"Philohela minor. Woodcock. Bog-sucker. Colors above harmoniously blended and varied black, brown, gray, and russet; below, pale warm brown of variable shade, not barred. A dark stripe from bill to eye. Crown from opposite eye with black and light bars; along the inner edges of the wings a bluish-ashy stripe; lining of wings rust-brown; quills plain fuscous; tail black, spotted, and tipped; bill brownish flesh-color, dusky at end; feet pale reddish flesh-color." Elliot Coues, 1884

Probing American Woodcock

"Philohela minor. Woodcock. Bog-sucker. Colors above harmoniously blended and varied black, brown, gray,…

While a woodpecker is drilling, the two parts of the bill are closed together, making a wedge-pointed drill, and at the same time a snug case for the insect-catcher.

Woodpecker

While a woodpecker is drilling, the two parts of the bill are closed together, making a wedge-pointed…

"Fig. 45.- Zygodactyle foot of a woodpecker, Hylotomus pileatus. The zygodactyle or yoke-toed modification has been sufficiently noted in (fig. 45). It was formerly made much of, as a scansorial or climbing type of foot, and an absurd "order" of birds has been called Scansores." Elliot Coues, 1884

Zygodactyle Foot of a Woodpecker

"Fig. 45.- Zygodactyle foot of a woodpecker, Hylotomus pileatus. The zygodactyle or yoke-toed modification…

"Asyndesmus torquatus. Lewis' Woodpecker. Lared Woodpecker. Adult: Upper parts, including wings and tail, flanks and crissum, green-black with intense bronzy lustre, especially on the back - this iridescence like that of Quiscalus aneus almost. Face dark crimson, in a patch of velvety feathers around bill and eyes. A narrow distant collar around back of neck, and breast, hoary bluish-gray, gradually brightening behind on the under parts to intense rose-red or lake, delicately pencilled in hair lines with the hoary-gray. No white on wings or tail, their under surfaces simply black. Bill blackish; feet greenish-plumbeous. Iris brown." Elliot Coues, 1884

Lewis' Woodpecker Head

"Asyndesmus torquatus. Lewis' Woodpecker. Lared Woodpecker. Adult: Upper parts, including wings and…

"Saurognathous skull of a nesting Picus minor. x4 diameters, after Parker. Px premaxillary: dpx, its dentary process; ppx, palatal process; sn, septo-nasal; pa, palatine; pmx, peculiar palatal plate of maxillary of a woodpecker; nf, nasal turbinal; mx, maxillary; ipa, interpalatal spur of palatine bone; mxp, rudimentary maxillo-palatine, scarcely reaching palatine; smx, septo-maxillary, in several pieces; v, right vomer, its fellow opposite; pe, lower border of perpendicular plate of ethmoid, between vomers; epa, ethmoidal (inner) plate of palatine; mpa, medio-palatine; pg pterygoid; i, foramen for internal carotid; 8 for vagus nerve; 9, for hypo-glossal nerve." Elliot Coues, 1884

Woodpecker Skull

"Saurognathous skull of a nesting Picus minor. x4 diameters, after Parker. Px premaxillary: dpx, its…

"Top view of skull of Cloaptes, (flickers) showing thyrohyals running along the skull and into right nostril to end of the bill." Elliot Coues, 1884

Top View of a Woodpecker Skull

"Top view of skull of Cloaptes, (flickers) showing thyrohyals running along the skull and into right…

"Sphyropicus thyroides. Brown-headed Woodpecker. Black-breasted Woodpecker. Red-throated Woodpecker. Williamson's Woodpecker. Adult: Glossy black, including all the tail-feathers. Belly gamboge yellow. A narrow scarlet patch on the throat. Upper tail-coverts, a broad oblique bar on the wing-coverts, a post-ocular stripe, a stripe from nostrils below eye and ear, and small, in part paired, spots on the quills, white. Lining of wings, sides of body, flanks and crissum varied with white, leaving the black in bars and cordate spots. Bill slate-color; feet greenish-gray; iris reddish-brown." Elliot Coues, 1884

Brown-headed Woodpecker

"Sphyropicus thyroides. Brown-headed Woodpecker. Black-breasted Woodpecker. Red-throated Woodpecker.…

"Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi. Californian Woodpecker. Glossy blue-black; rump, bases of all the quills, edge of the wing, and under parts from the breast, white; sides with sparse black streaks; forehead squarely white, continuous with a stripe down in front of hte eyes and thence broadly encircling the throat, there becoming yellowish; this cuts off the black around base of bill and on the chin completely; crown in the male crimson from the white front, in the female separated from the white by a black interval; frequently a few red feathers in the black breast-patch, which is not sharply defined behind, but changes by streaks into the white of the belly. Bill black; eyes white, often rosy, creamy, yellowish, milky, bluish, or brown." Elliot Coues, 1884

Californian Woodpecker

"Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi. Californian Woodpecker. Glossy blue-black; rump, bases of all the quills,…

The woodpeckers are typical climbers, with two toes turned forward and two backward, (zygodactyl).

Downy Woodpecker

The woodpeckers are typical climbers, with two toes turned forward and two backward, (zygodactyl).

"Picus pubescens. Downy Woodpecker. Usually 6-7 long; outer tail-feathers barred with black and white. Exactly like P. villosus, except in these respects. Length 6.00-7.00; entent 11.00-12.00; wing 3.50-4.00; tail under 3.00; bill about .66; whole foot 1.25." Elliot Coues, 1884

Downy Woodpecker

"Picus pubescens. Downy Woodpecker. Usually 6-7 long; outer tail-feathers barred with black and white.…

"Picus major. European Spotted Woodpecker. Bill more or less nearly equal to head in length, stout, straight, truncate at tip, bevelled toward end, with sharp culmen and distinct lateral ridges on upper mandible; at base rather broader than high, with large nasal tufts hiding the nostrils; culmen, commissure and gonys straight or nearly so. Feet with the outer posterior longer than outer anterior toe; inner anterior intermediate between these. Wing long, pointed by the 4th, 3d, and 5th quills; 2d decidedly shorter (shorter than 7th, except in P. borealis); 1st fairly spurious. Species of medium and small size. All black and white (one brown-backed), the back striped or barred, the wings with numerous small round white spots on the quills; Male with red on the head." Elliot Coues, 1884

European Spotted Woodpecker

"Picus major. European Spotted Woodpecker. Bill more or less nearly equal to head in length, stout,…

The foot of a Green Woodpecker, a bird belonging to the Scansores order. Scansores is an order of birds, popularly known as climbing birds. The most important of the families are the cuckoos, the woodpeckers and wry-necks, the parrots, the toucans, the trogons, the barbets, and the plantain-eaters.

Foot of a Green Woodpecker

The foot of a Green Woodpecker, a bird belonging to the Scansores order. Scansores is an order of birds,…

The head of a Green Woodpecker, a bird belonging to the Scansores order. Scansores is an order of birds, popularly known as climbing birds. The most important of the families are the cuckoos, the woodpeckers and wry-necks, the parrots, the toucans, the trogons, the barbets, and the plantain-eaters.

Head of a Green Woodpecker

The head of a Green Woodpecker, a bird belonging to the Scansores order. Scansores is an order of birds,…

The Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus) is a medium-sized woodpecker. Their breeding habitat is forested areas with large trees across most of North America to Central America. They nest in a tree cavity, excavated by the nesting pair.

Hairy Woodpecker

The Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus) is a medium-sized woodpecker. Their breeding habitat is forested…

"Picus villosus. Hairy Woodpecker. Spotted and lengthwise streaked, but not banded. Usually 9-10 long; outer tail-feathers wholly white. Back black, with a long white stripe down the middle. Quills and wing-coverts with a profusion of white spots; usually 6-7 pairs on the primaries, several on all the secondaries, and one or more on each of the coverts. Four middle tail-feathers black; next pair black and white; next two pairs white, as stated. Under parts white. Crown and sides of head black, with a white stripe over and behind the eye; another from the nasal feathers running below the eye to spread on the side of the neck; a scarlet nuchal band in the male, sometimes broken in two, wanting in the female. Young with the crown mostly red or bronzy, or even yellowish." Elliot Coues, 1884

Hairy Woodpecker

"Picus villosus. Hairy Woodpecker. Spotted and lengthwise streaked, but not banded. Usually 9-10 long;…

