This ClipArt gallery offers 137 illustrations of Egyptian architecture, including structures and styles commonly seen and used in Egyptian construction. Illustrations include pyramids, temples, obelisks, columns, and other distinctive elements of Egyptian architecture.

The Great Pyramid of Giza, also called Khufu's Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu, and Pyramid of Cheops, is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Great Pyramid of Giza

The Great Pyramid of Giza, also called Khufu's Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu, and Pyramid of Cheops,…

The Great Pyramid of Giza, also called Khufu's Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu, and Pyramid of Cheops, is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The Great Pyramid is the only pyramid known to contain both ascending and descending passages. There are three known chambers inside the Great Pyramid. These are arranged centrally, on the vertical axis of the pyramid.

Great Pyramid of Giza, Cross Section

The Great Pyramid of Giza, also called Khufu's Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu, and Pyramid of Cheops,…

The Grand Gallery features a corbel haloed design and several cut "sockets" spaced at regular intervals along the length of each side of its raised base with a "trench" running along its center length at floor level. What purpose these sockets served is unknown. An antechamber leads from the Grand Gallery to the King's Chamber.

Great Pyramid of Giza, Section of the Grand Gallery

The Grand Gallery features a corbel haloed design and several cut "sockets" spaced at regular…

The King's Chamber is lined with red granite brought from Aswan 935 km (580 miles) to the south, of which the blocks used for the roof are estimated to weigh 50 to 80 tons. Egyptologists believe they were transported on barges down the Nile river.

Great Pyramid of Giza, King's Chamber

The King's Chamber is lined with red granite brought from Aswan 935 km (580 miles) to the south, of…

An section illustration of the Great Pyramid.

Great Pyramid Section

An section illustration of the Great Pyramid.

A: King's Chamber;B: Queen's Chamber;C: Chamber Cut in Rock.

Section of Great Pyramid

A: King's Chamber; B: Queen's Chamber; C: Chamber Cut in Rock.

"Vertical Section of the Great pyramid, looking West showingA. Entrance passage.       B. A later opening.D. First ascending passage. E. Horizontal Passage.F. Queen's chamber.G G. Grand gallery.H. Antechamber.I. Coffer.K. King's chamber.M N. Ventilating chambers.O. Subterranean chamber.P. Well, so-called.R R R. Probable extent to which the native rock is employed to assist the masonry of the building." - West, 1904

Vertical section of the Great Pyramid

"Vertical Section of the Great pyramid, looking West showing A. Entrance passage. B. A later opening. D.…

"Section through Hall of Columns, Karnak. a, Clerestory window." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Hall of Columns

"Section through Hall of Columns, Karnak. a, Clerestory window." — The Encyclopedia Britannica,…

Columned Hall of the Temple of Karnak

Columned Hall

Columned Hall of the Temple of Karnak

"Pointed horseshoe arches, found in the mosque of Tulun, Cairo, 9th century." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Horseshoe Arch

"Pointed horseshoe arches, found in the mosque of Tulun, Cairo, 9th century." — The Encyclopedia…

"Exterior view of Kaid Bey Mosque, Cairo." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Kaid Bey Mosque

"Exterior view of Kaid Bey Mosque, Cairo." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

"Interior view of Kaid Bey Mosque, Cairo." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Kaid Bey Mosque

"Interior view of Kaid Bey Mosque, Cairo." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Karnak is a vast grouping of ruined temples, chapels, pylons and other buildings located mear Luxor, Egypt. Built over 1300 years ago, it consists of large columns arranged in rows.

Karnak

Karnak is a vast grouping of ruined temples, chapels, pylons and other buildings located mear Luxor,…

Campaniform capital at Karnak.

Karnak Capital

Campaniform capital at Karnak.

The Karnak temple complex, universally known only as Karnak, describes a vast conglomeration of ruined temples, chapels, pylons and other buildings. It is located near Luxor in Egypt. This was ancient Egyptian Ipet-isut ("The Most Selected of Places"), the main place of worship of the Theban Triad with Amun as its head, in the monumental city of Thebes.

Temple of Karnak

The Karnak temple complex, universally known only as Karnak, describes a vast conglomeration of ruined…

"The hall measures 170 feet deep by 329 feet broad. Its roof was supported by a central avenue of 12 massive columns, each 67 feet in height and 33 feet in circumference. Additional support was afforded by several rows of shorter columns (122 in all) disposed on each side of those in the middle avenues."—Webster, 1913

Central Avenue, Hall of Columns, Karnak

"The hall measures 170 feet deep by 329 feet broad. Its roof was supported by a central avenue of 12…

"Karnak is a village in Egypt built on the site of Thebes, on the bank of the Nile, and renowned for its magnificent architectural antiquities. The principal one of these is the Great Temple, 1,200 feet long and 330 feet wide. In this are found great colonades, obelisks, and a vast quantity of sculptures. Various colored marbles, sandstones and granite are used. Other smaller temples abound, beautifully ornamented with mural decorations which portray the kings, divinities and recreations of those ancient peoples. These temples were erected at various times from 1500 B.C. to 28 B.C."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Temple of Karnak

"Karnak is a village in Egypt built on the site of Thebes, on the bank of the Nile, and renowned for…

Gallery of columns. Built by Ramses III during ancient Egypt.

