An illustration of the theater of Dionysus at Athens.

Theater of Dionysus

An illustration of the theater of Dionysus at Athens.

"The Berlin school, whose founder was Schinkel, the architect of the noble Berlin Theatre, and of the Museum, which is noteworthy for its magnificent façade, exhibited a decided inclination towards Grecian architecture, and strove to attain a certain purity of form, and delicacy and elegance in details, which where for the most part carried out in the Grecian style. He had to contend against a deficiency in building material. Owing to want of building-stone, the mouldings, and indeed all the architectural details, were unavoidably carried out in stucco; nor was this all, but in order to give the same durability, they were made to project as little as possible. Consequently this architectural style, with the exception of some few public buildings, seemed flat and wanting in power, especially in the case of private dwelling-houses, and frequently presented the appearance of pasteboard-work, or cabinet-work, rather than of a structural edifice. This facility also which stucco afforded for enriching the façade, caused more attention to be paid to decoration than it was entitled to, for ornament should always be kept in subservience to the main and constructive architectural forms."The Konzerthaus Berlin (once called the Schauspielhaus Berlin) is a concert hall situated on the Gendarmenmarkt square in the central Mitte district of Berlin. Since 1994 it has been the seat of the German orchestra Konzerthausorchester Berlin.The building's predecessor, the National-Theater in the Friedrichstadt suburb, was destroyed by fire in 1817. It had been designed by Carl Gotthard Langhans and inaugurated on January 1, 1802. The hall was redesigned by Karl Friedrich Schinkel between 1818 and 1821, and the new inauguration of the Königliches Schauspielhaus on June 18, 1821 featured the acclaimed premiere of Carl Maria von Weber's opera Der Freischütz. Other works that have premiered at the theatre include Undine by E. T. A. Hoffmann in 1816 and Penthesilea by Heinrich von Kleist in 1876.After World War I the Schauspielhaus reopened under the name of Preußisches Staatstheater Berlin in October 1919. Under the direction of Leopold Jessner it soon became one of the leading theatres of the Weimar Republic, a tradtion ambivalently continued by his successor Gustav Gründgens after the Nazi takeover in 1933, including his famous staging of Goethe's Faust and the premiere of Gerhart Hauptmann's tragedy Iphigenie in Delphi in 1941.Severely damaged by Allied bombing and the Battle of Berlin the building has been rebuilt from 1977 on and reopened as the concert hall of the Berliner Sinfonie-Orchester in 1984. The exterior, including many of the sculptures of composers by Christian Friedrich Tieck and Balthasar Jacob Rathgeber, is a faithful reconstruction of Schinkel's designs, while the interior was adapted in a Neoclassical style meeting the conditions of the altered use. The great hall is equipped with a notable four-manual pipe organ including 74 stops and 5811 pipes.

Theatre at Berlin

"The Berlin school, whose founder was Schinkel, the architect of the noble Berlin Theatre, and of the…

"The Berlin school, whose founder was Schinkel, the architect of the noble Berlin Theatre, and of the Museum, which is noteworthy for its magnificent façade, exhibited a decided inclination towards Grecian architecture, and strove to attain a certain purity of form, and delicacy and elegance in details, which where for the most part carried out in the Grecian style. He had to contend against a deficiency in building material. Owing to want of building-stone, the mouldings, and indeed all the architectural details, were unavoidably carried out in stucco; nor was this all, but in order to give the same durability, they were made to project as little as possible. Consequently this architectural style, with the exception of some few public buildings, seemed flat and wanting in power, especially in the case of private dwelling-houses, and frequently presented the appearance of pasteboard-work, or cabinet-work, rather than of a structural edifice. This facility also which stucco afforded for enriching the façade, caused more attention to be paid to decoration than it was entitled to, for ornament should always be kept in subservience to the main and constructive architectural forms."The Altes Museum (German for Old Museum), is one of several internationally renowned museums on Berlin's Museum Island in Berlin, Germany. Since restoration work in 1966, it houses the antique collection (Antikensammlung) of the Berlin State Museums. The museum was built between 1825 and 1828 by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neoclassical style to house the Prussian Royal family's art collection. Until 1845, it was called the Royal Museum.

