"Machine designed by Atwood to allow the measurement and calculation of the velocities of falling bodies at various points accurately and easily." —Quackenbos 1859

Atwood's Machine

"Machine designed by Atwood to allow the measurement and calculation of the velocities of falling bodies…

Group of soldiers escorting a corpse on a wagon.

Duryea's Zouaves at Big Bethel Brining Off Grebel's Body

Group of soldiers escorting a corpse on a wagon.

"Organs in the body cavity viewed from the front." —Davison, 1910

Organs of the body cavity

"Organs in the body cavity viewed from the front." —Davison, 1910

Back view of a man. On one lateral the names of the parts are given in English, on the other in Latin.

Back View of the Parts of the Human Body Labeled in English and Latin

Back view of a man. On one lateral the names of the parts are given in English, on the other in Latin.

Front view of a man in the anatomical position. On one lateral half the parts are labeled in English, on the other in Latin. The right upper limb is drawn away from the trunk in the order to show the arm more fully than is possible when it hangs perpendicularly.

Front View of the Parts of the Human Body Labeled in English and Latin

Front view of a man in the anatomical position. On one lateral half the parts are labeled in English,…

Visual perspective of the human body.

Body Perspective

Visual perspective of the human body.

Back view of the body and outline of skeleton and covering.

Back View of the Body

Back view of the body and outline of skeleton and covering.

Front view of the body and outline of skeleton and covering.

Front View of the Body

Front view of the body and outline of skeleton and covering.

Diagrammatic longitudinal section of the body. Labels: a, the neural tube, with its upper enlargement in the skull cavity at a'; N, the spinal cord; N', the brain; ee, vertebrae forming the solid partition between the dorsal and ventral cavities; b, the pleural, and c, the abdominal division of the ventral cavity, separated from one another by the diaphragm, d; i, the nasal, and o, the mouth chamber, opening behind into the pharynx, from which one tube leads to the lungs, l, and another to the stomach, f; h, the heart; k, a kidney; s, the sympathetic nervous chain. From the stomach, f, the intestinal tube leads through the abdominal cavity to the posterior opening of the alimentary canal.

Longitudinal Section of Body

Diagrammatic longitudinal section of the body. Labels: a, the neural tube, with its upper enlargement…

"A single muscle rarely or never contracts alone, but always in harmony with a number of other muscles. Even the simplest movement we can make requres the combined action of several muscles to carry it out. If the movement is at all difficult, such as playing on the piano or riding on the bicycle, the different muscles must contract in a certain order and with a certain strength and rapidity." — Blaisedell, 1904

Superficial muscles of the body

"A single muscle rarely or never contracts alone, but always in harmony with a number of other muscles.…

"Blood plasma passing out of capillary to feed the body cells." —Davison, 1910

Capillaries

"Blood plasma passing out of capillary to feed the body cells." —Davison, 1910

"Why does a person carrying a weight upon his back stoop forward? In order to bring the center of gravity of his body and the load over his feet. If held in this position, he would fall backwards, as the direction of the center of gravity would fall beyond his heels." — Wells, 1857

Center of Gravity

"Why does a person carrying a weight upon his back stoop forward? In order to bring the center of gravity…

"Why does a person carrying a weight upon his back stoop forward? In order to bring the center of gravity of his body and the load over his feet, he assumes this position." — Wells, 1857

Center of Gravity

"Why does a person carrying a weight upon his back stoop forward? In order to bring the center of gravity…

"A body's center of mass is the point about which all matter composing the body may be balanced. It is also called the center of inertia. In some cases, this is also the center of gravity." -Avery 1895

Center of Mass

"A body's center of mass is the point about which all matter composing the body may be balanced. It…

"Let any irregularly shpaed body, as a stone or chair, be suspended so as to move freely. Drop a plumb line from the point of the suspendsion, and make it fast or mark its direction. The center of mass will lie in this line. From a second point, not in the line already determined, suspend the body; let it fall a plumb line as before. The center of mass will lie in this line also. But to lie in both lines, it must lie at their intersection." -Avery 1895

Finding the Center of Mass

"Let any irregularly shpaed body, as a stone or chair, be suspended so as to move freely. Drop a plumb…

Petrified corpse discovered at Pompeii.

Discovered Body at Pompeii

Petrified corpse discovered at Pompeii.

An insect characterized by large multifaceted eyes, two pairs of strong transparent wings, and an elongated body.

