Horizontal section through both the upper and lower jaws to show the roots of the teeth. The sections were carried through the bones a short distance from the edge of their alveolar borders. The upper figure shows the upper teeth, the lower figure the lower teeth. Note the flattened roots of the lower incisors, the two root canals in the anterior root of each lower molar, and the confluence of the three roots of the upper wisdom teeth.

Jaw Showing Roots of Teeth

Horizontal section through both the upper and lower jaws to show the roots of the teeth. The sections…

A lion with his paw around a dog.

Lion

A lion with his paw around a dog.

The Fox-terrier is not an old breed, only dating back about a century; but the fox-terrier's cleverness, sharpness, sprightliness, impudence, and pluck endear him wherever he goes. Several special clubs devote their attention to the fostering of this breed in Great Britain and in the United States.

Smooth-coated Fox-terrier

The Fox-terrier is not an old breed, only dating back about a century; but the fox-terrier's cleverness,…

Two breeds of dog, a Spitz and Collie.

Spitz and Collie

Two breeds of dog, a Spitz and Collie.

To show the relation of the upper to the lower teeth when the mouth is closed. The manner in which a tooth of one row usually strikes against two teeth of the opposite row, and the resulting interlocking of the teeth, is to be noted.

Teeth

To show the relation of the upper to the lower teeth when the mouth is closed. The manner in which a…

"A Tooth is one of the hard bodies of the mouth, attached to the skeleton, but not forming part of it and developed from the dermis or true skin. True teeth consist of one, two, or more tissues differing in their chemical composition and in their microscopical appearances. Dentine, which forms the body of the tooth, and 'cement,' which forms its outer crust, are always present, the third tissue, the 'enamel,' when present, being situated between the dentine and cement. The incisors, or cutting teeth, are situated in front. In men there are two of these incisors in each side of each jaw. The permanent incisors, molars, and premolars are preceded by a set of deciduous or milk teeth, which are lost before maturity, and replaced by the permanent ones. The canines come next to the incisors. In man there is one canine tooth in each half-jaw. The premolars (known also as bicuspids and false molars) come next in order to the canines. In man there are two premolars in each half-jaw. The true molars (or multicuspids) are placed most posteriorly. In man there are three molars in each half-jaw, the posterior one being termed the wisdom tooth. The figures [in the illustration] refer to months after birth."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

First Teeth

"A Tooth is one of the hard bodies of the mouth, attached to the skeleton, but not forming part of it…

Incisor and canine teeth of a horse. A, front, B, lateral, and C, corner incisor; D, canine teeth.

Incisor and Canine Horse Teeth

Incisor and canine teeth of a horse. A, front, B, lateral, and C, corner incisor; D, canine teeth.

The lower permanent teeth, viewed from above.

Lower Permanent Teeth

The lower permanent teeth, viewed from above.

The permanent teeth of the right side, outer or labial aspect. The upper row shows the upper teeth, the lower row the lower teeth. The wide vertical labial ridge is distinct on the upper canine and premolar teeth.

Permanent Teeth

The permanent teeth of the right side, outer or labial aspect. The upper row shows the upper teeth,…

The permanent teeth of the right side, inner of lingual aspect. The upper row shows the upper teeth, the lower row the lower teeth. The cingulum is distinct on the upper incisors and both canines, the lingual cusp on the upper lateral incisor and the upper canine.

Permanent Teeth

The permanent teeth of the right side, inner of lingual aspect. The upper row shows the upper teeth,…

"A Tooth is one of the hard bodies of the mouth, attached to the skeleton, but not forming part of it and developed from the dermis or true skin. True teeth consist of one, two, or more tissues differing in their chemical composition and in their microscopical appearances. Dentine, which forms the body of the tooth, and 'cement,' which forms its outer crust, are always present, the third tissue, the 'enamel,' when present, being situated between the dentine and cement. The incisors, or cutting teeth, are situated in front. In men there are two of these incisors in each side of each jaw. The permanent incisors, molars, and premolars are preceded by a set of deciduous or milk teeth, which are lost before maturity, and replaced by the permanent ones. The canines come next to the incisors. In man there is one canine tooth in each half-jaw. The premolars (known also as bicuspids and false molars) come next in order to the canines. In man there are two premolars in each half-jaw. The true molars (or multicuspids) are placed most posteriorly. In man there are three molars in each half-jaw, the posterior one being termed the wisdom tooth. The figures [in the illustration] refer to years after birth."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Second Teeth

"A Tooth is one of the hard bodies of the mouth, attached to the skeleton, but not forming part of it…

The temporary teeth of the left side. The masticating surfaces of the tow upper molars are shown above. In the second row the upper teeth are viewed from the outer or labial side. In the third row the lower teeth are shown in a similar manner; and below are the masticating surfaces of the two lower molars. In the specimen from which the first upper molar was drawn the two outer or buccal cusps were not distinctly separated, as is often the case.