Temple of Chesnu at Karnak

Gallery of columns. Built by Ramses III during ancient Egypt.

At the end of the lengthy series of entrance ways leading into the interior is the structure's main chamber, the King's Chamber. This chamber was originally 10 × 20 × 11.2 cubits, or about 5.25 m × 10.5 m × 6 m, comprising a double 10 × 10 cubit square, and a height equal to half the double square's diagonal.

Section of the King's Chamber

At the end of the lengthy series of entrance ways leading into the interior is the structure's main…

Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in the city today known as Luxor (ancient Thebes) and was founded in 1400 BC. Known in the Egyptian language as ipet resyt, or "the southern harem", the temple was dedicated to the Theban Triad of Amun, Mut, and Chons and was built during the New Kingdom, the focus of the annual Opet Festival, in which a cult statue of Amun was paraded down the Nile from nearby Karnak Temple (ipet-isut) to stay there for a while, with his consort Mut, in a celebration of fertility, hence its name.

Luxor Temple

Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in…

Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in the city today known as Luxor (ancient Thebes) and was founded in 1400 BC. Known in the Egyptian language as ipet resyt, or "the southern harem", the temple was dedicated to the Theban Triad of Amun, Mut, and Chons and was built during the New Kingdom, the focus of the annual Opet Festival, in which a cult statue of Amun was paraded down the Nile from nearby Karnak Temple (ipet-isut) to stay there for a while, with his consort Mut, in a celebration of fertility – whence its name.

Luxor Temple

Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in…

The columns form three or four rows, the rows which face the court being closed in by walls of about half the height of the columns, and with the upper part crowned in the manner shown here. Molding, or moulding, is a strip of material with various cross sections used to cover transitions between surfaces or for decoration. In classical architecture and sculpture, the molding is often carved in marble or other stones.

Profile of the Moulding of the Walls between the Columns at the Great Temple at Philæ

The columns form three or four rows, the rows which face the court being closed in by walls of about…

Another element in Egyptian monuments which is worthy of study is the hieroglyphics, which mean, literally, sacred sculptures, and that not only because he condition and direction of architecture are thence to be learnt, but because also of the historical disclosures which they bring about.

Mural Decoration with Heiroglyphics from the Great Temple at Philæ

Another element in Egyptian monuments which is worthy of study is the hieroglyphics, which mean, literally,…

Obelisk of Heliopolis

Obelisk

Obelisk of Heliopolis

They are generally of smaller dimensions in the interior, so that the walls or columns of the same chamber contain several rows of such representations. Between and over them are often found ornamented bands like friezes, and at the bottom of the walls, as in the case of the columns, are introduced more decorations, representing lotus-plants.

Ornament at the foot of the wall from the Great Temple at Philæ

They are generally of smaller dimensions in the interior, so that the walls or columns of the same chamber…

In several Egyptian temples there are square or rectangular piers fronted with colossal sculptured figures of Osirid holding a scourge and a "Nile key" or "key of life."

Osirid Pier

In several Egyptian temples there are square or rectangular piers fronted with colossal sculptured figures…

Piers and columns sustained the roofs for chambers that were too wide for single lintels, and produced, in halls like those of Karnak, of the Ramesseum, or of Denderah, a stupendous effect by their height, massiveness, number, and color decoration. The simplest piers were plain square shafts. The most striking were those against whose front faces were coarved colossal figures of Osiris, as at Luxor, Medinet Habu, and Karnak.

Osiris Pier, Medinet Habu

Piers and columns sustained the roofs for chambers that were too wide for single lintels, and produced,…

A decorative Egyptian pillar. A pillar is similar to a column which is a vertical support structure in architecture, but the base section is any shape but circular.

Pillar

A decorative Egyptian pillar. A pillar is similar to a column which is a vertical support structure…

"Columns are largely employed in the architecture of Egyptian temples. They are of various forms." —D'Anvers, 1895

Pillar and beam

"Columns are largely employed in the architecture of Egyptian temples. They are of various forms." —D'Anvers,…

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling the sheath from which the stalk of a plant springs. The same ornament often occurs at the base of the shaft, and seems to a certain extent borrowed from the shape of the lower portion of the papyrus plant. Other capitals imitate an unopened bud or seed-pod (here).

