"Sectional compartment of the Nave of Lincoln Cathedral." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Lincoln Cathedral

"Sectional compartment of the Nave of Lincoln Cathedral." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

"Sectional compartment of the Choir of Lincoln Cathedral." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Lincoln Cathedral

"Sectional compartment of the Choir of Lincoln Cathedral." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

This illustration shows a Lincoln Gargoyle. Gargoyles (featured primarily in in Gothic architecture) are spouts projecting from the gutters of a building which carry the rain-water clear of the walls. Gargoyles are usually carved into different forms  (animal, human, demonic, grotesque) and serve as a distinguishing feature of ecclesiastical architecture.

Lincoln Gargoyle

This illustration shows a Lincoln Gargoyle. Gargoyles (featured primarily in in Gothic architecture)…

Lindenwald was Martin Van Buren's estate in Albany, New York. It was built in 1841.

Lindenwald, Van Buren's Estate

Lindenwald was Martin Van Buren's estate in Albany, New York. It was built in 1841.

The Gate of the Lions is located in Mycenae, Greece. It was the entrance to the city. On top of the gate there are two lions carved in stone facing each other with a column in the middle, believed to have been a statue of god or goddess.

Gate of the Lions

The Gate of the Lions is located in Mycenae, Greece. It was the entrance to the city. On top of the…

"London City and Midland Bank, Ludgate Hill Branch." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

London City

"London City and Midland Bank, Ludgate Hill Branch." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

"The change from the pure to the later Renaissance , which was formerly seen only in individual instances, has now received a certain extension. This is mainly owing to the key-note struck in the New Louvre [shown here], begun by Visconti, but finished by another architect. Although it is true that the new building conforms in general to the architecture of the Old Louvre, yet still an increase rather than a decrease is to be perceived in the effort for picturesque effect, in the licence of the Roccoco style, and in an unstructural treatment of the individual forms and ornamental parts."

Corner Pavilion of the New Louvre

"The change from the pure to the later Renaissance , which was formerly seen only in individual instances,…

"Part of the Ospedale Maggiore, Milan." —D'Anvers, 1895

Ospedale Maggiore

"Part of the Ospedale Maggiore, Milan." —D'Anvers, 1895

An illustration of a large fireplace mantel with herald plaque in center and cravings of soldiers on top.

Ornate Fireplace Mantel

An illustration of a large fireplace mantel with herald plaque in center and cravings of soldiers on…

In architecture, a mascaron ornament is a face, usually human, sometimes frightening or chimeric whose function was originally to frighten away evil spirits so that they would not enter the building. The concept was subsequently adapted to become a purely decorative element. The most recent architectural style to extensively employ mascarons was Beaux Arts.

Mascaron

In architecture, a mascaron ornament is a face, usually human, sometimes frightening or chimeric whose…

An illustration of wooden boards joined by match joints.

Match Joints, Boards Joined by

An illustration of wooden boards joined by match joints.

In art and architecture, a meander is a decorative border constructed from a continuous line, shaped into a repeated motif. The name "meander" recalls the twisting and turning path of the Maeander River. Other names are maíandros and meandros, except they are not very common outside of historically minded persons and, of course, the country of Greece. Among some Italians, these patterns are known as Greek Lines.

Meander

In art and architecture, a meander is a decorative border constructed from a continuous line, shaped…

"Ecole de Medecine, Paris." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Medecine

"Ecole de Medecine, Paris." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

"In this city many individual tendencies are perceptible, but the predominant inclination is toward the Italian Renaissance . The new Opera-House, built by Van der Nüll and Siccardsburg, forms an exception to this rule, the design and forms of which were copied from the Early French Renaissance, with its narrow moulding and flat elliptical arches. On the other hand, the models of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries are chosen for churches built in the Gothic style. In its richest phase this is seen in the memorial church, built by Ferstel; and in its poorest aspect, and divested of all the ornamental details necessary to produce a good effect, in the Lazaristen Kirche, built by Schmidt, one of the most important representatives of the Gothic style, and at the same time an advocate in word and deed for its reintroduction."The Votivkirche in Vienna, Austria, is one of the most important neo-Gothic religious architectural sites in the world.

