"A slave, belonging to the class <em>quasillariae</em>, is presenting her misteress with the <em>calathus</em>, in which the wool is kept for embroidery." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Calathus

"A slave, belonging to the class quasillariae, is presenting her misteress with the calathus,…

Sack cloth, often made of hair.

Cloth

Sack cloth, often made of hair.

A cotton boll or capsule of a cotton plant.

Cotton

A cotton boll or capsule of a cotton plant.

A curtain is a piece of cloth intended to block or obscure light. Curtains are often hung in the inside of a building window to block the travel of light.

Curtain Hanger

A curtain is a piece of cloth intended to block or obscure light. Curtains are often hung in the inside…

Successful textile designers marry a creative vision of what a finished textile will look like with a deep understanding of the technical aspects of production and the properties of fiber, yarn, and dyes

Printed Fabric

Successful textile designers marry a creative vision of what a finished textile will look like with…

Constructed by weaving textile fibers into a network or web. Fabric may be natural or synthetic. Until approximately the middle of the twentieth century, natural fiber fabric was predominate in flag making. Traditional flag fabrics are wool, cotton, linen, and silk.

Textile Fabric

Constructed by weaving textile fibers into a network or web. Fabric may be natural or synthetic. Until…

This check is a pattern consisting of crossed horizontal and vertical bands in two or more colors in woven cloth. Checks are traditionally associated with the with Celtic countries, especially Scotland where woven dyed wool was, at one time, a principal cloth. District checks were created as camouflage for moving inconspicuously on the laird's lands.

Manufacture of Figured Fabrics

This check is a pattern consisting of crossed horizontal and vertical bands in two or more colors in…

A cloth, for the purpose of wiping the face.

Handkerchief

A cloth, for the purpose of wiping the face.

A hand holding a handkerchief.

Handkerchief

A hand holding a handkerchief.

Two skullcaps used for defense of the head in the 16th century. The caps fit closely to the head. The cap on the left appears to be cloth lined with an iron frame. The cap on the right consists only of the iron frame. Both caps are from the 16th century.

Iron Skullcaps from the 16th Century

Two skullcaps used for defense of the head in the 16th century. The caps fit closely to the head. The…

"Now when Job's three friends heard of all this evil that was come upon him, they came every one from his own place: Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite, and they made an appointment together to come to bemoan him and to comfort him." Job 2:11 ASV
<p>Illustration of Job sitting on the ground, against a wall, head covered and bowed. Three of his friends sit across from him. One is speaking with his right arm raised, finger pointing skyward. Another rests his head on his fist and a third looks intently at Job.

Job is Patient as His Friends Bemoan Him

"Now when Job's three friends heard of all this evil that was come upon him, they came every one from…

In the manufacturing of jute, the jute fiber must first be softened. The softening machine consists of many pairs of fluted or corrugated rollers arranged in horizontal succession and driven with a reciprocating motion. The jute as it passes through may receive a sprinkling of oil ad water from automatic apparatus attached to the machine overhead, or it may be arranged in the layers and sprayed with oil after emerging from the softener, a process known as batching. In either case, the material is then allowed to lie a certain time in bulk, to permit of the fiber being thoroughly permeated with the oil.

Softening Process in the Manufacturing of Jute

In the manufacturing of jute, the jute fiber must first be softened. The softening machine consists…

In the last step of the manufacturing process of the jute plant, the material is taken on bobbins to spinning frames of the throstle type, and spun into yarn of various sizes, with a hard twist for warps and a softer twist for wefts. The warp yarns on bobbins are then passed on to the spooling and dressing machines, or are reeled in hanks and bundles for the purpose of being bleached or dyed in various colors for stripes in the fabric to be woven. The weft yarns are taken to the cop winding machines.

Spinning Process in the Manufacturing of Jute

In the last step of the manufacturing process of the jute plant, the material is taken on bobbins to…

An unfinished cloth found at Pachacamac.