Theatre at Berlin

"The Berlin school, whose founder was Schinkel, the architect of the noble Berlin Theatre, and of the…

"In Dresden, owing to the method of instruction in the technical schools, as well as to the influence of the buildings, as, for instance, those by Zwinger, and the new theatre by Semper, the Renaissance style is the one preferred by the architects who have been there educated."The Semperoper is the opera house of the Saxon State Opera Dresden (German: Sächsische Staatsoper Dresden) and the concert hall of the Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden in Dresden, Germany. It was first built in 1841, by architect Gottfried Semper.The building style itself is debated among many, as it has features that appear in the Early Renaissance style, Baroque and even features Corinthian style pillars typical of classical Greece (classical revival). Perhaps the most suitable label for this style would be Eclecticism; where influences from many styles are used- a practice most common during this period.It had to be rebuilt after a fire destroyed it in 1869. The citizenry demanded that Gottfried Semper do the reconstruction, even though he was in exile at the time because of his activities in the May Uprising in Dresden in 1849. So the architect had his son Manfred Semper complete the second opera house with his father's plans. This second one was constructed in Neo-Renaissance style in 1878. During construction, performances were held at the Gewerbehausall, which opened in 1870.The building is considered to be a prime example of "Dresden-Baroque" architecture. It is situated on the Theater Square in central Dresden on the bank of the Elbe River. On top of the portal there is a Panther quadriga with a statue of Dionysos. The interior was created by such famous architects of the time as Johannes Schilling. Monuments on the portal depict famous artists such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller, William Shakespeare, Sophocles, Molière and Euripides. The building also features work by Ernst Rietschel and Ernst Julius Hähnel.In the pre-war years, the building premiered many of the works of Richard Strauss.During the last weeks of World War II in 1945 the building was destroyed again - this time by Allied bombing and the subsequent fire storms. Exactly 40 years later, on February 13, 1985 the opera was rebuilt almost the same as it was before the war. It reopened with the same opera that was performed last before the destruction in 1945: Weber's Der Freischütz.During the flood of the Elbe in 2002 the building suffered heavy water damage. With substantial help from around the world, it reopened in December 2002.Today, most operas are accompanied by the Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden.

Theatre at Dresden

"In Dresden, owing to the method of instruction in the technical schools, as well as to the influence…

"The Temple of Theseus at Athens." —D'Anvers, 1895

Temple of Theseus

"The Temple of Theseus at Athens." —D'Anvers, 1895

"The threshold was, with the ancients, an object of superstitious reverence, and it was thought unfortunate to tread on it with the left foot. On this account, the steps leading into a temple were of an uneven number, because the worshipper, after placing his right foot on the bottom step, would then place the same foot on the threshold also." — Anthon, 1891

Threshold

"The threshold was, with the ancients, an object of superstitious reverence, and it was thought unfortunate…

A thin flat slab of fired clay used for roofing

Roofing Tile

A thin flat slab of fired clay used for roofing

An aeriel view of the temple at Tiravalur, which measures 945 by 700 feet.

Temple, Tiravalur

An aeriel view of the temple at Tiravalur, which measures 945 by 700 feet.

"In the time of Trajan, the Arch of titus and the Colossus of Nero (a gilt bronze statue 120 feet high), stood near the site now occupied by the church of S. Francesca Romana. They were removed by Hadrian to make room for the Temple of Venus and Rome, the arch being placed in its present position, and the colossus on the large square pedestal near the Colosseum, of which some remains may be still identified." — Young, 1901

Arch of titus

"In the time of Trajan, the Arch of titus and the Colossus of Nero (a gilt bronze statue 120 feet high),…

"Facade of tomb at Castellaccio." —D'Anvers, 1895

Facade of Tomb at Castellaccio

"Facade of tomb at Castellaccio." —D'Anvers, 1895

The Tower of the Winds, also called horologion (timepiece), is an octagonal Pentelic marble clocktower on the Roman agora in Athens. The structure features a combination of sundials, a water clock and a wind vane. It was supposedly built by Andronicus of Cyrrhus around 50 BC, but according to other sources might have been constructed in the 2nd century BC before the rest of the forum.

