Illustration of a portion of the sculpted wall mural at the Basilica of St. Denis in Paris. The sculpture is of the Battle of Marignano in which the Old Swiss Confederacy fought the French in Italy. The detail shows French knights on horseback (left) trampling over soldiers of the Old Swiss Confederacy, while more Swiss forces (right) attempt to to hold them back with long pikes. French canons can be seen in the distant background.

The Battle of Marignano, Detail from a Sculpted Wall Mural at the Basilica of St. Denis

Illustration of a portion of the sculpted wall mural at the Basilica of St. Denis in Paris. The sculpture…

An illustration of a 240 mm Trench Mortar used by the French during World War I, and designed by Dumezil—Batignolles. The mortar had a short barrel firing 192 lb. bombs.

240 mm Trench Mortar

An illustration of a 240 mm Trench Mortar used by the French during World War I, and designed by Dumezil—Batignolles.…

An schematic illustration of the 3 inch Stokes mortar. The mortar is made out of steel and screwed onto the ground for support by a cap. The mortar was used by the British in the trench during World War I.

Barrel View of Stokes Mortar

An schematic illustration of the 3 inch Stokes mortar. The mortar is made out of steel and screwed onto…

A light carriage minenwerfer class mortar used for direct fire. The barrel and the shifting lever is moved up during loading, while the angle of the mortar is adjusted by the elevating screw in the front.

Rifled Carriage Light Minenwerfer Mortar

A light carriage minenwerfer class mortar used for direct fire. The barrel and the shifting lever is…

The illustration shows a schematic view of the Stokes Mortar being mounted onto the bipod. The mortar is mounted on to the bipod. The bipod adjusts the mortar's angle by adjusting the the elevating handle moving the gears.

Front View of Stokes Mortar with Bipod

The illustration shows a schematic view of the Stokes Mortar being mounted onto the bipod. The mortar…

An illustration showing the German minenwerfer, or mine launcher, class for short range mortars. The mortar weighs around 1693 pounds, and has a rifle length of 4.54 calibers.

Rifled Heavy Minenwerfer Mortar

An illustration showing the German minenwerfer, or mine launcher, class for short range mortars. The…

A light minenwerfer with 7.6 cm caliber designed by German during World War I. The series of gears adjusts the angle of the barrel by turning the hand crank.

Rifled Light Minenwerfer Mortar

A light minenwerfer with 7.6 cm caliber designed by German during World War I. The series of gears adjusts…

The illustration of a medium trench mortar used during World War I. The mortar was designed with a rifled barrel to spin stabilize the shell.

Rifled Medium Trench Mortar

The illustration of a medium trench mortar used during World War I. The mortar was designed with a rifled…

"The mortar is a stout cannon of forged steel with simple vent firing and rear trunnions. The maximum pressure with the heaviest bomb is 16 tons to the square inch." —Encyclopeadia Britannica, 1922

Mounted Steel Mortar

"The mortar is a stout cannon of forged steel with simple vent firing and rear trunnions. The maximum…

A 192 pound bomb shell for the 240 mm trench mortar used during World War I. The vanes, or wings, are at the end of the case perpendicular to each other.

192 Pound Trench Mortar Bomb Shell

A 192 pound bomb shell for the 240 mm trench mortar used during World War I. The vanes, or wings, are…

Detail from a larger engraving of the siege of Boulogne in 1544 during the campaigns of Henry VIII in France. The detail has a banner in the upper left corner that reads "Highe Bovilloigne" and another that labels one encampment, "The Duke of Al Berkinnys Campe". The detail is from the center of the larger image. Boulogne is at the top of the illustration and their are plumes of smoke and evidence of explosions. The Basilica of Notre-Dame de Boulogneis damaged. Canons are set up as trenches are dug outside the city. There are archers and men with rifles attacking. Several soldiers with spears breach one area of the city. A man is being hung. In the foreground, troops on horseback with spears and flags cluster near an encampment of tents.

Siege of Boulogne by King Henry VIII, Detail of Cowdray Engraving

Detail from a larger engraving of the siege of Boulogne in 1544 during the campaigns of Henry VIII in…