Gateway of the Citadel, Cairo

Citadel, Cairo

Gateway of the Citadel, Cairo

A. Cross, B. Gate-house, C. Almonry, D. Chapel, E. Inner gate-house, F. Stable, G. Dormitory of lay brethren, H. Abbot's House. I. Kitchen, K. Refectory, L. Staircase to dormitory, M. Dormitory, N. Church, P. Library, R. Infirmary, S. Door to the church for the lay brothers, T. Base court, V. Great cloister, W. Small cloister, X. Boundary wall.

Bird Eye View of Citeaux

A. Cross, B. Gate-house, C. Almonry, D. Chapel, E. Inner gate-house, F. Stable, G. Dormitory of lay…

"Northampton Institute, Clerkenwell." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Clerkenwell

"Northampton Institute, Clerkenwell." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

This illustration shows a Clermont Gargoyle in France. Gargoyles, in Gothic architecture, are spouts projecting from the gutters of a building which carry the rain-water clear of the walls. Gargoyles are usually carved into different forms  (animal, human, demonic, grotesque) and serve as a distinguishing feature of ecclesiastical architecture.

Clermont Gargoyle

This illustration shows a Clermont Gargoyle in France. Gargoyles, in Gothic architecture, are spouts…

"This edifice was begun in the eleventh century, but was not finished until our own day (1880). It is one of the most imposing monuments of Gothic architecture in the world."—Myers, 1905

The Cologne Cathedral

"This edifice was begun in the eleventh century, but was not finished until our own day (1880). It is…

"Columns are largely employed in the architecture of Egyptian temples. They are of various forms." —D'Anvers, 1895

Column

"Columns are largely employed in the architecture of Egyptian temples. They are of various forms." —D'Anvers,…

"Columns are largely employed in the architecture of Egyptian temples. They are of various forms." —D'Anvers, 1895

Column

"Columns are largely employed in the architecture of Egyptian temples. They are of various forms." —D'Anvers,…

"Column with spiral ornament from Persepolis." —D'Anvers, 1895

Column

"Column with spiral ornament from Persepolis." —D'Anvers, 1895

"Many columns have capitals representing palm leaves." —D'Anvers, 1895

Capital of a column

"Many columns have capitals representing palm leaves." —D'Anvers, 1895

"The columns of <em>cipollino</em>, which belonged to the Palace of Domitian." &mdash; Young, 1901

Columns of Domitian

"The columns of cipollino, which belonged to the Palace of Domitian." — Young, 1901

"Columns of Temple of Castor, Temple of Augustus, and Palatine Hill." &mdash; Young, 1901

Columns of Temple of Castor

"Columns of Temple of Castor, Temple of Augustus, and Palatine Hill." — Young, 1901

Sections of Gothic Columns.

Columns, Gothic

Sections of Gothic Columns.

A mised order, combining the volutes of the Ionic order with the leaves of the Corinthian order.

Composite Order

A mised order, combining the volutes of the Ionic order with the leaves of the Corinthian order.

"This arch is the most modern and the best preseved of all the buildings which remain of the Imperial period. Probably it owes its preservation to the Christianity of its hero." &mdash; Young, 1901

Arch of Constantine

"This arch is the most modern and the best preseved of all the buildings which remain of the Imperial…

"The vast Arch of Constantine owes much of its interest to its sculptures having been borrowed from a Trajan monument of earlier date." &mdash;D'Anvers, 1895

Arch of Constantine

"The vast Arch of Constantine owes much of its interest to its sculptures having been borrowed from…

"In architecture, this term, adhering originally to its etymological meaning, signified an ornament in the form of a baske, like those sometimes set on the heads of carvatides. In Gothic architecture, to which it is now almost peculiar, it is applied to any kind of ornamented projection used for supporting pillars or other superincumbent weights." &mdash; Chambers, 1881

Corbel

"In architecture, this term, adhering originally to its etymological meaning, signified an ornament…

