"Stamp from the Stamp Act. The first direct issue of importance between the colonies and England came when Parliament undertook to lay a tax to be collected by officers appointed for the purpose. This was the Stamp Act, by which it was required that a stamp should be affixed to any deed, contract, bill of sale, will, and the like, made in America before it could be legal. These stamps were to be made in England and sent over to American to be sold by the government officers. It was intended that the money thus raised should be used for the support of the king's troops in America. The Stamp Act was passed by Parliament in March, 1765, and as soon as this was known in America, the colonies, from one end of the land to the other, were full of indignation. Parliament, they said, might make laws to regulate the commerce of the empire, and so draw revenue from America; but it had no right to lay a direct tax like this. Only the colonial governments, elected by the people, could lay such a tax."—Scudder, 1897

Stamp Act

"Stamp from the Stamp Act. The first direct issue of importance between the colonies and England came…

"General John Stark, an American general who fought at Bunker Hill and Trenton."—E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

General John Stark

"General John Stark, an American general who fought at Bunker Hill and Trenton."—E. Benjamin Andrews,…

"The State House as it appeared in 1774."—Lossing, 1851

State House

"The State House as it appeared in 1774."—Lossing, 1851

"Walnut Street front of the State House in 1776. This gives the appearance of the shorter steeple, which took the place of the stately one taken down in 1774. This was its appearance during the Revolution. A huge clock case was upon each gable of the main building of the State House."—Lossing, 1851

State House

"Walnut Street front of the State House in 1776. This gives the appearance of the shorter steeple, which…

Steuben's head-quarters. This view is from the field in front of the house, looking north. The dwelling is at the end of a lane several rods from the main road leading to Middlebrook from New Brunswick. It is on the western side of the Raritan, and about a mile from the bridge near Middlebrook. Only the center building was in existence at the time in question, and that seems to have been enlarged. Each wing has since been added. The interior of the old part is kept in the same condition as it was when Steuben occupied it, being, like most of the better dwellings of that time, neatly wainscoted with pine, wrought into moldings and panels.

Steuben's Head-Quarters

Steuben's head-quarters. This view is from the field in front of the house, looking north. The dwelling…

"Steuben's rural monument."—Lossing, 1851

Steuben's Monument

"Steuben's rural monument."—Lossing, 1851

"Steuben's mural monument."—Lossing, 1851

Steuben's Mural

"Steuben's mural monument."—Lossing, 1851

"Baron von Steuben, a trained German soldier, who had been a pupil of Frederick the Great, joined the American army and was made inspector general."—E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

Baron von Steuben

"Baron von Steuben, a trained German soldier, who had been a pupil of Frederick the Great, joined the…

"Medal awarded to Major Stewart. This represents the medal the size of the original. On the back side is a fortress on an eminence. In the foreground an officer is cheering on his men, who are following him over abatis with charged bayonets, the enemy flying. Troops in single file are ascending to the fort on one side; others are advancing from the shore; ships are in sight. The inscription is, 'Stony Point Oppugnatum XV. Jul. MDCCLXXIX;' 'Stony Point attacked 15th of July, 1779.'"—Lossing, 1851

Stewart Medal Back

"Medal awarded to Major Stewart. This represents the medal the size of the original. On the back side…

"Medal awarded to Major Stewart. This represents the medal the size of the original. The device is America personified by an Indian queen, who is presenting a palm branch to Major Stewart. A quiver is at her back; her left hand is resting on the American shield, and at her feet is an alligator crouchant. The legend is, 'Joanni Stewart Cohortis Prefecto, Comitia Americana,' 'The American Congress to Major John Stewart.'"—Lossing, 1851

Stewart Medal Front

"Medal awarded to Major Stewart. This represents the medal the size of the original. The device is America…

"Rear view at Stony Point. This sketch presents a rear view of the old embankments of the fort, and of the light-house, which is seen by all travelers upon the river, just before entering the Highlands. The beacon stands exactly in the center of the fort, upon the site of the magazine. There was a covered way toward the water on the north side of the hill, and about twenty yards in the rear are some prominent remains of the ravelins which extended across the point."—Lossing, 1851

Stony Point

"Rear view at Stony Point. This sketch presents a rear view of the old embankments of the fort, and…

"Old Store-House at Turtle Bay."—Lossing, 1851

Store House

"Old Store-House at Turtle Bay."—Lossing, 1851

"Fort Sullivan"—Lossing, 1851

Fort Sullivan

"Fort Sullivan"—Lossing, 1851

"General Sullivan, from the Southern Campaign."—E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

General Sullivan

"General Sullivan, from the Southern Campaign."—E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

(1734-1832) Public official and soldier that led campaigns during the American Revolutionary war.

