A mechanical drawing exercise of drawing a curved line with circle in the middle. The image is drawn by drawing a small circle in the middle. The curved lines around the circle is drawn by using the ticked line as the radius.

Curved Line with Circle Mechanical Drawing Exercise

A mechanical drawing exercise of drawing a curved line with circle in the middle. The image is drawn…

"Extradosed Arch. a, abutments; v, voussoirs; s, springs; i, imposts; In, intrados; p, piers; k, keystone; Ex, extrados."-Whitney, 1902

Extradosed Arch

"Extradosed Arch. a, abutments; v, voussoirs; s, springs; i, imposts; In, intrados; p, piers; k, keystone;…

"Owing to the rarity and expensiveness of free-stone in Upper Italy, an architectural style in brick was developed side-by-side with that which has just been touched upon. This material had already been employed in the foregoing period for churches, and it now came into frequent use in the construction of the palaces. Bologna is especially rich in palaces of this description, which, with an admixture of earlier forms, belong for the most part to the Early Renissance, with semicircles for the heads of the opening, as was necessitated by the character of the material. The easy multiplication of the ornamental parts in burnt clay, generally led to an undue increase of the decorative element. Inasmuch as the main streets of Bologna have arcades running along them of which the individual palaces only embrace a portion, these buildings do not present the appearance of being totally detached, but seem rather parts of the entire front of the street, and show much similarity in the architecture of their façades with that of the arcades themselves."

Façade of a Palace at Bologna

"Owing to the rarity and expensiveness of free-stone in Upper Italy, an architectural style in brick…

"Flat arch, where the soffit is horizontal and sometimes slightly cambered (dotted line)." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Flat Arch

"Flat arch, where the soffit is horizontal and sometimes slightly cambered (dotted line)." — The…

"Pointed foiled arches, in the arcades of Beverley Minister and Netley Abbey." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Foiled Arch

"Pointed foiled arches, in the arcades of Beverley Minister and Netley Abbey." — The Encyclopedia…

An overthrust anticline of a strata fold.

Overthrust Anticline Folds

An overthrust anticline of a strata fold.

An overthrust anticline of a strata fold.

Overthrust Anticline Folds

An overthrust anticline of a strata fold.

"A syncline is a downfolding of the strata in the form of a trough, as at a...An anticline is an upfolding of the strata in the form of an arch, as at b." -Dryer, 1901

Strata Folds

"A syncline is a downfolding of the strata in the form of a trough, as at a...An anticline is an upfolding…

"The foot is built in the form of a half-dome or half-arch. This is to afford a broad, strong support surface for the support of the weight of the body. The bones of the toes and the heel form the piers, while the little bones wedged in between the metatarsal bones and the heel make up the keystone of the arch. This arch gives a certain amount of spring and elasticity to the feet, and hence it is of the upmost importance in preventing jars and jolts." — Blaisedell, 1904

Bones of the Foot

"The foot is built in the form of a half-dome or half-arch. This is to afford a broad, strong support…

A furnace is a device used for heating, mostly for manufacturing. Heat energy usually comes from fuel combustion, or electricity.

Arch Plate for Furnace

A furnace is a device used for heating, mostly for manufacturing. Heat energy usually comes from fuel…

The Seal of the State of Georgia, 1799. The seal shows an arch with three pillars symbolizing the constitution and the three branches of government. Around the pillars are banners which read "Wisdom," "Justice," and "Moderation." There is also a soldier representing protection of the constitution.

Seal of Georgia

The Seal of the State of Georgia, 1799. The seal shows an arch with three pillars symbolizing the constitution…

The angular curve made by the intersection of two semi-cylinders or arches. It is either regular or irregular.

Groin

The angular curve made by the intersection of two semi-cylinders or arches. It is either regular or…

A groin vault or groined vault (also sometimes known as a double barrel vault or cross vault) is produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults. The word groin refers to the edge between the intersecting vaults; cf. ribbed vault. Sometimes the arches of groin vaults are pointed instead of round. In comparison with a barrel vault, a groin vault provides good economies of material and labour. The thrust is concentrated along the groins or arrises (the four diagonal edges formed along the points where the barrel vaults intersect), so the vault need only be abutted at its four corners.