"Campephilus principalis. Ivory-billed Woodpecker. Glossy blue-black; a stripe down side of neck, one at base of bill, the scapulars, under wing-coverts, end of secondaries and of inner primaries, the bill and nasal feathers white; feet grayish-blue; iris yellow. A long pointed crest, in the male scarlet faced with black, in the female black." Elliot Coues, 1884

Ivory-billed Woodpecker

"Campephilus principalis. Ivory-billed Woodpecker. Glossy blue-black; a stripe down side of neck, one…

It is not only to seek for food that Woodpeckers make holes in trees, but also to establish their nests, (Figuier, 1869).

Lesser Spotted Woodpecker

It is not only to seek for food that Woodpeckers make holes in trees, but also to establish their nests,…

"Dendrocopus minor, or Lesser Spotted Woodpecker, are the British representatives, The colours in this genus are black and white in varied proportions, with crimsons on the head and often on the lower parts; a small amount of buff and brown being not uncommonly added." A. H. Evans, 1900

Lesser Spotted Woodpecker

"Dendrocopus minor, or Lesser Spotted Woodpecker, are the British representatives, The colours in this…

"Asyndesmus torquatus. Lewis' Woodpecker. Lared Woodpecker. Adult: Upper parts, including wings and tail, flanks and crissum, green-black with intense bronzy lustre, especially on the back - this iridescence like that of Quiscalus aneus almost. Face dark crimson, in a patch of velvety feathers around bill and eyes. A narrow distant collar around back of neck, and breast, hoary bluish-gray, gradually brightening behind on the under parts to intense rose-red or lake, delicately pencilled in hair lines with the hoary-gray. No white on wings or tail, their under surfaces simply black. Bill blackish; feet greenish-plumbeous. Iris brown." Elliot Coues, 1884

Lewis' Woodpecker

"Asyndesmus torquatus. Lewis' Woodpecker. Lared Woodpecker. Adult: Upper parts, including wings and…

"Picus scalaris nutalli. Nuttall's Woodpecker. Similar; rather larger' more white, this prevailing on the back over the black bars; nape chiefly white; nasal tufts white; lateral tail-feathers, especially, sparsely or imperfectly barred. The Californian coast race, differing decidedly in some respects, and constantly; but connected with general series of ladder-backs. Barring restricted to the back proper, the hind neck being black, succeeded anteriorly by a white space adjoining the red, wanting in scalaris, where red joins black. Red chiefly confined to the occiput, the rest of the crown black, spotted with white. Lateral tail-feathers white, not barred throughout, having not 1-3 black bars, all beyond their middles, all but the terminal one of these broken. White postocular stripe running into the white nuchal area, but cut off from the white of the shoulders. White maxillary stripe enclosed in black as in scalaris, but this black continuous with the cervical black patch, which is not the case in scalaris. No Smoky-brown state of the under parts observed." Elliot Coues, 1884

Nuttall's Woodpecker

"Picus scalaris nutalli. Nuttall's Woodpecker. Similar; rather larger' more white, this prevailing on…

"Centurus carolinus. Red-bellied Woodpecker. Whole crown and nape scarlet in the male; nape only so in the female. Sides of head, and under parts, grayish-white, usually with a yellow shade, reddening on the belly; tail black, one or two outer feathers white-barred; inner web of central feathers white with black spots, outer web of the same black with a white space next the shaft for most of its length; white predominating on the rump. Bill and feet dusky plumbeous. Iris red." Elliot Coues, 1884

Red-bellied Woodpecker

"Centurus carolinus. Red-bellied Woodpecker. Whole crown and nape scarlet in the male; nape only so…

"Picus borealis. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker. Body spotted and crosswise banded, but not streaked. Head black on top, with a large silky white auricular patch embracing the eye and extending on the side of the neck, bordered above in the male by a scarlet stripe not meeting its fellow on the nape; nasal feathers and those on the side of the jay white; black of the crown connected across the lores with a black stripe running from the corner of the bill down the side of the breast in black spots continued less thickly along the whole side and on the crissum; under parts otherwise soiled white. Central tail-feathers black; others white, black-barred. Back and wings barred with black and white, the larger quills and many coverts with the white bars resolved into paired spots. Female lacking the red cockade. A peculiar isolated species; wings longer and more pointed than usual in this genus." Elliot Coues, 1884