Temporary Teeth

The temporary teeth of the left side. The masticating surfaces of the tow upper molars are shown above.…

"<em>Temporary Teeth:</em> <em>A</em>, central incisors; <em>B</em>, lateral incisors; <em>C</em>, canines; <em>D</em>, anterior molars; <em>E</em>, posterior molars, <em>F</em>, central incisors; <em>H</em>, lateral incisors; <em>K</em>, canines; <em>L</em>, first bicuspids; <em>M</em>second bicuspids; <em>N</em>, first molars." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Temporary and permanent teeth

"Temporary Teeth: A, central incisors; B, lateral incisors; C, canines;…

The upper permanent teeth.

Upper Permanent Teeth

The upper permanent teeth.

Diagram to illustrate the development of a tooth. I. Shows the downgrowth of the dental lamina D.L. from the surface epithelium E and the beginning of the enamel germ E.G. II. Shows the further growth of the enamel germ and its invagination. III. The enamel germ is more invaginated, and its inner layer of cells becomes columnar. A, the dental lamina, grows thinner, but near its posterior or lingual edge there is an enlargement R.G which is the reserve germ for a permanent tooth. The superficial cells of the dentine papilla P are becoming columnar. IV. The inner columnar cells of the enamel germ ( called enamel cells) A have formed a cap of enamel EN, inside which the superficial cells of the papilla, the odontoblasts O, have formed a layer of dentine D. V. Shows a more advances stage still. The deposit of dentine is extending downwards, and enclosing the papilla to form the future pulp, in which a vessel V is seen. Labels: A, inner layer; B, outer layer; C, remains of intermediate cells; D, dentine; D.L, dental lamina; E, epithelium; E.G, enamel germ; EN, enamel; F, dental furrow; L.D, labio-dental furrow; M, connective tissue cells; O, odontoblasts; P, dentine papilla; R.G, reserve germ; V, blood vessels.

Development of a Tooth

Diagram to illustrate the development of a tooth. I. Shows the downgrowth of the dental lamina D.L.…

A unique breed of greyhound. Humble but intelligent, the turnspit, which, despite its vulgarity, appears to be, in part, of this gentle stock. &mdash;Goodrich, 1885

Turnspit

A unique breed of greyhound. Humble but intelligent, the turnspit, which, despite its vulgarity, appears…

The wolf belongs to the dog family. There are three recognized species of wolf and they are generally found in wilder areas.

Wolf

The wolf belongs to the dog family. There are three recognized species of wolf and they are generally…

There are three recognized species of wolf in the U.S. spread mostly among wilder regions.

Wolf

There are three recognized species of wolf in the U.S. spread mostly among wilder regions.

"Wolf is the vernacular name of certain species of the genus Canis. The common wolf (C. lupus) has very much the appearance of a large, long-legged, bareboned dog, with a long tail, which hangs over its haunches instead of being curled upwards. Distinguishing characters are to be found in the lank body, length of the snout in proportion to the head, sloping forehead, oblique eyes, and erect ears. The fur varies according to the climate with respect both to its nature and color. A full-grown wolf measures 5 feet 5 inches in length, whereof 18 inches belong to the tail; its height is 33 inches, and its weight over 100 pounds. The wolf's natural voice is a loud howl, but when confined with dogs it will learn to bark."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Wolf

"Wolf is the vernacular name of certain species of the genus Canis. The common wolf (C. lupus) has very…

"The common wolf is of the size of a large dog; its usual color is a yelowish gray: the hair strong and harsh, and the longet around the neck, shoulders, and haunches. The muzzle is black, the upper lip and chin white, the eyes oblique, tail bushy, but carried low: height of shoulder twenty-seven to twenty-nine inches." &mdash;Goodrich, 1885

American Wolf

"The common wolf is of the size of a large dog; its usual color is a yelowish gray: the hair strong…

A gray wolf.

Gray Wolf

A gray wolf.

"It is the size of a small wolf, with short, smooth, hair of dusky yellowish-brown color, barred on the lower part of the back with sexteen black transverse stripes. It is the largest and most powerful carnivorous animal in Australia, is nocturnal in its habits, lives in retired caves, devours kangaroos and other small mammalia." &mdash; S. G. Goodrich, 1885

Tasmanian Wolf

"It is the size of a small wolf, with short, smooth, hair of dusky yellowish-brown color, barred on…

"The common wolf is of the size of a large dog; its usual color is a yelowish gray: the hair strong and harsh, and the longet around the neck, shoulders, and haunches. The muzzle is black, the upper lip and chin white, the eyes oblique, tail bushy, but carried low: height of shoulder twenty-seven to twenty-nine inches." &mdash;Goodrich, 1885

French Wolves

"The common wolf is of the size of a large dog; its usual color is a yelowish gray: the hair strong…