Groined Vault with Zig-Zag Ridge-Joints

A groin vault or groined vault (also sometimes known as a double barrel vault or cross vault) is produced…

"A beam only reaching partially across an opening." — Williams, 1889

Hammer-beam

"A beam only reaching partially across an opening." — Williams, 1889

"Horizontally-coursed Arch." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Horizontal Arch

"Horizontally-coursed Arch." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

"Horseshoe arch, with the center above the springing; employed in Moorish architecture." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Horseshoe Arch

"Horseshoe arch, with the center above the springing; employed in Moorish architecture." — The…

"Pointed horseshoe arches, found in the mosque of Tulun, Cairo, 9th century." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Horseshoe Arch

"Pointed horseshoe arches, found in the mosque of Tulun, Cairo, 9th century." — The Encyclopedia…

"Hyoid arch, branchial apparatus, and scapulary arch of the Perca." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Hyoid Arch

"Hyoid arch, branchial apparatus, and scapulary arch of the Perca." — Encyclopedia Britannica,…

Junction between an arch and the column, pier, or wall on which it rests.

Impost, Continuous

Junction between an arch and the column, pier, or wall on which it rests.

Junction between an arch and the column, pier, or wall on which it rests.

Impost, Discontinuous

Junction between an arch and the column, pier, or wall on which it rests.

Junction between an arch and the column, pier, or wall on which it rests.

Impost, Shafted

Junction between an arch and the column, pier, or wall on which it rests.

"Lancet Arch., Horseshoe Arch."-Whitney, 1902

Lancet Arch

"Lancet Arch., Horseshoe Arch."-Whitney, 1902

"Lancet arches, with centers outside the arch." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Lancet Arch

"Lancet arches, with centers outside the arch." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

"The Benedictine system enjoined three virtues as essential; solitude, humility, and obedience." — Young, 1901

Cloister of the Lateran

"The Benedictine system enjoined three virtues as essential; solitude, humility, and obedience." —…

"Multifoil cusped arch, invented by the Moors at Cordova in the 10th century." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Multifoil Arch

"Multifoil cusped arch, invented by the Moors at Cordova in the 10th century." — The Encyclopedia…

"Ogee Arch., Equilateral Arch."-Whitney, 1902

Ogee Arch

"Ogee Arch., Equilateral Arch."-Whitney, 1902

"Ogee arches, with curves of counter flexure, found in English Decorated and French Flamboyant." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Ogee Arch

"Ogee arches, with curves of counter flexure, found in English Decorated and French Flamboyant." —…

"A principal and distinctive feature of Italian public buildings and palaces of this time is the cortile (i.e. court-yard), surrounded by open arcades."

Cancellaria palace

"A principal and distinctive feature of Italian public buildings and palaces of this time is the cortile…

"A temple built about 1000 A.D. It is unique because of its Gothic gablets and trefoil arches." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Temple, Pandrethan

"A temple built about 1000 A.D. It is unique because of its Gothic gablets and trefoil arches." —…

The engraved illustration of Poliphilo in the garden from Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, one of the first printed books by Aldus Manutius.

Poliphilo in the Garden

The engraved illustration of Poliphilo in the garden from Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, one of the first…

"The following cut gives a view of of a portion of the paved street at the entrance of Pompeii. The upper surface consists of large polygonal blocks of the hardest stone, fitted and jointed with the utmost nicety, so as to present a perfectly even surface, as free from gaps or irregularities, as if the whole had been one solid mass." — Anthon, 1891

Pompeii

"The following cut gives a view of of a portion of the paved street at the entrance of Pompeii. The…

"The Pont-y-ru-Prydd goes over the River Taff near Newbridge. The arch measures 140 feet between the abutments, and has a rise or versed sine of 35 feet. The width of the soffit is 15 feet 10 inches at the springing, diminishing to 14 feet 5 inches at the crown by six offsers." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Pont-y-tu-Prydd

"The Pont-y-ru-Prydd goes over the River Taff near Newbridge. The arch measures 140 feet between the…

"Porta San Paolo" — Young, 1901

Porta San Paolo

"Porta San Paolo" — Young, 1901

A monumental gateway, usually between two towers in outline like truncated pyramids.