Red-cockaded Woodpecker

"Picus borealis. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker. Body spotted and crosswise banded, but not streaked. Head…

"Melanerpes erythrocephalus. Red-headed Woodpecker. Tricolor. Adult: Beautifully tricolor with "the red, white, and blue." Back, wings and tail glossy blue-black; secondaries, upper tail-coverts, under wing-coverts, under parts from the breast, and ends of some outer tail-feathers, white. Whole head, neck and fore breast crimson, usually black-bordered where adjoining the white. The white of hte wings and rump is pure; that of belly usually tinged with ochraceous or reddish; the white quills have black shafts. The red feathers are stiffish and somewhat bristly in their colored portions. The gloss is sometimes green instead of blue. Bill and feet dusky horn-color. Iris brown." Elliot Coues, 1884

Red-headed Woodpecker

"Melanerpes erythrocephalus. Red-headed Woodpecker. Tricolor. Adult: Beautifully tricolor with "the…

"Sphyropicus thyroides. Brown-headed Woodpecker. Black-breasted Woodpecker. Red-throated Woodpecker. Williamson's Woodpecker. Adult: Glossy black, including all the tail-feathers. Belly gamboge yellow. A narrow scarlet patch on the throat. Upper tail-coverts, a broad oblique bar on the wing-coverts, a post-ocular stripe, a stripe from nostrils below eye and ear, and small, in part paired, spots on the quills, white. Lining of wings, sides of body, flanks and crissum varied with white, leaving the black in bars and cordate spots. Bill slate-color; feet greenish-gray; iris reddish-brown." Elliot Coues, 1884

Red-headed Woodpecker

"Sphyropicus thyroides. Brown-headed Woodpecker. Black-breasted Woodpecker. Red-throated Woodpecker.…

"Picus martius, the Black Woodpecker, an inhabitant of the pine-forests of Europe and Asia to Japan, quite erroneously asserted to have occurred in England. The colour is black with exception of a red head, while the feathering extends down two-thirds of the metatarsus in front." A. H. Evans, 1900 Distinction between the male and the female can be seen on the crown. The male's is entirely red, while the female's shows just a touch of red on the tip.

The Great Black Woodpecker

"Picus martius, the Black Woodpecker, an inhabitant of the pine-forests of Europe and Asia to Japan,…

"Sphyropicus varius. Yellow-bellied Woodpecker. Male: Crown crimson, bordered all around with black; chin, and breast black, enclosing a large crimson patch on the former (in the male; in the female this patch white); sides of head with a white line starting from the nasal feathers and dividing the black of the throat from a trans-ocular black stripe, this separated from the black of the crown by a white post-ocular stripe; all these stripes frequently yellowish. Under parts dingy yellow, brownish and and with sagittate dusky marks on the sides. Back variegated with black and yellowish. Wings black with a large oblique white bar on the coverts; the quills with numerous paired white spots on the edges of both webs. Tail black, most of the feathers white-edged, the inner webs of the middle pair, and the upper coverts, mostly white. Bill brownish; feet greenish-plumbeous; iris brown." Elliot Coues, 1884

Yellow-bellied Woodpecker

"Sphyropicus varius. Yellow-bellied Woodpecker. Male: Crown crimson, bordered all around with black;…

"Picoïdes. Three-toed Woodpeckers. Three-toed: the hallux (1st toe) absent, the 4th toe reversed as usual in the family. Bill as in Picus proper, about as long as the head, stout, straight, with bevelled end and lateral ridges, and nasal tufts hiding the nostrils; very broad and much depressed at base, with the lateral ridges very low down, in most of their length close to and parallel with commissure; nostrils very near commissure; gonys about as long as from nostrils to end of bill. Wings very pointed; 1st quill spurious; 2d between 6th and 7th in length. Crown with a square yellow patch in the male; sides of head striped, of body barred, with black and white; under parts otherwise white; quills but not coverts with white spots; tail-feathers unbarred, the outer white, the central black. All the species of this genus are unquestionably modified derivatives of one circumpolar stock; the American seem to have become completely differentiated from the Asiatic and European, and further divergence seems to have perfectly separated arcticus from americanus; but dorsalis and americanus are still linked together. Elliot Coues, 1884