"In architecture, this term, adhering originally to its etymological meaning, signified an ornament in the form of a baske, like those sometimes set on the heads of carvatides. In Gothic architecture, to which it is now almost peculiar, it is applied to any kind of ornamented projection used for supporting pillars or other superincumbent weights." &mdash; Chambers, 1881

Corbel

"In architecture, this term, adhering originally to its etymological meaning, signified an ornament…

In architecture a corbel (or console) is a piece of stone jutting out of a wall to carry any superincumbent weight. A piece of timber projecting in the same way was called a "tassel" or a "bragger". The technique of corbelling, where rows of corbels deeply keyed inside a wall support a projecting wall or parapet, has been used since Neolithic times. It is common in Medieval architecture and in the Scottish baronial style as well as in the Classical architectural vocabulary, such as the modillions of a Corinthian cornice and in ancient Chinese architecture.

Corbel

In architecture a corbel (or console) is a piece of stone jutting out of a wall to carry any superincumbent…

Corinthian Order, common amonth the Romans.

Corinthian Order

Corinthian Order, common amonth the Romans.

One of the three orders of classical architecture. It was said to have been invented by an architect, Callimachus, who was inspired by the sight of a votive basket that had been left on the grave of a young girl.

Corinthian Order

One of the three orders of classical architecture. It was said to have been invented by an architect,…

The Corinthian order is one of the Classical orders of Greek and Roman architecture, characterized by a slender fluted column and an ornate capital decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls. Although of Greek origin, the Corinthian order was seldom used in Greek architecture.

Greek Corinthian Order

The Corinthian order is one of the Classical orders of Greek and Roman architecture, characterized by…

"Romanesque Arcaded Cornice. From a Church in Vienna." &mdash;D'Anvers, 1895

Arcaded cornice

"Romanesque Arcaded Cornice. From a Church in Vienna." —D'Anvers, 1895

The ruins of Coucy are what remains of a castle built in about the year 1230 by Enguerrand III, Lord of Coucy. The castle is located in the commune of Coucy-le-Chateau-Auffrique. The castle use to have four towers, however, they were demolished during World War I by German troops.

Ruins of Coucy

The ruins of Coucy are what remains of a castle built in about the year 1230 by Enguerrand III, Lord…

"American Type of Country-House Architecture." &mdash; The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Country-House

"American Type of Country-House Architecture." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

"In domestic architecture the tendency has been to quit picturesque irregularity for a more formal and more dignified treatment. Such a house as Norman Shaw's "Cragside," build in the earlier part of our period, however its picturesque treatment may still be admired, would hardly be build now on a large scale; its architect himself has of late years shown a preference for a symmetrical and regular treatment of house architecture sometimes to the extent of making the mansion look too like a barrack." &mdash; The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Cragside

"In domestic architecture the tendency has been to quit picturesque irregularity for a more formal and…

"Crail Church (before the restoration)." &mdash; Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Crail Church

"Crail Church (before the restoration)." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

"In architecture, an ornamental finishing, either carved in stone, or of tiles running along the top of a wall, or the ridge of a rood. Crest-tiles, or Crease-tiles, are frequently in the form either of small battlements or Tudor flowers, as in the accompanying illustration from Exeter Cathedral." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Crest-Tiles

"In architecture, an ornamental finishing, either carved in stone, or of tiles running along the top…

A crocket is a hook-shaped decorative element common in Gothic architecture. It is in the form of a stylised carving of curled leaves, buds or flowers which is used at regular intervals to decorate the sloping edges of spires, finials, pinnacles, and wimpergs.

Crocket

A crocket is a hook-shaped decorative element common in Gothic architecture. It is in the form of a…

A crocket is a hook-shaped decorative element common in Gothic architecture. It is in the form of a stylised carving of curled leaves, buds or flowers which is used at regular intervals to decorate the sloping edges of spires, finials, pinnacles, and wimpergs.

Crocket

A crocket is a hook-shaped decorative element common in Gothic architecture. It is in the form of a…

Crocket, as seen in Exeter Cathedral in England.

