"The letter C marks the point where the vessel to be exhausted is attached." -Century, 1889

Mercury Air-Pump

"The letter C marks the point where the vessel to be exhausted is attached." -Century, 1889

An illustration of an Alcoholometer, used to measure the alcohol content in liquids. A, distilling-flask; B, Condenser; C, Receiver.

Alcoholometer

An illustration of an Alcoholometer, used to measure the alcohol content in liquids. A, distilling-flask;…

"A vessel formerly used in chemistry for distillation, and usually made of glass or copper."-Whitney, 1902

Alembic

"A vessel formerly used in chemistry for distillation, and usually made of glass or copper."-Whitney,…

A bucking board upon which ore is pulverized into manageable pieces with a muller, which is like a hammer. These pieces can then be used in experiments.

Bucking Board

A bucking board upon which ore is pulverized into manageable pieces with a muller, which is like a hammer.…

(1627-1691) An Irish natural philosopher noted for his physics and chemistry. Dr. Boyle was known for <em>The Sceptical Chymist</em>.

Robert Boyle

(1627-1691) An Irish natural philosopher noted for his physics and chemistry. Dr. Boyle was known for…

"Bunsen's Burner, a form of gas burner especially adapted for heating, consisting of a tube, in which, by means of holes in the side, the gas becomes mixed with air before consumption, so that it gives a non-illuminating smokeless flame." -Vaughan, 1906

Bunsen Burner

"Bunsen's Burner, a form of gas burner especially adapted for heating, consisting of a tube, in which,…

A chemistry apparatus.

Chemistry Apparatus

A chemistry apparatus.

A French physicist and chemist famous for her work on radioactivity. She was the first person honored with two Nobel prizes, in physics and chemisty.

Marie Curie

A French physicist and chemist famous for her work on radioactivity. She was the first person honored…

Apparatus used for distillation, separating liquid from the impurities contained in it. A, reservoir; B, light for heating; C, connecting tube; D, steam passes into; E, pipe where cold water is supplied; F, discharged liquid; H, pure water.

Distillation

Apparatus used for distillation, separating liquid from the impurities contained in it. A, reservoir;…

A flask being heated over an open flame, with a tube and jar attached.

Heated flask

A flask being heated over an open flame, with a tube and jar attached.

"M. Cailleter's apparatus is represented. The gas under experiment is contained in a stout glass tube of narrow bore. To fill this tube with gas, both ends being open, a globule of mercury is first introduced at the lower curved extremity; the tube is then placed in a nearly horizontal position, the curved extremity is connected with the holder contraining the gas, or with the apparatus in which the gas is being evolved, by means of caoutehone tubing, and a current of the pure dry gas is passed through the tube until the air is entirely expelled; this being effected, the point opposite to the curved extremity is sealed in the blowpipe flame; the tube is then brought into a vertical position, so that the globule of mercury closes the lower extremity, the caoutchouc tube is withdrawn, and the tube AA thus filled is screwed into its place in the cylinder B." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gas Liquidation

"M. Cailleter's apparatus is represented. The gas under experiment is contained in a stout glass tube…

"M. Cailleter's apparatus is represented. The gas under experiment is contained in a stout glass tube of narrow bore. To fill this tube with gas, both ends being open, a globule of mercury is first introduced at the lower curved extremity; the tube is then placed in a nearly horizontal position, the curved extremity is connected with the holder contraining the gas, or with the apparatus in which the gas is being evolved, by means of caoutehone tubing, and a current of the pure dry gas is passed through the tube until the air is entirely expelled; this being effected, the point opposite to the curved extremity is sealed in the blowpipe flame; the tube is then brought into a vertical position, so that the globule of mercury closes the lower extremity, the caoutchouc tube is withdrawn, and the tube AA thus filled is screwed into its place in the cylinder B." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gas Liquidation

"M. Cailleter's apparatus is represented. The gas under experiment is contained in a stout glass tube…

"Hydrometers of variable immersion are usually light hollow glass spindles weighted by shot or mercury."&mdash;Finley, 1917

Standard hydrometer

"Hydrometers of variable immersion are usually light hollow glass spindles weighted by shot or mercury."—Finley,…

"The US Treasury Dept. and its internal revenue servie uses a series of carefully adjusted hydrometers for determing the amount of alcohol in various distilled liquors."&mdash;Finley, 1917

US Internal Revenue hydrometer

"The US Treasury Dept. and its internal revenue servie uses a series of carefully adjusted hydrometers…

A woman mixing milk with acid to test it, using a rotary motion with the bottle not pointed towards her face.

Mixing milk

A woman mixing milk with acid to test it, using a rotary motion with the bottle not pointed towards…

A woman whirling samples of milk in order to seperate the fat so it can be measured.

Whirling milk

A woman whirling samples of milk in order to seperate the fat so it can be measured.

A pipette, half filled with liquid.

Pipette

A pipette, half filled with liquid.

Sprengel's pynkometer, a u-shaped flask.

Sprengel's pyknometer

Sprengel's pynkometer, a u-shaped flask.

"A Retort is a vessel in whose chamber an object is subjected to distillation or decomposition by heat, a neck conducting off the volatile products. The retort of the chemical laboratory is a vessel of glass, platinum, porcelain, or other material. It is bottle-shaped, having a long neck attached, in which the products of the distillation are condensed, and from which they pass into the receiver. The retort of the gas works is a cylinder or segment of a cylinder, formed of clay or iron."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Retort

"A Retort is a vessel in whose chamber an object is subjected to distillation or decomposition by heat,…

This furnace is used to purify a gold concentrate. The gold concentrates, if non-pyritic, are treated in grinding pans in the bottom of which mercury is placed. The amalgam (mercury alloy), after squeezing out the excess mercury, is heated in the retort, to distil (separate) off the rest and leave the gold, which is then melted and cast into bars of gold bullion of varying fineness.

Retort Furnace for Gold Bullion

This furnace is used to purify a gold concentrate. The gold concentrates, if non-pyritic, are treated…

"Ruedorf's sand-bath, a simple form of sand-bath in which the temperature can be regulated by raising or lowering an S-shaped burner." -Whitney, 1911

Ruedorf's Sand Bath

"Ruedorf's sand-bath, a simple form of sand-bath in which the temperature can be regulated by raising…

"A glass vessel used to separate liquids which differ in specific gravity and are not miscible." -Whitney, 1911

Separator

"A glass vessel used to separate liquids which differ in specific gravity and are not miscible." -Whitney,…

A device used for measuring the specific gravity of an object or substance.

Specific gravity bottle

A device used for measuring the specific gravity of an object or substance.

"To the end of the delivery-tube of a Florence flask containing water, attach a 'trap' so that the water that condenses in the delivery-tube may be retained in the trap." &mdash; Avery, 1895

Trap

"To the end of the delivery-tube of a Florence flask containing water, attach a 'trap' so that the water…

An empty vial with a cork stopper.

Vial, empty

An empty vial with a cork stopper.

A vial with a very small amount of gravel in it, and a cork stopper.

Nearly empty vial

A vial with a very small amount of gravel in it, and a cork stopper.

A vial, approximately one third full of a dark granular substance, with a cork stopper.

One-third full vial

A vial, approximately one third full of a dark granular substance, with a cork stopper.