Three-toed Woodpeckers

"Picoïdes. Three-toed Woodpeckers. Three-toed: the hallux (1st toe) absent, the 4th toe reversed…

"Troglodytes parvulus, Wren, the coloration is ordinarily brown, with a great tendency to barring; spots, stripes, and streaks are not uncommon; chestnut, bay, orange, and grey often relieve the dulness.: A. H. Evans, 1900

Wren

"Troglodytes parvulus, Wren, the coloration is ordinarily brown, with a great tendency to barring; spots,…

"Carolina Wren. Upper parts uniform reddish-brown, brightest on the rump, where are concealed whitish spots; a long whitish superciliary line, usually bordered with dusky streaks; upper surfaces of wings and tail like back, barred with dusky, the outer edges of the primaries and lateral tail-feathers showing whitish spots. Below, rusty or muddy whitish, clearest anteriorly, deepening behind, the under tail-coverts reddish-brown barred with blackish. Wing-coverts usually with dusky and whitish tips. Feet livid flesh-colored." Elliot Coues, 1884

Carolina Wren

"Carolina Wren. Upper parts uniform reddish-brown, brightest on the rump, where are concealed whitish…

"European Wren. Feet strictly laminiplanter, as usual in Oscines. Tail thin, with narrow parallel-edged feathers. Wings and tail more or less completely barred cross-wise. Large. Upper parts uniform in color, without streaks or bars; rump with concealed white spots. Belly unmarked; a conspicuous superciliary stripe." Elliot Coues, 1884

European Wren

"European Wren. Feet strictly laminiplanter, as usual in Oscines. Tail thin, with narrow parallel-edged…

"Long-billed Marsh Wren. T. palustris. Above clear brown, unbarred, the middle of the back with a large black patch sharply streaked with white (these white stripes sometimes deficient). Crown of head usually darker that the back, often quite blackish, and continuous with the black interscapular patch. a dull white superciliary line. Wings fuscous, the inner secondaries blackish on the outer webs, often barred or indented with light brown. Tail evenly barred with fuscous and the color of the back. Under parts white, usually quite pure on the belly and middle line of the breast and throat, but much shaded with brown on the sides, flanks, and crissum. Bill blackish above, pale below; feet brown." Elliot Coues, 1884

Long-billed Marsh Wren

"Long-billed Marsh Wren. T. palustris. Above clear brown, unbarred, the middle of the back with a large…

"Upper parts pale brownish-gray, minutely dotted with blackish and whitish points together, and usually showing obsolete wavy bars of dusky. Rump cinnamon-brown; a whitish superciliary line. Beneath, soiled white, shading behind into pale cinnamon, the throat and breast obsoletely streaked, and the under tail-covers barred, with dusky. Quills of the wings rather darker than the back, with similar markings on the outer webs. Middle tail-feathers like the back, with many dark bars of equal width with the lighter ones; lateral tail-feathers similarly marked on the outer webs, plain on the inner webs, with a broad subterminal black bar on both webs, and cinnamon-brown tips, the latter usually marbled with dusky; outer feathers with several blackish and cinnamon bars on both webs. Bill and feet dark horn color, the former paler at base below." Elliot Coues, 1884

Rock Wren

"Upper parts pale brownish-gray, minutely dotted with blackish and whitish points together, and usually…

"Short-billed Marsh Wren. Cistothorus platensis. Upper parts brown, the crown and most of the back blackish, streaked with white. below, whitish, shaded with clear brown across the breast and along the sides, and especially on the flanks and crissum, the latter more or less indistinctly barred with dusky (often inappreciable). A whitish line over the eye. Wings and tail marked as in the last species. Upper tail-coverts decidedly barred. Bill blackish above, whitish below, extremely small, scarcely half as long as the head; feet brown." Elliot Coues, 1884

Short-billed Marsh Wren

"Short-billed Marsh Wren. Cistothorus platensis. Upper parts brown, the crown and most of the back blackish,…