Crocket

Crocket, as seen in Exeter Cathedral in England.

"In Gothic Architecture, are projecting leaves, flowers, or bunches of foliage, used to decorate the angles of spires, canopies and pinnacles. The varieties of crockets are innumerable, almost every kind of leaf and flower being copied for the purpose." &mdash; Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Crockets

"In Gothic Architecture, are projecting leaves, flowers, or bunches of foliage, used to decorate the…

"In Gothic Architecture, are projecting leaves, flowers, or bunches of foliage, used to decorate the angles of spires, canopies and pinnacles. The varieties of crockets are innumerable, almost every kind of leaf and flower being copied for the purpose." &mdash; Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Crockets

"In Gothic Architecture, are projecting leaves, flowers, or bunches of foliage, used to decorate the…

A market cross is a structure used to mark a market square in market towns, originally from Western European architecture. Market crosses can be found in most market towns in Britain, with those in Scotland known as "mercat crosses". British emigrants often installed such crosses in their new cities and several can be found in Canada and Australia.

Market Cross

A market cross is a structure used to mark a market square in market towns, originally from Western…

This cross piece is part of a canopy. It is made out of carved wood with a design of spikes and scrolling leaves. It is a horizontal beam that is perpendicular to a canopy.

Crosspiece

This cross piece is part of a canopy. It is made out of carved wood with a design of spikes and scrolling…

"But perhaps the most effective and suitable employment of iron is shown in connection with glass, as has been exemplified in the temporary buildings for exhibitions, for which the Great Exhibition in London, in the year 1851, furnished the model which has so often been followed subsequently. This building was afterwards removed to Sydenham, and is now known as the Crystal Palace. In this structure the walls as well as the vaulted roof consist of glass inserted between iron girders, after the pattern of large conservatories and winter-gardens, especially of that in the Champs &Eacute;lyd&eacute;es at Paris, which is no longer in existence. Although this building scarcely seems like an architectural construction, but appears to form a peculiar specialty, still an impression is produced, which is hitherto unparalleled by its transparent termination in all directions, and by its dimensions, which have never been before attained in enclosed spaces. The distinguishing height of the main body of the building, which is divided into several naves and galleries , and if the loftier transept, which is 174 English feet high, is too considerable to recall the conservatory, which first suggested the idea to Paxton of constructing such a building on a large scale for the Great Exhibition. The visible stability of the system of construction gives a certain feeling of security as a counterpoise to the astonishment which the enormous size creates. On the other hand it is not to be denied that artistic execution in the forms of the constructive parts is wanting, though many difficulties would perhaps have had to be overcome to attain this without the structure suffering as regards solidity. These constructive elements, moreover, are not used as leading to further &aelig;sthetic development, so that a real artistic value can only be attributed to the novel impression of the whole, which is produced by the large dimensions and transparent walls."

Crystal Palace at Sydenham

"But perhaps the most effective and suitable employment of iron is shown in connection with glass, as…

"Cusp, in architecture, is the point formed by the meeting of two small arches, or foils, in foil arches, or tracery. Cusps often terminate in rich bosses of flowers and leaves." &mdash; Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Cusp

"Cusp, in architecture, is the point formed by the meeting of two small arches, or foils, in foil arches,…

"Dagoba from Ceylon." —D'Anvers, 1895

Dagoba

"Dagoba from Ceylon." —D'Anvers, 1895

"The Dome of St. Peter's from the Janiculan." &mdash; Young, 1901

Dome of St. Peter's

"The Dome of St. Peter's from the Janiculan." — Young, 1901

Grecian Doric Order.

Doric Order

Grecian Doric Order.

One of the three orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture.

Doric Order

One of the three orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture.

"Ground-plan of durham Cathedral." &mdash; Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Durham Cathedral

"Ground-plan of durham Cathedral." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Early English Style, Detached shafts in Lady Chapel, Salisbury Catherdral

Early English Style (Salisbury Cathedral)

Early English Style, Detached shafts in Lady Chapel, Salisbury Catherdral

Types of Egyptian Columns.