Thomas Sumter

(1734-1832) Public official and soldier that led campaigns during the American Revolutionary war.

"View of 'Sunnyside,' the residence of Washington Irving. Built by Wolfert Ecker and known famously as 'Wolfert's Roost.'"—Lossing, 1851

Sunnyside

"View of 'Sunnyside,' the residence of Washington Irving. Built by Wolfert Ecker and known famously…

(--) Captain for a new organization of the navy during the Revolutionary War

Captain Silas Talbot

(--) Captain for a new organization of the navy during the Revolutionary War

(1754-1835) Captain during the Revolutionary War

Benjamin Tallmadge

(1754-1835) Captain during the Revolutionary War

"Washington's head-quarters at Tappan. This view is from the yard, near the well. The date of its erection (1700) is made by a peculiar arrangement of the bracks in the front wall. In the large room called 'Washington's quarters' the fireplace is surrounded by Dutch pictorial tiles illustrative of Scripture scenes. Indeed, the whole house remains in precisely the same condition, except what the elements have changed externally, as it was when the chief occupied it."—Lossing, 1851

Tappan head-quarters

"Washington's head-quarters at Tappan. This view is from the yard, near the well. The date of its erection…

"The encounter between Tarleton and Colonel Washington."—E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

Tarleton encounter

"The encounter between Tarleton and Colonel Washington."—E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

Old Tavern at Elizabethport. This view is looking eastward. In the distance, on the right, is seen a vessel, at the entrance of Newark Bay, and the land beyond is the high ground intervening between it and Jersey City. In one of the rooms of the old tavern is a Franklin stove, which has probably been a tenant there ever since it came from the foundery. I give a sketch of it, not only because it is a relic of the time, but because it doubtless shows the form of the stove as invented by Dr. Franklin in 1742, beore an "improvement" was made. On its front, in raised letters, are the words "Ross and Bird's Hibernia Foundry, 1782." Ross had a foundery at Elizabethtown in 1774, as appears by the inscription upon the dinner-bell of Sir William Johnson, now in the belfry of the old Caughnawaga Chuch at Fonda.

Tavern at Elizabethport

Old Tavern at Elizabethport. This view is looking eastward. In the distance, on the right, is seen a…

Boston Tea Party

Tea Party

Boston Tea Party

Temperance cross.

Temperance Cross

Temperance cross.

"The Temple. This view is from the site of the <em>Temple</em>, looking southeast. In the distance is seen the opening of the Highlands into Newburgh Bay. On the right is Butter Hill, and near it is the village of Cornwall. The form and appearance of the <em>Temple</em> was drawn from the description given by Major Burnet, and doubtless has a general resemblance to the original."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Temple

"The Temple. This view is from the site of the Temple, looking southeast. In the distance is…

View below the Falls. This view was taken from under the bridge, looking down the river. The cave opens upon the river just below where the figures stand.

The Falls

View below the Falls. This view was taken from under the bridge, looking down the river. The cave opens…

The Green, Fairfield

The Green, Fairfield

The Green, Fairfield

Charles Thomson (November 29, 1729 &ndash; August 16, 1824) was a Patriot leader in Philadelphia during the American Revolution and the secretary of the Continental Congress (1774&ndash;1789) throughout its existence.

Charles Thomson

Charles Thomson (November 29, 1729 – August 16, 1824) was a Patriot leader in Philadelphia during…

Ticonderoga at sunset.

Ticonderoga

Ticonderoga at sunset.

View near Toby's Eddy. The Moravians had established six missionary settlements in the vicinity of the Forks of the Delaware, or the junction of the Delaware and Lehigh Rivers, viz., Nazareth, Bethlehem, Nain, Freidenshal, Gandenthaul, and Gnadenhutten. The latter, the name of which in English is "Huts of Mercy," was founded chiefly for the accommodation and protection of those Indians who embraced the Christian faith. Hence it was the first settlement attaked by the hostile savages.

Toby's Eddy

View near Toby's Eddy. The Moravians had established six missionary settlements in the vicinity of the…

Tomahawk made of iron.

tomahawk 1

Tomahawk made of iron.