"Winter Wren. Above brown, darker before, brighter behind, most of back, together with tail and inner wing quills, banded with dusky, the markings obsolete on the back, where usually accompanied by whitish specks, strongest on the wings and tail. Outer webs of several primaries regularly barred with brownish-white, in marked contrast with the other bars of the wings. An inconspicuous whitish superciliary line. Below brownish, paler or whitish anteriorly, the belly, flanks, and crissum heavily waved with dusky and whitish bars. Bill slender, straight, decidedly shorter than the head. Tail much shorter than the wings." Elliot Coues, 1884" Elliot Coues, 1884

Winter Wren

"Winter Wren. Above brown, darker before, brighter behind, most of back, together with tail and inner…

"The Wrens are among the smallest birds."Left: Golden Wren.Top: Fire-Crested Wren.Right: Golden-Crested Wren.

Wrens

"The Wrens are among the smallest birds." Left: Golden Wren. Top: Fire-Crested Wren. Right: Golden-Crested…

"The Stonechat generally forms itts nest under some furze-bush or other shrub, or among rank grass."Left: Wagtail.Top: Whinchat.Bottom-right: Stonechat.

Wrens

"The Stonechat generally forms itts nest under some furze-bush or other shrub, or among rank grass." Left:…

Like Woodpeckers, they can hang upon trees, and sustain themselves in a vertical position for a long time; but they are incapable of climbing (Figuier, 1869).

Wryneck

Like Woodpeckers, they can hang upon trees, and sustain themselves in a vertical position for a long…

Like Woodpeckers, they can hang upon trees, and sustain themselves in a vertical position for a long time; but they are incapable of climbing (Figuier, 1869).

Wryneck

Like Woodpeckers, they can hang upon trees, and sustain themselves in a vertical position for a long…

"Iynx torquilla, the Cuckoo's-mate or Snake-bird, is fairly common in England, and extends thence to Japan, Kordofan, and Senegal. The Wryneck may be distinguished from the typical Woodpeckers by their soft tails without spiny shafts, and naked nostrils with a partial covering. The plumage shews a particular mixture of black , brown, grey, and white, somewhat similar to the Nightjar." A. H. Evans, 1900

A Wryneck Sitting on a Tree

"Iynx torquilla, the Cuckoo's-mate or Snake-bird, is fairly common in England, and extends thence to…

"Totanus melanoleucus. Greater Tell-tale. Greater Yellow-shanks. Long-legged Tattler. Stone-snipe. Bill straight or slightly inclined upwards, not with regular curve, but as if bent near the middle, black or greenish-black. Legs very long and slender, chrome-yellow. Above, blackish, more or less ashy according to season, everywhere speckled with whitish, in a series on indentations along edge of each feather; the markings spottle on the back and wings, streaky on the head and neck. A slight white superciliary line. Upper tail-coverts mostly white. Under parts white, the jugulum and fore-breast streaked, the sides and flanks, lining of wings and axillars barred and arrow-headed with the color of the back. Tail like back,with numerous white bars, generally broken on the middle feathers. Primaries blackish, with black shafts, mostly with white tips; secondaries and their coverts the same, but their edges marbled, spotted, or broken-barred with white. The seasonal changes of plumage are inconsiderable, consisting chiefly in the tone of the upper parts, more blackish and white in summer, more gray and ashy in winter and in the young; and in the emphasis of the dark markings of the under parts." Elliot Coues, 1884

Greater Yello-shanks

"Totanus melanoleucus. Greater Tell-tale. Greater Yellow-shanks. Long-legged Tattler. Stone-snipe. Bill…

"Geothlypis trichas. Common Yellowthroat. Yellow-throated Ground Warbler. Maryland Yellow-throat. Upper parts rich olive, inclining to grayish on the head, brightest on the rump. Wings and tail brown, edged with the color of the back. Chin, throat, and breast, with under wing- and tail-coverts, rich yellow. middle under parts dull whitish, shaded on the sides. A broad mask on the front and sides of the head, bordered behind by hoary-ash. Bill black; feet flesh-colored." Elliot Coues, 1884

Common Yellowthroat

"Geothlypis trichas. Common Yellowthroat. Yellow-throated Ground Warbler. Maryland Yellow-throat. Upper…