Vienna, Memorial Church

"In this city many individual tendencies are perceptible, but the predominant inclination is toward…

"The buildings which have been constructed in these various styles differ essentially from those which have been carried out in the same styles in other countries. In churches and other buildings erected in the Gothic style this difference mainly consists in deficiency of strongly marked architectural keeping, for both main and subordinate features are generally irregular. In most cases the whole group is highly unsymmetrical, and the tower is at one corner, by which a picturesque effect is aimed at [shown here]. The material and the mode of construction are generally left visible, and it is endeavoured to utilize them as ornament; and this not only externally but also in the interior, where the beams and rafters of the roof are often left quite bare; they are even thus exposed where their appearance is not in keeping with the destination of the buildings."

Memorial Church in Scotland

"The buildings which have been constructed in these various styles differ essentially from those which…

"Rock-cut from of the Grave of Midas at Doganlu, in Phyrgia." —D'Anvers, 1895

Grave of Midas

"Rock-cut from of the Grave of Midas at Doganlu, in Phyrgia." —D'Anvers, 1895

"An ornamental bracket (a), much used in classic architecture, especially in the cornices of the Corinthian and Composite styles." — Chambers, 1881

Modillion

"An ornamental bracket (a), much used in classic architecture, especially in the cornices of the Corinthian…

"In architecture, a molding indented like a battlement." -Whitney, 1911

Embattled Molding

"In architecture, a molding indented like a battlement." -Whitney, 1911

"Casa de las Monjas at Uxmal." —D'Anvers, 1895

Casa de las Monjas

"Casa de las Monjas at Uxmal." —D'Anvers, 1895

Monticello was Thomas Jefferson's estate in Charlottesville, Virginia. It was built in 1809 and appeared on the nickel and the two dollar bill.

Monticello, Jefferson's Estate

Monticello was Thomas Jefferson's estate in Charlottesville, Virginia. It was built in 1809 and appeared…

Montpelier was James Madison's estate in Orange, Virginia. It was built in 1724.

Montpelier, Madison's Estate

Montpelier was James Madison's estate in Orange, Virginia. It was built in 1724.

"Mecca—the Great Mosque." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Mosque

"Mecca—the Great Mosque." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

"Nave of Wells Cathedral." —D'Anvers, 1895

Nave

"Nave of Wells Cathedral." —D'Anvers, 1895

"In England, as in Germany, architectural activity has assumed various phases in modern times. With few exceptions, the numerous newly-constructed churches are built in the Gothic style of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries; whilst public secular buildings, for which a certain simplicity is appropriate, such as school and university buildings, asylums, &c., as well as large country-houses, are either constructed in the Pointed or in the Late Gothic, or so-called Perpendicular or Tudor style, with flat-arched, curved, or even horizontal heads to the openings. Other public buildings, as, for instance, the Houses of Parliament, which is the most important modern building in London, are carried out in this style. The Renaissance style has recently been frequently employed, especially for dwelling-houses."The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament, is a complex of buildings in London. It is the seat of the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (the House of Lords and the House of Commons). The palace lies on the north bank of the River Thames in the London borough of the City of Westminster, close to the government buildings of Whitehall.

New Houses of Parliament, London

"In England, as in Germany, architectural activity has assumed various phases in modern times. With…

"New York is a city in Southern New York; coextensive with New York, Kings, Queens, and Richmond counties, on New York Bay, the Hudson and East rivers, Long Island Sound and the Atlantic Ocean; the first city in the United States in population and commercial importance, and after London, the largest metropolitan center in the world. Among the public buildings is the City Hall, 216 by 105 feet, and three stories high: completed in 1812 at a cost of $500,000. In the rear of the City Hall is the Court House."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

City Hall of New York

"New York is a city in Southern New York; coextensive with New York, Kings, Queens, and Richmond counties,…

Madison Square Garden in New York City.

Madison Square Garden in New York

Madison Square Garden in New York City.

The National Academy of Design Building in New York City.

National Academy of Design in New York

The National Academy of Design Building in New York City.

The old stone tower in Newport, Rhode Island.

Old Stone Tower, Newport

The old stone tower in Newport, Rhode Island.

"The first public monuments that arose after the Persian wars were erected under the auspices of Cimon, who was, like Pericles, a lover and patron of the arts. The principal of these were the small Ionic temple of Nike Apteros (Wingless Victory), and the Theseum, or Temple of Theseus. The temple of Nike Apteros was only 27 feet in length by 18 in breadth, and was erected on the Acropolis in commemoration of Cimon's victory at the Eurymedon." — Smith, 1882

Temple of Nike Apteros

"The first public monuments that arose after the Persian wars were erected under the auspices of Cimon,…

A North Carolina mansion of the old style.