Dragonfly

An insect characterized by large multifaceted eyes, two pairs of strong transparent wings, and an elongated…

"If a body be fastened to a string and whirled, so as to give it a circular motion, there will be a pull on the string that will be greater or less according as the velocity increases or decreases... If the string were cut, the pulling force that drew it away from the straight line would be removed, and the body would then fly off at a tangent; that is, it would move in a straight line tangent to the circle, as shown in Fig. 9." —Hallock 1905

Centrifugal Force

"If a body be fastened to a string and whirled, so as to give it a circular motion, there will be a…

The position of the organs of the mouth, thorax, and abdomen. 1, 2, and 3: Salivary glands. 4: The larynx and trachea. 5: The aesophagus. 6: The lungs. 7: The heart. 8: The liver. 9: The stomach. 10: The pancreas. 11: The spleen. 13: The small intestine. 14: The large intestine.

Front View of the Body

The position of the organs of the mouth, thorax, and abdomen. 1, 2, and 3: Salivary glands. 4: The larynx…

The Great Dane is a dog which has at different times been called the 'boar-hound', the 'German Mastiff', and the 'Ulmer dog'. It first began to attract attention about 1870. The grand figure, the bold outlook, and the commanding appearance of the type commended it to certain enthusiasts; and when it was found to be faithful, and intelligent, and of unfailing courage, it soon came into favor. The latest development of the breed is a harlequin-colored or black and white dog, sometimes with a wall eye and mottled nose. The Great Dane stands 34 in. high, and weighs as much as 180 lbs.; though the bitch is considerably smaller and lighter.

Great Dane

The Great Dane is a dog which has at different times been called the 'boar-hound', the 'German Mastiff',…

General view of the human body - back view.

The Human Body - Back View

General view of the human body - back view.

General view of the human body - front view.

The Human Body - Front View

General view of the human body - front view.

"Shows the upward inclination of the body and the flexed condition of the wings in the flight of the kingfisher. The body and wings when taken form a kite."—Pettigrew, 1874

Kingfisher

"Shows the upward inclination of the body and the flexed condition of the wings in the flight of the…

A prosthetic limb that replaces a missing body part.

Artificial Leg

A prosthetic limb that replaces a missing body part.

"A lens is a transparent body the two refracting surfaces of which are curved, or one of which is curved and the other plane.(1) Double convex(2) Plano convex(3) Meniscus(4)Double concave(5) Plano concave(6) Concavo concave." -Avery 1895

Lens

"A lens is a transparent body the two refracting surfaces of which are curved, or one of which is curved…

An illustration of a group of men lifting a body off the ground.

Men Lifting Body

An illustration of a group of men lifting a body off the ground.

"Diagram illustrating the muscles (drawn in thick black lines) which pass before and behind the joints and by their balanced activity keep the joints rigid and the body erect." —Martin, 1917

Muscle Diagram

"Diagram illustrating the muscles (drawn in thick black lines) which pass before and behind the joints…

"The bodies of those who perished were buried under layers of fine pumice stones and ashes. When plaster of Paris was poured into the cavity left by a decaying body, the result was a complete cast of a victim of the eruption."—Webster, 1913

Cast of a Body Found at Pompeii

"The bodies of those who perished were buried under layers of fine pumice stones and ashes. When plaster…

"A prism is a transparent body with two refraction surfaces that lie in intersecting planes. The angle formed by these planes is called the refracting angle." -Avery 1895

Prism

"A prism is a transparent body with two refraction surfaces that lie in intersecting planes. The angle…

A body is shown as projecting from its surface projection lines, and these lines are cut by a plane. By connecting the points on the plane made by the projection lines the projection of the body is formed, and it corresponds in shape with the body itself.

Projected Geometric View

A body is shown as projecting from its surface projection lines, and these lines are cut by a plane.…

All six views in a projection.

Six views of Object

All six views in a projection.

It can readily be seen that one view only with not give a complete picture of a solid object. Usually two or more views are necessary, according to the complication of the object or body.

Top, Front, and End Projections

It can readily be seen that one view only with not give a complete picture of a solid object. Usually…

"The salmon swimming leisurely. The body, it will be observed, is bent in two curves, one occurring towards the head, the other towards the tail. The shape of the salmon is admirably adapted for cleaving the water."—Pettigrew, 1857

Salmon

"The salmon swimming leisurely. The body, it will be observed, is bent in two curves, one occurring…

A side view of the two great cavities of the body and their organs. 1: The mouth. 2: The thorax. 3: The abdomen. 4: The brain. 5: The spinal cord. 6: A salivary gland. 7: The aesophagus. 8: The trachea and lungs. 9: The heart. 10: The liver. 11: The stomach. 12: The colon. 13: The small intestine. 14: The lacteals. 15: The thoracic duct. 16: The diaphragm. 17, 18, and 20: The walls of the lower cavity, composed of bones, muscles and skin. 19 and 20: The walls of the upper cavity.

Side View of the Body

A side view of the two great cavities of the body and their organs. 1: The mouth. 2: The thorax. 3:…