbe's Marine Nephoscope Horizontal Mirror Projection

Abbe's Marine Nephoscope for observing direction and motion of a cloud using a compass. The compass…

The inside view of Abbe's Marine Nephoscope used to measure the cloud's direction and velocity on a boat. The rounded middle part of the nephoscope is the mirror with the compass is along the circumfrance.

Abbe's Marine Nephoscope Inside View

The inside view of Abbe's Marine Nephoscope used to measure the cloud's direction and velocity on a…

Marvin's Nephoscope to measure direction and velocity of the cloud. This nephoscope is used on land, and made out of a mirror with a string attached to the scale.

Marvin's Nephoscope

Marvin's Nephoscope to measure direction and velocity of the cloud. This nephoscope is used on land,…

The vertical rays are spread over a smaller area, and pass through a thinner layer of air. The vertical rays strike more directly, and, therefore, produce more heat.

Oblique Rays

The vertical rays are spread over a smaller area, and pass through a thinner layer of air. The vertical…

"BA is the ray of light passing through a rare medium (as, for instance, air); and upon its entrance into a denser medium (as, for instance, water) the ray will be deflected from the direction of its path BA, and will take the course AE. If the line CD is perpendicular to the dividing surface between the two media, then BAC is the angle of incidence and DAE is the angle of refraction." -Waldo, 1896

Atmospheric Optics

"BA is the ray of light passing through a rare medium (as, for instance, air); and upon its entrance…

The figure "illustrates the bending of the solar rays entering the atmosphere. When the sun is below the horizon, at C, it would be invisible at A, on account of the curvature of the earth, if there were no atmosphere; but the solar rays entering the atmosphere near the point B are refracted so that they reach A, and the sun appears to be at D, though really at C below the horizon, either in the morning or in the evening. So that, in the polar regions, the sun is visible while it is in reality below the horizon, and is thus seen earlier and later during the time of polar sunlight." -Waldo, 1896

Atmospheric Optics

The figure "illustrates the bending of the solar rays entering the atmosphere. When the sun is below…

The halo phenomena is illustrated in this diagram.

Atmospheric Optics

The halo phenomena is illustrated in this diagram.

Winds are masses of air in motion. They resemble the currents in the ocean, and result from the same causes-differences of density caused by differences of temperature.

Origin of Winds

Winds are masses of air in motion. They resemble the currents in the ocean, and result from the same…

A device used for measuring pressure.

Piezometer

A device used for measuring pressure.

An instrument for collecting and measuring the quantity of water that falls in rain, snow, etc.

Pluviometer

An instrument for collecting and measuring the quantity of water that falls in rain, snow, etc.

A baroscope, which is a version of the barometer. It measures atmospheric pressure.

Pressure

A baroscope, which is a version of the barometer. It measures atmospheric pressure.

Cirrus cloud is a type of cloud composed of ice crystals and characterized by thin, wisplike strands, often accompanied by tufts. A Cumulus cloud is a cloud belonging to a class characterized by puffs, mounds or towers, with flat bases and tops that often resemble cauliflower.

Primary Forms of Clouds: Cirrus and Cumulus

Cirrus cloud is a type of cloud composed of ice crystals and characterized by thin, wisplike strands,…

A Nimbus, or Storm Cloud, is any cloud from which rain falls. The Stratus, or Layer Clouds, form in long, horizontal sheets or bands. These clouds are most common in the early morning or evening, when the ascending currents are weak.

Primary Forms of Clouds: Nimbus and Stratus

A Nimbus, or Storm Cloud, is any cloud from which rain falls. The Stratus, or Layer Clouds, form in…

An instrument for determining the tension of the aqueous vapor in the air or the relative humidity.

Psychometer

An instrument for determining the tension of the aqueous vapor in the air or the relative humidity.

The psychrometer (showing wet and dry bulb thermometers) is an instrument used for determining the humidity by the temperature of evaporation.

Psychrometer

The psychrometer (showing wet and dry bulb thermometers) is an instrument used for determining the humidity…

A device used for measuring the intensity of the heat of the sun.

Pyrheliometer

A device used for measuring the intensity of the heat of the sun.

"A Rain Gauge is an instrument or contrivance for measuring the amount of rain which falls on a given surface."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Rain Gauge

"A Rain Gauge is an instrument or contrivance for measuring the amount of rain which falls on a given…

An instrument or contrivance for measuring the amount of rain which falls on a given surface. They are made of various forms. One simple form consists of a copper funnel five to seven inches in diameter, inserted in the neck of a bottle placed on a stand and protected from the sun's rays, to prevent evaporation.

Rain Gauge

An instrument or contrivance for measuring the amount of rain which falls on a given surface. They are…

"This is an instrument designed to measure the quantity of rain which falls at any given time and place." -Comstock 1850

Rain Gauge

"This is an instrument designed to measure the quantity of rain which falls at any given time and place."…

"Instrument for measuring the depth of rainfall at any one time." -Foster, 1921

Rain Gauge

"Instrument for measuring the depth of rainfall at any one time." -Foster, 1921

"Rain gauges are usually vertically placed sheet-metal hollow cylinders of from 5 to 8 inches in diameter. (The figure) shows a rain gauge with a funnel-shaped mouth, A, and an inside receiver, C, of less diameter than the outer cylinder." -Waldo, 1896

Rain Gauge

"Rain gauges are usually vertically placed sheet-metal hollow cylinders of from 5 to 8 inches in diameter.…

An instrument for measuring the quantity of rain that falls at any given place in a given time.