Propylon

A monumental gateway, usually between two towers in outline like truncated pyramids.

Roman Standards from the Arch of Constantine.

Roman Standards

Roman Standards from the Arch of Constantine.

"Besides the walls and ceilings of the interior, the façades were frequently decorated with sculptured figures, and the flat spaces between the windows and mouldings underwent ornamentation. This took place either by a manner of painting called sgraffito, in which the undercoating was black, with a thin surface-coating of white laid over it, and then the design or shading was engraved or scraped away down to the black grounding; or similar designs were executed in base-relief, whilst [this image] represents part of a façade painted in sgraffito."

Façade painted in Sgraffito at Rome

"Besides the walls and ceilings of the interior, the façades were frequently decorated with sculptured…

"The fire is made under the principal arch a; the flame and smoke return through the flue b, and then turn back over the top of the boiler to the outlet c, which can be placed at whatever point is in each case most convenient. The other parts referred to are d, flow pipe; e, return pipes, f, soot-door for cleaning flues, g, furnace door." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Saddle Boiler

"The fire is made under the principal arch a; the flame and smoke return through the flue b, and then…

"Segmental Arch.; Semicircular arch."-Whitney, 1902

Segmental Arch

"Segmental Arch.; Semicircular arch."-Whitney, 1902

"Segmental arch, where the center is below the springing." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Segmental Arch

"Segmental arch, where the center is below the springing." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

"Semicircular arch, he center of which is in the same line with its springers." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Semicircular Arch

"Semicircular arch, he center of which is in the same line with its springers." — The Encyclopedia…

"Arch of Severus, Column of Phocas, and S. Martina." — Young, 1901

Arch of Severus

"Arch of Severus, Column of Phocas, and S. Martina." — Young, 1901

"Skew Arch."-Whitney, 1902

Skew Arch

"Skew Arch."-Whitney, 1902

"Stilted arches, where the center is below the springing, but the sides are carried down vertically." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Stilted Arch

"Stilted arches, where the center is below the springing, but the sides are carried down vertically."…

"Stilted Arches.-Modern Romanesque."-Whitney, 1902

Stilted Arches

"Stilted Arches.-Modern Romanesque."-Whitney, 1902

"In the time of Trajan, the Arch of titus and the Colossus of Nero (a gilt bronze statue 120 feet high), stood near the site now occupied by the church of S. Francesca Romana. They were removed by Hadrian to make room for the Temple of Venus and Rome, the arch being placed in its present position, and the colossus on the large square pedestal near the Colosseum, of which some remains may be still identified." — Young, 1901

Arch of titus

"In the time of Trajan, the Arch of titus and the Colossus of Nero (a gilt bronze statue 120 feet high),…

The medieval enrichment torus moulding is a 13th century decoration found in an archivolt (underside of arch) in Gelnhausen, Germany..

Medieval Enrichment Torus Moulding

The medieval enrichment torus moulding is a 13th century decoration found in an archivolt (underside…

The arch erected in New York City to celebrate the return of Admiral George Dewey.

Triumphal Arch in New York City

The arch erected in New York City to celebrate the return of Admiral George Dewey.

"Applied to one of the 5 orders of arch, which allows no ornaments or flinting." — Williams, 1889

Tuscan order

"Applied to one of the 5 orders of arch, which allows no ornaments or flinting." — Williams, 1889

A ceiling vault divided into four parts.

Quadripartite Vault

A ceiling vault divided into four parts.

"Next in order are the productions of Jacopo Tatti, or Sansovino, who was born in 1479, and died in 1570. This architect was educated in the Florentine school, and afterwards proceeded to Rome; his masterpieces are less powerful and imposing but on the other hand, are more graceful, and display more richly developed details than those of San Michele."The Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana is a library and Renaissance building in Venice, northern Italy; it is one of the earliest surviving public manuscript depositories in the country, holding one of the greatest classical texts collections in the world. The library is named after St. Mark, the patron saint of Venice.

Old Liberty of St. Mark at Venice

"Next in order are the productions of Jacopo Tatti, or Sansovino, who was born in 1479, and died in…