"Top of Tonomy Hill. This view is from the northside of the hill, looking south. The wall appearance is a steep precipice of huge masses of pudding-stone, composed of pebbles and larger smooth stones, ranging in size from a pea to a man's head. It is a very singular geological formation. In some places the face is smooth, the stones, and pebbles appearing as if they had been cut with a knife while in a pasty or semi-fluid state. On the top of this mound are traces of the breast-works that were thrown up, not high, for the rocks formed a natural rampart, on all sides but one, against an enemy, Here Miantonomoh had his fort, and here his councils were held when he planned his expeditions agains the Mohegans. The observatory is a strong frame covered with lattice-work. On the right is seen the city of Newport in the distance."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Tonomy Hill

"Top of Tonomy Hill. This view is from the northside of the hill, looking south. The wall appearance…

"Torn Rock. This view is from the verge of the dam above the Ramapo works, near the rail-way, looking northeast. The eminence is called Torn Rock, from its ragged appearance on its southeastern side. There is a deep fissure in a portion of the bare rock, from which comes up a sound like the ticking of a watch, caused by the water which percolates through the seams in the granite. A tradition was long current that Washington lost his watch in the fissure, and that, by some miraculous power, it continued to tick!'"&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Torn Rock

"Torn Rock. This view is from the verge of the dam above the Ramapo works, near the rail-way, looking…

"Trading Ford. This view of the Trading Ford, where greene, with Morgan and his light troops, crossed the Yadkin, is from the east side of the river. It is just at the foot of an island, about a mile and a half below the great bridge on the road to Salisbury. The river is usually fordable between the island and the stakes seen in the picture; below that point the water is deep."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Trading Ford

"Trading Ford. This view of the Trading Ford, where greene, with Morgan and his light troops, crossed…

"Reverse of a Massachusetts Treasury note. This is a fac simile of the device on the back of one of the first of the Massachusetts treasury notes or bills of credit. The literal translation of the Latin inscription is 'He seeks by the sword calm repose under the auspices of Freedom.' In othe words, to use a phrase of the present time, they were determined 'to conquer a peace.' The face of the bill has a neatly-engraved border of scroll-work; and on the left of the brace where the names of the committee are signed, is a circle with a ship within it."—Lossing, 1851

Treasury Note

"Reverse of a Massachusetts Treasury note. This is a fac simile of the device on the back of one of…

"Treaty Monument. This monument stands near the intersection of Hanover and Beach Streets, Kensington, on the spot where the celebrated <em>Treaty Tree</em> stood. The tree was blown down in 1810, when it was ascertained to be 283 years old. When the British were in possession of Philadelphia, during the winter of 1778, their foraging parties were out in every direction for fuel. To protect this tree from the ax, Colonel Simcoe, of the Queen's Rangers, placed a sentinel under it. Of its remains, many chairs, vases, work-stands, and other articles have been made. The commemorative monument was erected by the Penn Society. Upon it are the following inscriptions: North Side: 'Treaty ground of William Penn and the indian nation, 1682. Unbroken Faith.' South Side: 'William Penn, born 1644. Died, 1718.' West Side: 'Placed by the Penn Society, A. D. 1827, to mark the site of the great Elm Tree.' East Side: 'Pennsylvania founded, 1681, by deeds of Peace.'"&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Treaty Monument

"Treaty Monument. This monument stands near the intersection of Hanover and Beach Streets, Kensington,…

"Facsimile of signatures to Treaty of Peace."&mdash;E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

Treaty of Peace

"Facsimile of signatures to Treaty of Peace."—E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

The Treaty Table. The table on which the capitulation was drawn up and signed was still in possession of a daughter of Mr. Bennet (Mrs. Myers) when I visited her in September, 1848. I shall have occasion to mention this venerable woman presently. The table is of black walnut, small, and of oval form, and was a pretty piece of furniture when new. It is preserved with much care by the family. The house of Mr. Bennet was near Forty Fort, and himself and family, with their most valuable effects, were within the stockade when it surrendered.

Treaty Table

The Treaty Table. The table on which the capitulation was drawn up and signed was still in possession…

"Trenton Bridge and vicinity. This view is from the north side of the Assanpink, a few rods above the bridge, looking south. The bridge, seen upon the right, is built of stone, and very strong, and is upon the site of the old one. The creek is curbed by a dam near the bridge, and forms the sheet of water seen in the picture. The old 'Stacey Mill' of the Revolution, the largest building in the sketch, was quite dilapidated from the effects of fire and flood, when I was there. The two old houses on the left of it are of stone, covered with stucco, and were there at the time in question. On the bank, between them and the house of Mr. Timothy Abbott, seen on the extreme left, was a building used as a tavern, in the Revolution. It was demolished a few years ago. Along the high bank, from the mill eastward to the rail-way, now covered with houses and gardens, and also westward, some distance toward the Delaware, the Americans were encamped. The bank was being terraced when I visited Trenton, and will, in time, be a beautiful spot."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Trenton

"Trenton Bridge and vicinity. This view is from the north side of the Assanpink, a few rods above the…

Scene from the Battle at Trenton, during the American Revolution.

