An Egyptian man using bellows on a fire.

Bellows

An Egyptian man using bellows on a fire.

"Among the remarkable inventions of a remote era, may be mentioned bellows and siphons. The former were used as early as the reign of Thothmes the Third, and contemporary of Moses, being represented in a tomb bearing the name of that Pharaoh. They consisted of a leather bag, sewed and fitted into a frame, from which a long pipe extended for carrying the wind to the fire. They were worked by the feet, the operator standing in front of them, with one under each foot, and pressing them alternately, while he pulled up each exhausted skin by a string." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian bellows

"Among the remarkable inventions of a remote era, may be mentioned bellows and siphons. The former were…

"The photographer's camera corresponds to the camera-obscura. A darkened box, adjustable in length, takes the place of the darkened room, and an achromatic convex lens is substituted for the aperture in the shutter." — Avery, 1895

Bellows camera

"The photographer's camera corresponds to the camera-obscura. A darkened box, adjustable in length,…

"Formerly, all nails were hand made, by forging on an anvil; and vast quantities are still made in this manner, being preferable, for many kinds of carpenter's work, to those made by machinery." —The Popular Cyclopedia, 1888

Nail forge

"Formerly, all nails were hand made, by forging on an anvil; and vast quantities are still made in this…