Tower of the Winds

The Tower of the Winds, also called horologion (timepiece), is an octagonal Pentelic marble clocktower…

"Tracery of later date." —D'Anvers, 1895

Tracery

"Tracery of later date." —D'Anvers, 1895

"Interior view of Trajan's Basilica, as restored by Canina." — Encyclopediia Britannica, 1910

Interior of Trajan's Bascilica

"Interior view of Trajan's Basilica, as restored by Canina." — Encyclopediia Britannica, 1910

"Church of Turmanin." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Turmanin

"Church of Turmanin." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

"Applied to one of the 5 orders of arch, which allows no ornaments or flinting." — Williams, 1889

Tuscan order

"Applied to one of the 5 orders of arch, which allows no ornaments or flinting." — Williams, 1889

A stocky simplified variant of the Doric order that was introducted into the canon of classical architecture by Italian architectural theorists of the 16th century.

Tuscan Order

A stocky simplified variant of the Doric order that was introducted into the canon of classical architecture…

Venice: House of Gold

Venice: House of Gold

Venice: House of Gold

The Theater of Vitruvius was a Roman Theater, named after Roman writer, architect and engineer Vitruvius Marcus Pollio.

Theater of Vitruvius

The Theater of Vitruvius was a Roman Theater, named after Roman writer, architect and engineer Vitruvius…

"Next to the Tower and the Abbey, Westminster Hall, adjoining the House of Parliament, is the most historic building in London. The hall was begun by William Rufus in 1097, and was enlarged by his successors. Richard II in 1397 added the great oak roof, which has lasted to this day. Here were held the trials of Strafford and Charles I."—Webster, 1920

Interior of Westminster Hall

"Next to the Tower and the Abbey, Westminster Hall, adjoining the House of Parliament, is the most historic…

"The cathedrals of Salisbury, Chichester, Lincoln, and York, Beverley Minster, and Westminster Abbey, contain specimens of Early English windows." —D'Anvers, 1895

Early English window

"The cathedrals of Salisbury, Chichester, Lincoln, and York, Beverley Minster, and Westminster Abbey,…

Gothic architecture is a style of architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Its characteristic features include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress.

Gothic Style Window

Gothic architecture is a style of architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period.…

Window with a baluster. Saxon Architecture is the earliest stage of native English architecture, its period being from the conversion of England to Christianity till the conquest or near it, when Norman architecture began to prevail.

Saxon Architecture Window

Window with a baluster. Saxon Architecture is the earliest stage of native English architecture, its…

Worcester, an example of a cloister.

Worcester

Worcester, an example of a cloister.

A species of masonry very common among the ancients, in which the stones are square and laid lozenge-wise, resembling the meshes of a net, and producing quite an ornamental appearance. It is the opus reticulate of the Romans.

Reticulated Work

A species of masonry very common among the ancients, in which the stones are square and laid lozenge-wise,…

Column from the Great Hall of Xerxes at Persepolis.

Great hall of Xerxes

Column from the Great Hall of Xerxes at Persepolis.

Column from the Great Hall of Xerxes at Persepolis.

Great hall of Xerxes

Column from the Great Hall of Xerxes at Persepolis.

Capital of a column from the Great Hall of Xerxes at Persepolis.

Great hall of Xerxes

Capital of a column from the Great Hall of Xerxes at Persepolis.

Capital of a column from the Great Hall of Xerxes at Persepolis.

Great hall of Xerxes

Capital of a column from the Great Hall of Xerxes at Persepolis.