Trenton

Scene from the Battle at Trenton, during the American Revolution.

Landing-place of General Tryon.

Tryon Landing

Landing-place of General Tryon.

"Seal and signature of Tryon. William Tryon was a native of Ireland, and was educated to the profession of a soldier. He was an officer in the British service. He married Miss Wake, a relative of the Earl of Hillsborough, secretary for the colonies. Thus connected, he was a favorite of government, and was appointed lieutenant governor of North Carolina, in 1765. On the death of Governor Dobbs, he succeeded him in office, and exercised its functions until called to fill the same office in New York, in 1771. The history of his administration in North Carolina is a record of extortion, folly, and crime. During his administration in New York, the Revolution broke out, and he was the last royal governor of that state, though nominally succeeded in office in 1780 by General Robertson, when he was returned to England. His property in North Carolina and in New York was confiscated."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Tryon Seal

"Seal and signature of Tryon. William Tryon was a native of Ireland, and was educated to the profession…

"Front view of Tryon's Palace. The view here given was the north front, toward the town. The center edifice was the palace. The building on the right was the secretary's office and the laundry; that upon the left was the kitchen and servant's hall. These were connected with the palace by a curviform colonmade, of five columns each, and covered. Between these buildings, in front of the palace, was a handsome court. The rear of the building was finished in the style of the Mansion-House in London."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Tryon Palace

"Front view of Tryon's Palace. The view here given was the north front, toward the town. The center…

The seal and signature of William Tryon. Tryon was the royal governor North Carolina and New York. The history of Tryon's administration is a record of folly, extortion, and crime, and he gained the name of "The Wolf of North Carolina." He was governor of New York when the Revolutionary War broke out, and he was the last governor of that province appointed by the crown.

Seal and Signature of Tryon

The seal and signature of William Tryon. Tryon was the royal governor North Carolina and New York. The…

"View at Tuckesege Ford. This view is from the western bank of the Catawba, looking down the stream."—Lossing, 1851

Tuckesege Ford

"View at Tuckesege Ford. This view is from the western bank of the Catawba, looking down the stream."—Lossing,…

"View at Turtle Bay. Turtle Bay is a small rock-bound cove of the East River, at the foot of Forty-seventh Street. The banks are high and precipitous, and afforded a safe retreat for small vessels. Here the government had made a magazine of military stores, and these the Sons of Liberty determined to seize. Under the direction of Lamb, Sears, Willett, and McDougal, a party procured a sloop at Greenwich, came stealthily through the dangerous vortex of Hell Gate at twilight, and at midnight surprised and captured the guard, and secured the stores. The old store-house in which they were deposited is yet standing upon a wharf on the southern side of the little bay. The above view is from the bank at the foot of Forty-sixth Street. Beyond the rocky point on the north side of the bay is seen the lower end of Blackwell's Island, with the shore of Long Island in the distance. On the left of the old store-house, is seen the bridge across the mouth of Newtown Creek, a locality which will be mentioned presently in connection with a notice of the landing of troops under Sir Henry Clinton."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Turtle Bay

"View at Turtle Bay. Turtle Bay is a small rock-bound cove of the East River, at the foot of Forty-seventh…

"Union Flag. The first recognized Continental Standard, raised for the first time January 2, 1776."&mdash;E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

Union flag

"Union Flag. The first recognized Continental Standard, raised for the first time January 2, 1776."—E.…

The headquarters in Valley Forge of General George Washington during the American Revolution.

Washington's Headquarters at Valley Forge

The headquarters in Valley Forge of General George Washington during the American Revolution.

Van Schaick's Mill. This view is taken from the left bank of the Walloomscoick, a little below the bridge. The mill belonged to a Whig named Van Schaick, who had joined General Stark's collecting forces at Bennington.