Rain-gauge

An instrument for measuring the quantity of rain that falls at any given place in a given time.

A Marvin weather kite reel powered by hand. The reel keeps record of the direction and intensity of the kite. The reeling machine may have gas engine attached for convenience.

Hand Powered Marvin Weather Kite Reel

A Marvin weather kite reel powered by hand. The reel keeps record of the direction and intensity of…

"It consists of a glass tube or capsule A, having on the bottom and a little way up a highly polished silver surface, and closed by a cork with two holes. through one of these holes the stem of a thermometer B passes, having its bulb at the bottom of the silvered capsule, and the other end may, if desired, be connected with an aspirator or air-pump. In making an observation as much either is introduced into the capsule A as will cover the bulb of the thermometer, and then by transmitting air through the tube C the ether vapor is withdrawn from the capsule A through another tube D." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Regnaults Hygrometer

"It consists of a glass tube or capsule A, having on the bottom and a little way up a highly polished…

The wind is supposed to rotate as in a cyclone, only the axis of the whirl is horizontal instead of vertical. Two horizontal layers of cloud exist-the upper layer of snow, the lower, or rain. The snowflakes, which form the nuclei of the hailstones, are caught in the whirl, are dipped in rapid succession into the two clouds, thus receiving alternate coatings of ice and snow, until at last they are hurried to the ground.

Rotary Theory of Hail

The wind is supposed to rotate as in a cyclone, only the axis of the whirl is horizontal instead of…

Diagram of the circulation of sea breeze.

Sea Breeze

Diagram of the circulation of sea breeze.

"In meteorology, a subsidiary cyclonic circulation, generally on the border of a primary cyclone accompanied by rain, thunder-storms, and squalls: indicated on a weather-map by the bulging of a sea-level isobar toward the region of higher pressure." -Whitney, 1911

Secondary

"In meteorology, a subsidiary cyclonic circulation, generally on the border of a primary cyclone accompanied…

Cirro-Cumulus is formed from cirrus or cirrostratus clouds when they are warmed gently from below. Cirro-Stratus clouds appear as whitish and usually somewhat fibrous veils, often covering the whole sky and sometimes so thin as to be hardly discernible. The Cumulo-Stratus is the form produced by the heaping together of a mountain-like mass of cumulus clouds.

Secondary Forms of Clouds

Cirro-Cumulus is formed from cirrus or cirrostratus clouds when they are warmed gently from below. Cirro-Stratus…

"The warmer current ascends, as indicated by the small arrows, and curls at the black wreath (u) of cloud, and then the commingling of the two currents forms an imposing dark dome (v) of cloud, from which heavy rain (r) or hail descends. The light grayish cloud which is seen behind the black wreath is the rain descending from the dark dome. The heavy raindrops bring down a large quantity of cold air, which flies straight out in advance of the storm, and produces the squall (q) indicated by the long arrow."—Finley, 1917

Line squall

"The warmer current ascends, as indicated by the small arrows, and curls at the black wreath (u) of…

The diagrams show areas of low and high temperatures.

Temperatures

The diagrams show areas of low and high temperatures.

"The prevailing winds of the globe; with a section of the atmosphere showing its system of permanent currents." -Gilbert, 1910

Terrestrial Winds

"The prevailing winds of the globe; with a section of the atmosphere showing its system of permanent…

"Thermometer bulb and stem." — Waldo, 1896

Thermometer

"Thermometer bulb and stem." — Waldo, 1896

"Stevenson's louvre-boarded box for the thermometers, which is now very widely used for temperature observations. The box is made of wood, and louvred all round so as to protect the thermometers inside from radiation, and at the same time secure as free a circulation of air as is consistent with a satisfactory protection from radiation. The box is painted white, both inside and outside, and screwed to four stout wooden posts, also painted white, firmly fixed in the ground. The posts are of such a length that when the thermometers are hung in position the bulbs of the minimum thermometer and hygrometer are exactly at the same height of 4 feet above the ground, the maximum thermometer being hung immediately above the minimum thermometer." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Thermometer Box

"Stevenson's louvre-boarded box for the thermometers, which is now very widely used for temperature…

A fixture attached to some elevated object for the purpose of showing which way the wind blows.

Vane

A fixture attached to some elevated object for the purpose of showing which way the wind blows.

"The horizontal direction of the wind is usually observed by means of an instrument called the arrow wind vane, the head of the arrow pointing in the direction of approach of the wind. The arrow is free to revolve horizontally around a vertical axis placed near the head." -Waldo, 1896

Arrow Wind Vane

"The horizontal direction of the wind is usually observed by means of an instrument called the arrow…

Weather vane used for telling the direction of the wind, pointing eastward.

Weather Vane

Weather vane used for telling the direction of the wind, pointing eastward.

"Deflection of the winds by Earth's rotation." -Waldo, 1896

Wind Deflection

"Deflection of the winds by Earth's rotation." -Waldo, 1896

The image "shows the path of a body starting northward from any point O in the northern hemisphere and moving without friction. As it reaches higher latitudes, the deflection is more rapid and it turns to the east and south." -Dryer, 1901

Wind Movement

The image "shows the path of a body starting northward from any point O in the northern hemisphere and…

A contrivance for showing the velocity of the wind.

Wind-gauge

A contrivance for showing the velocity of the wind.