Egypt, Types of Columns of

Types of Egyptian Columns.

The Eiffel Tower, a global icon on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France stands 984 feet high.

Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower, a global icon on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France stands 984 feet high.

A diagram showing the titles for different types of architecture.

Elements of an Architectural Order

A diagram showing the titles for different types of architecture.

Elizabethian Window, Rushton Hall

Elizabethian Window

Elizabethian Window, Rushton Hall

English farm house

English farm house

English farm house

A rest house for Pilgrim on their way to Canterbury Cathedral.

English Inn

A rest house for Pilgrim on their way to Canterbury Cathedral.

Portions of ancient Hospice on both sides of Water Lane, Ospringe used by Pilgrims on their way to Canterbury Cathedral.

English Inn

Portions of ancient Hospice on both sides of Water Lane, Ospringe used by Pilgrims on their way to Canterbury…

"The horizontal portion of an order, including cornice, frieze, and architrave, which is supported by the columns." &mdash; Williams, 1889

Entablature

"The horizontal portion of an order, including cornice, frieze, and architrave, which is supported by…

"In architecture, the swelling or outward curve of the profile of the shaft of a column. Entasis. e e, arcs of entasis." -Whitney, 1911

Entasis

"In architecture, the swelling or outward curve of the profile of the shaft of a column. Entasis. e…

"The building of the new Erechtheum was not commenced till the Parthenon and Propylea were finished, and probably not before the year preceding the breaking out of the Peloponnesian war. Its progress was no doubt delayed by that event, and it was probably not completed before 393 B.C. When finished it presented one of the finest models of the Ionic order, as the Parthenon was of the Doric. It stood to the north of the Acropolis." &mdash; Smith, 1882

Erechtheum restored

"The building of the new Erechtheum was not commenced till the Parthenon and Propylea were finished,…

"One of the most remarkable buildings in Europe, comprising at once a convent, a church, a palace, and a mausoleum. It is situated on the south-eastern versant of the Sierra de Guadarrama, on the borders of New Castile, about 27 miles N.W. of Madrid and Avila." &mdash Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Escorial

"One of the most remarkable buildings in Europe, comprising at once a convent, a church, a palace, and…

"One of the most remarkable buildings in Europe, comprising at once a convent, a church, a palace, and a mausoleum. It is situated on the south-eastern versant of the Sierra de Guadarrama, on the borders of New Castile, about 27 miles N.W. of Madrid and Avila." &mdash Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Escorial

"One of the most remarkable buildings in Europe, comprising at once a convent, a church, a palace, and…

"One of the most remarkable buildings in Europe, comprising at once a convent, a church, a palace, and a mausoleum. It is situated on the south-eastern versant of the Sierra de Guadarrama, on the borders of New Castile, about 27 miles N.W. of Madrid and Avila." &mdash Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Escorial

"One of the most remarkable buildings in Europe, comprising at once a convent, a church, a palace, and…

"View of the Fort Euryalus at Syracuse." &mdash; Smith, 1882

Fort Euryalus

"View of the Fort Euryalus at Syracuse." — Smith, 1882

"Facade of old St. Peters Rome." &mdash; The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Facade

"Facade of old St. Peters Rome." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

"Part of the Rock-cut facade of the Tomb of Darius." &mdash;D'Anvers, 1895

Rock-cut facade

"Part of the Rock-cut facade of the Tomb of Darius." —D'Anvers, 1895

A Fin'ial is an ornament, generally carved to resemble foliage, which forms the termination of pinnacles, gables, spires, and other portions of Gothic architecture. This image shows an example of a fin'ial.

Fin'ial

A Fin'ial is an ornament, generally carved to resemble foliage, which forms the termination of pinnacles,…

A Fin'ial is an ornament (generally carved to resemble foliage) which forms the termination of pinnacles, gables, spires, and other portions of Gothic architecture. This image shows an example of a fin'ial.

Fin'ial

A Fin'ial is an ornament (generally carved to resemble foliage) which forms the termination of pinnacles,…