Van Schaick's Mill

Van Schaick's Mill. This view is taken from the left bank of the Walloomscoick, a little below the bridge.…

"Van Wart's monument. The following are the inscriptions upon this monument: North Side: 'Here repose the mortal remains of Isaac Van Wart, an elder in the Greenburgh church, who died on the 23d of May, 1828, in the 69th year of his age. Having lived the life, he died the death, of the Christian. South Side: 'The citizens of the county of West Chester erected this tomb in testimony of the high sense they entertained for the virtuous and patriotic conduct of their fellow-citizen, as a memorial sacred to public graditute.' East Side: 'Vincent, Amor Patriae. Nearly half a century before this monument was built, the conscript fathers of America had, in the Senate chamber, voted that Isaac Van Wart was a faithful patriot, one in whom the love of country was invincible, and this tomb bears testimony that the record is true.' West Side: 'Fidelity. On the 23d of September, 1780, Isaac Van Wart, accompanied by John Paulding and David Williams, all farmers of the county of West Chester, intercepted Major Andre, on his return from the American lines in the character of a spy, and, notwithstanding the large bribes offered them for his release, nobly disclaimed to sacrifice their country for gold, secured and carried him to the commanding officer of the district, whereby the dangerous and traitorous conspiracy of Arnold was brought to light, the insiduous designs of the enemy, baffled, the American army saved, and our beloved country free.'"&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Van Wart's Monument

"Van Wart's monument. The following are the inscriptions upon this monument: North Side: 'Here repose…

The Vankleek House. It was built by Myndert Vankleek, one of the first settlers in Dutchess county, in 1702, and was the first substantial house erected upon the site of Poughkeepsie. Its walls were very thick, and near the eaves they were pierced with lancet loop-holes for musketry. It was here that Ann Lee, the founder of the sect called Shaking Quakers, in this country, was lodged the night previous to her commitment to the Poughkeepsie jail, in 1776. She was a native of Manchester, England. During her youth she was employed in a cotton factory, and afterward as a cook in the Manchester infirmary. She married a blacksmith named Stanley; became acquainted with James and Jane Wardley, the originators of the sect in England, and in 1758 joined the small society they had formed. In 1770 she pretended to have received a revelation, while confined in prison on account of her religious fanaticism; and so great were the spiritual gifts she was believed to possess, that she was soon acknowledged a spirtual mother in Christ. Hence her name of Mother Ann. She and her husband came to New York in 1774. He soon afterward abandoned her and her faith, and married another woman. She collected a few followers, and in 1776 took up her abode in the woods of Watervliet, near Niskayuna, in the neighborhood of Troy. By some she was charged with witchcraft; and, because she was opposed to war, she was accused of secret correspondence with the British. A charge of high reason was preferred against her, and she was imprisoned in Albany during the summer. In the fall it was concluded to send her to New York, and banish her to the British army, but circumstances prevented the accomplishment of the design, and she was imprisoned in the Poughkeepsie jail until Governor Clinton, in 1777, hearing of her situation, released her. She returned to Watervliet, and her followers greatly increased. She died there in 1784, aged eighty-four years. Her followers sincerely believe that she now occupies that form or figure which John saw in his vision, standing beside the Savior.

Vankleek House

The Vankleek House. It was built by Myndert Vankleek, one of the first settlers in Dutchess county,…

(1725-1807) In charge of the French army that joined the Continental Army and fought in the American Revolution.  When he returned to France he commanded the army of the North in the French Revolution.

Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, Count De Rochambeau

(1725-1807) In charge of the French army that joined the Continental Army and fought in the American…

(--) General for the American Revolution

Baron Viomenil

(--) General for the American Revolution

(--) Captain during the Revolutionary War

Viscount Viomenil

(--) Captain during the Revolutionary War

"Great Seal of Virginia."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Virginia Seal

"Great Seal of Virginia."—Lossing, 1851

"Virginia market-wagon from the American Revolution."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Wagon

"Virginia market-wagon from the American Revolution."—Lossing, 1851

"Warren's monument."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Warren's Monument

"Warren's monument."—Lossing, 1851

General Warren fought in the Battle of Bunker's Hill during the American Revolution.

General Gouverneur K. Warren

General Warren fought in the Battle of Bunker's Hill during the American Revolution.

"Joseph Warren, of Boston, the idol of Massachusetts, was shot while leaving the redoubt of the Battle of Bunker Hill."—E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

Joseph Warren

"Joseph Warren, of Boston, the idol of Massachusetts, was shot while leaving the redoubt of the Battle…

Joseph Warren, an American patriot killed at Breed's Hill.

Joseph Warren

Joseph Warren, an American patriot killed at Breed's Hill.

George Washington directing the soldiers.

Washington

George Washington directing the soldiers.