A North Carolina Mansion

A North Carolina mansion of the old style.

Norwich, a cloister example, found in England.

Norwich

Norwich, a cloister example, found in England.

Oak Hill Plantation was James Monroe's estate in Loudoun County, Virginia. It was built for the fifth U.S. president in 1808.

Oak Hill Plantation, Monroe's Estate

Oak Hill Plantation was James Monroe's estate in Loudoun County, Virginia. It was built for the fifth…

An illustration of The Opera House in Paris, France. It is commonly known as the Paris Opera. This Opera house was built in the Neo-Baroque style by Charles Garnier and was known as one of the most advanced architectural works of its time.

Opera House

An illustration of The Opera House in Paris, France. It is commonly known as the Paris Opera. This Opera…

The Palais Garnier, also known as the Opéra de Paris or Opéra Garnier, but more commonly as the Paris Opéra, is a 2,200-seat opera house on the Place de l'Opéra in Paris, France. A grand landmark designed by Charles Garnier in the Neo-Baroque style, it is regarded as one of the architectural masterpieces of its time."The newest and most important building is the new Opera House at Paris," this image "presents an external view.The competition which was announced for the plans for this building brought out at the time the most eminent, artistic, and architectural talent of France, and aroused a very general and lively interest in the result: inasmuch as an architectural chef-d'œuvre was to be produced, such as Paris did not possess before, and one in which the architecture of the present day was to make the utmost possible effect to build a theatre, which in every respect should be worthy of the metropolis of the world, and should thanks to the almost unlimited means at disposal, be the most perfect of its kind."

View of the Opera House in Paris

The Palais Garnier, also known as the Opéra de Paris or Opéra Garnier, but more commonly as the Paris…

The Paris Opera House was built by architect Charles Garnier, who was chosen by Emperor Napoleon III. It was built in the late 19th century in a Neo-Baroque style.

Paris Opera House

The Paris Opera House was built by architect Charles Garnier, who was chosen by Emperor Napoleon III.…

A, crepidoma or stylobate; B, column; C, architrave; D, tænia; E, frieze; F, horizontal cornice; G, raking cornice; H, tympanum of pediment; K, metope.In this and other cuts of this order, only the upper and lower parts of the shaft are shown, the intervening and greater part of the shaft being omitted, to save space.

Greek Doric Order

A, crepidoma or stylobate; B, column; C, architrave; D, tænia; E, frieze; F, horizontal cornice;…

"Ionic order. From the Temple of Athene (Minerva) at Priene." —D'Anvers, 1895

Ionic order

"Ionic order. From the Temple of Athene (Minerva) at Priene." —D'Anvers, 1895

"Oxford Town Hall." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Oxford

"Oxford Town Hall." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

"Japanese pagodas are similar to those of China, and even more elaborately carved." —D'Anvers, 1895

Pagoda

"Japanese pagodas are similar to those of China, and even more elaborately carved." —D'Anvers,…

"All the Assyrian buildings were erected on terraces, to which flights of steps gave access, and it was probable that they were several stories high." —D'Anvers, 1895

Assyrian palace

"All the Assyrian buildings were erected on terraces, to which flights of steps gave access, and it…

"A principal and distinctive feature of Italian public buildings and palaces of this time is the cortile (i.e. court-yard), surrounded by open arcades."

Cancellaria palace

"A principal and distinctive feature of Italian public buildings and palaces of this time is the cortile…

"The Palantine from the Aventine." — Young, 1901

Palatine

"The Palantine from the Aventine." — Young, 1901

"A temple built about 1000 A.D. It is unique because of its Gothic gablets and trefoil arches." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Temple, Pandrethan

"A temple built about 1000 A.D. It is unique because of its Gothic gablets and trefoil arches." —…

"The finest monument of this time is the Pantheon of Rome, first built about B.C. 27, which is one of the grandest buildings of the ancient world. Whether it was erected as a Temple or as a Hall attached to the Thermae of Agrippa is a moot point. It is even now in a sufficient good state of preservation for us to be able to judge of what it was." —D'Anvers, 1895

Pantheon

"The finest monument of this time is the Pantheon of Rome, first built about B.C. 27, which is one of…

This illustration shows a Paris Gargoyle in France. Gargoyles, in Gothic architecture, are spouts projecting from the gutters of a building which carry the rain-water clear of the walls. Gargoyles are usually carved into different forms  (animal, human, demonic, grotesque) and serve as a distinguishing feature of ecclesiastical architecture.