Pillar at the Palace at Luxor

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling…

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling the sheath from which the stalk of a plant springs. The same ornament often occurs at the base of the shaft, and seems to a certain extent borrowed from the shape of the lower portion of the papyrus plant (here). Other capitals imitate an unopened bud or seed-pod.

Pillar at the Temple at Edfu

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling…

This is a map of the Plan of Karnak, near Luxor, Egypt. Egyptian–style architecture. "The great temple of Karnak...was the work of many successive monarchs" — Enctclopædia Britannica, 1910. The temple is built of granite.

Plan of Karnak, 2134–1999 BC

This is a map of the Plan of Karnak, near Luxor, Egypt. Egyptian–style architecture. "The…

This is a plan of the Temple of Chons (Khonsu) in Luxor, Egypt. Egyptian-style architecture. Scale in feet.

Plan of the Temple of Chons, 2134–1999 BC

This is a plan of the Temple of Chons (Khonsu) in Luxor, Egypt. Egyptian-style architecture. Scale in…

This is a plan of the Temple of Edfu in Egypt. This is an example of Egyptian–style architecture. The key shows the architectural features of the Pylon (A), entrance door (B), Great Court (C), Hall of Columns (D), Second Hall (E), Hall of the Altar (F), Hall of the Centre (G), Sanctuary (H), and storerooms (K).

Plan of the Temple of Edfu, 2134–1999 BC

This is a plan of the Temple of Edfu in Egypt. This is an example of Egyptian–style architecture.…

Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in the city today known as Luxor (ancient Thebes) and was founded in 1400 <small>BC</small>. The temple properly begins with the 24 meter (79 ft) high First Pylon, built by Ramesses II. The pylon was decorated with scenes of Ramesses's military triumphs (particularly the Battle of Kadesh). Pylon is the Greek term for a monumental gateway of an Egyptian temple. It consists of two tapering towers, each surmounted by a cornice, joined by a less elevated section which enclosed the entrance between them.

Pylon at the Palace at Luxor

Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in…

Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in the city today known as Luxor (ancient Thebes) and was founded in 1400 <small>BC</small>. The temple properly begins with the 24 meter (79 ft) high First Pylon, built by Ramesses II. The pylon was decorated with scenes of Ramesses's military triumphs (particularly the Battle of Kadesh). Pylon is the Greek term for a monumental gateway of an Egyptian temple. It consists of two tapering towers, each surmounted by a cornice, joined by a less elevated section which enclosed the entrance between them.

Pylon at the Palace at Luxor, Profile with Colossal Statue and Obelisk

Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in…

Exterior of the Pylon of the Temple of Edfu.

Pylon of the Temple of Edfu

Exterior of the Pylon of the Temple of Edfu.

An architectural structure of solid masonry, built for various purposes in different parts of the world.

Pyramid

An architectural structure of solid masonry, built for various purposes in different parts of the world.

"Pyramid and Sphinx at Gizeh" &mdash; Morey, 1903

Pyramid Sphinx

"Pyramid and Sphinx at Gizeh" — Morey, 1903

The pyramids of Egypt.

Pyramids

The pyramids of Egypt.

An illustration of two pyramids. A pyramid is a building where the upper surfaces are triangular and converge on one point. The base of pyramids are usually quadrilateral or trilateral (but generally may be of any polygon shape), meaning that a pyramid usually has three or four sides. A pyramid's design, with the majority of the weight closer to the ground, means that less material higher up on the pyramid will be pushing down from above.

Pyramids

An illustration of two pyramids. A pyramid is a building where the upper surfaces are triangular and…

An illustration of the Egyptian landscape with three pyramids in the distance.

Pyramids

An illustration of the Egyptian landscape with three pyramids in the distance.

Pyramids and palms

Pyramids

Pyramids and palms

Pyramids and sphinx

Pyramids and sphinx

Pyramids and sphinx

The Ramesseum is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Ramesses II. Labels in this diagram: a, sanctuary; b, Hypostyle; c, second court; d, entrance court; e, pylons.

Plan of the Ramasseum

The Ramesseum is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Ramesses II. Labels in this diagram:…

"The Ramesseum" &mdash; Morey, 1903

Ramesseum

"The Ramesseum" — Morey, 1903

The Sphinx of Ramses II is a 3,300 year old Egyptian monument. Ramses II was the third Pharaoh of the 19th dynasty. He is also known as "The Great Ramses" because he was celebrated as the most powerful Pharaoh.

The Sphinx of Ramses II

The Sphinx of Ramses II is a 3,300 year old Egyptian monument. Ramses II was the third Pharaoh of the…

An illustration of the restoration of a court in Sargon's palace at Khorsabad.

Sargon's Palace at Khorsabad

An illustration of the restoration of a court in Sargon's palace at Khorsabad.