Paris Gargoyle

This illustration shows a Paris Gargoyle in France. Gargoyles, in Gothic architecture, are spouts projecting…

"The Parthenon stood on this highest part of the Acropolis, near its centre, and probably occupied the site of an earlier temple destroyed by the Persians. It was entirely of Pentelic marble, on a rustic basement of ordinary limestone, and its architecture, which was of the Doric order, was of purest kind." — Smith, 1882

Parthenon restored

"The Parthenon stood on this highest part of the Acropolis, near its centre, and probably occupied the…

"The Athenians, on their return to Attica, after the defeat of the Persians, found their city ruined and their country desolate." — Smith, 1882

Modern Parthenon

"The Athenians, on their return to Attica, after the defeat of the Persians, found their city ruined…

This pavilion is a free standing structure located near a main building or residence. Since this pavilion was built to take advantage of the view it may also be called a Gazebo.

Folding Pavilion Structure

This pavilion is a free standing structure located near a main building or residence. Since this pavilion…

The Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands houses the International Court of Justice.

Peace Palace

The Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands houses the International Court of Justice.

Peacefield or Old House was the estate of both presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams in Quincy, Massachusetts.

Peacefield, Adam's Estate

Peacefield or Old House was the estate of both presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams in Quincy,…

This pedestal is designed with four figures and leaves. It is used to display a vase or small sculpture.

Pedestal

This pedestal is designed with four figures and leaves. It is used to display a vase or small sculpture.

"Pillar in Hindu temple." —D'Anvers, 1895

Pillar

"Pillar in Hindu temple." —D'Anvers, 1895

An illustration of a pillar.

Pillar

An illustration of a pillar.

"Columns are largely employed in the architecture of Egyptian temples. They are of various forms." —D'Anvers, 1895

Pillar and beam

"Columns are largely employed in the architecture of Egyptian temples. They are of various forms." —D'Anvers,…

"Clustered pillar from the nave of Wells Cathedral." —D'Anvers, 1895

Clustered pillar

"Clustered pillar from the nave of Wells Cathedral." —D'Anvers, 1895

This is a plan of the church of Kalb–Lauzeh (Qalb Lozeh), Syria. This is an example of Early Christian architecture.

Plan of Church of Kalb-Lauzeh, AD 380–609

This is a plan of the church of Kalb–Lauzeh (Qalb Lozeh), Syria. This is an example of Early Christian…

This is a plan of the San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy. It was built from AD 539 to 547. This is an example of Early Christian architecture. The scale is in feet.

Plan of San Vitale, Ravenna, AD 539–547

This is a plan of the San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy. It was built from AD 539 to 547. This is an example…

This is a plan of the Parliament House in Budapest, Hungary. It is an example of Modern Architecture. Construction lasted from 1885 to 1902. The Parliament House is located on Pest's Riverbank. The building is a symbol of Hungary's independence. "The plan [for the Houses of Parliament in Westminster, England] in itself is a stroke of genius, and had been more or less imitated in buildings for similar purposes all over the world; the most important example, the Parliament House of Budapest, being almost a literal copy". The scale is given in yards.

Plan of the Parliament House, Budapest, 1885–1902

This is a plan of the Parliament House in Budapest, Hungary. It is an example of Modern Architecture.…

"The following cut gives a view of of a portion of the paved street at the entrance of Pompeii. The upper surface consists of large polygonal blocks of the hardest stone, fitted and jointed with the utmost nicety, so as to present a perfectly even surface, as free from gaps or irregularities, as if the whole had been one solid mass." — Anthon, 1891

Pompeii

"The following cut gives a view of of a portion of the paved street at the entrance of Pompeii. The…

An illustration of the Pont des Arts and the Louvre in Paris, France. The Pont des Arts is a bridge in Paris which stretches over the Seine River. The bridge goes between the Institute de France and the Louvre. The Louvre is one of the world's largest museums and is the most visited museum of the world.

Pont des Arts and the Louvre

An illustration of the Pont des Arts and the Louvre in Paris, France. The Pont des Arts is a bridge…