"Sphinx is a Greek word signifying 'strangler,' applied to certain symbolical forms of Egyptian origin, having the body of a lion, a human or an animal head, and two wings. Various other combinations of animal forms have been called by this name, though they are rather griffins or chim&aelig;ras. Human-headed sphinxes have been called andro-sphinxes; that with the head of a ram, a criosphinx; and that with a hawk's head, a hieracosphinx. The form when complete had the wings added at the sides; but these are of a later period and seem to have originated with the Babylonians or Assyrians. In Egypt the sphinx also occurs as the symbolical form of the monarch considered as a conqueror, the head of the reigning king being placed on a loin's body, the face bearded, and the usual head dress. Thus used, the sphinx was generally male; but in the case of female rulers that figure has a female head and the body of a lioness. The most remarkable sphinx is the Great Sphinx at Gizeh (Giza), a colossal form hewn out of the natural rock, and lying about a quarter of a mile S.E. of the Great Pyramid. It is sculptured out of a spur of the rock itself, to which masonry has been added in certain places to complete the shape, and it measures 172 feet 6 inches long by 56 feet high."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Sphinx

"Sphinx is a Greek word signifying 'strangler,' applied to certain symbolical forms of Egyptian origin,…

"Egyptian Sphinx."&mdash;D'Anvers, 1895

Sphinx

"Egyptian Sphinx."—D'Anvers, 1895

Nine hundred sphinx's with rams' heads, representing Amon, were built in Thebes, where his cult was strongest.

Sphinx at Thebes

Nine hundred sphinx's with rams' heads, representing Amon, were built in Thebes, where his cult was…

The Great Sphinx is a statue with the face of a man and the body of a lion. Blocks of stone weighing upwards of 200 tons were quarried in the construction phase to build the adjoining Sphinx Temple. It is located on the west bank of the Nile River within the confines of the Giza pyramid field. The Great Sphinx faces due east, with a small temple between its paws.

Plan of the Sphinx Temple

The Great Sphinx is a statue with the face of a man and the body of a lion. Blocks of stone weighing…

The Great Sphinx is a statue with the face of a man and the body of a lion. Blocks of stone weighing upwards of 200 tons were quarried in the construction phase to build the adjoining Sphinx Temple. It is located on the west bank of the Nile River within the confines of the Giza pyramid field. The Great Sphinx faces due east, with a small temple between its paws.

Ruins of the Sphinx Temple

The Great Sphinx is a statue with the face of a man and the body of a lion. Blocks of stone weighing…

Restored Temple, from the Egyptian Commission.

Temple

Restored Temple, from the Egyptian Commission.

In most rock-temples a court, which is sometimes hewn out of the rock, or a covered vestibule forms the entrance, which opens into an entrance-hall, with smaller chamber beyond, in which pillars or columns are introduced according to the exigencies of the case.

Cross Section of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel

In most rock-temples a court, which is sometimes hewn out of the rock, or a covered vestibule forms…

In 1959 an international donations campaign to save the monuments of Nubia began: the southernmost relics of this ancient human civilization were under threat from the rising waters of the Nile that were about to result from the construction of the Aswan High Dam. This image gives a perspective view of the entrance hall, in which are seen eight standing colossal statues 33 feet high, supported by square piers.1

Entrance to the Great Temple at Abu Simbel

In 1959 an international donations campaign to save the monuments of Nubia began: the southernmost relics…

Four colossal 20 meter statues of the pharaoh with the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt decorate the facade of the temple, which is 35 meters wide and is topped by a frieze with 22 baboons, worshippers of the sun and flank the entrance. The colossal statues were sculptured directly from the rock in which the temple was located before it was moved. All statues represent Ramesses II, seated on a throne and wearing the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. The statue to the left of the entrance was damaged in an earthquake, leaving only the lower part of the statue still intact. The head and torso can still be seen at the statue's feet.

Entrance of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel

Four colossal 20 meter statues of the pharaoh with the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt decorate…

In most rock-temples a court, which is sometimes hewn out of the rock, or a covered vestibule forms the entrance, which opens into an entrance-hall, with smaller chamber beyond, in which pillars or columns are introduced according to the exigencies of the case.

Floor Plan of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel

In most rock-temples a court, which is sometimes hewn out of the rock, or a covered vestibule forms…

This image shows how the middle passage is made more imposing by the arrangement of elevating the columns in the middle, and how at the same time a means is contrived of lighting the whole hall by the raised side-lights.

Hall Section of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel

This image shows how the middle passage is made more imposing by the arrangement of elevating the columns…

The Temple of Debod is an ancient Egyptian temple which was rebuilt in Madrid, Spain. The temple was built originally 15 km south of Aswan in southern Egypt very close to the first cataract of the Nile and to the great religious center dedicated to the goddess Isis, in Phil&aelig;.

Great Temple at the Island of Philæ

The Temple of Debod is an ancient Egyptian temple which was rebuilt in Madrid, Spain. The temple was…