Pachacamac Cloth

An unfinished cloth found at Pachacamac.

"The <em>palla</em>, as well as the <em>pallium</em> and <em>palliolum</em>, was always a rectangular piece of cloth, exactly, or, at least, nearly square. It was, indeed, used in the very form in which it was taken from the loom, being made entirely by the weaver. Among the Greeks and Romans the most common material for the <em>palla</em> was wool. It was often folded about the body simply with a view to defend it from cold, and without any regard to gracefulness of appearance, as in the following cut, taken from an ancient intaglio." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Palla

"The palla, as well as the pallium and palliolum, was always a rectangular…

Peruvian fabric design sketched in the American Museum of Natural History in New York.

Peruvian Fabric Design

Peruvian fabric design sketched in the American Museum of Natural History in New York.

Calico printing was the first "operation connected with the printing of cloth."- Lupton

Calico Printing

Calico printing was the first "operation connected with the printing of cloth."- Lupton

A decorative letter S with illustrated with an angel below the letter holding a cloth.

Decorative Letter S with Angel Holding Cloth

A decorative letter S with illustrated with an angel below the letter holding a cloth.

"a is the bobbin case; c, bobbin; b, thread wound on bobbin; d, projection from bobbin-case which keeps it from turning; e, thread leading out." &mdash;Whitney, 1889

Bobbin Detail of Wheeler and Wilson Sewing Machine

"a is the bobbin case; c, bobbin; b, thread wound on bobbin; d, projection from bobbin-case which keeps…

"a is the bobbin holder, partly opened to show hook b, and bobbin-case c; d, feed-points; e, presser-foot." &mdash;
Whitney, 1889

Bobbin Detail of Wheeler and Wilson Sewing Machine

"a is the bobbin holder, partly opened to show hook b, and bobbin-case c; d, feed-points; e, presser-foot."…

A detail of the Wheeler and Wilson Sewing Machine. "s, thread-leader; t, face-plate covering...; v, presser thumb-screw; w, thread-check; x, tension-nut by which tension is regulated; y, tension-pulley around which the thread is wound, and which is caused to turn less or more easily by the nut x; z, thread-guide and controller; z2, presser-foot." &mdash;Whitney, 1889

Detail of Wheeler and Wilson Sewing Machine

A detail of the Wheeler and Wilson Sewing Machine. "s, thread-leader; t, face-plate covering...; v,…

"A cartridge containing shot instead of a bullet, and intended to serve various purposes. a, paper case to which is fitted the brass base b, with a reinforcement of layers of paper, c, cemented together; d, cloth or felt wads; e, powder; f, shot; g, paper shot-wad, half as thick as one of the wads d; h, primer." &mdash;Whitney, 1889

Short Cartridge - Paper Case

"A cartridge containing shot instead of a bullet, and intended to serve various purposes. a, paper case…

Cut the sleeve protectors from the pattern. Beginning at the center of the bottom and holding the wrong side of the cloth next to you, baste the edge of the sleeve protector to the line running through the middle of the tape. Make a tiny pleat in the tape at each corner so that when doubled over it will round the corners smoothly. Join the ends of the tape by folding back both ends and overhanging them together on the wrong side. Hem the tape down on the right side.

Sleeve Protector

Cut the sleeve protectors from the pattern. Beginning at the center of the bottom and holding the wrong…

A spinning wheel

Spinning Wheel

A spinning wheel

"A machine for spinning flax into threads by hand. It consists of a wheel, band, and spindle, and is driven by foot or by hand...a, bench or stool; b, standards; c, driving band wheel grooved in its perimeter; d, treadle; e, rod which connects treadle with crank; f, cord-band which drives the flier-spindle; g, flier; h, distaff upon which the flax to be spun is placed, and which in use is held in the left hand of the operator." &mdash;Whitney, 1889

Spinning Wheel for Flax

"A machine for spinning flax into threads by hand. It consists of a wheel, band, and spindle, and is…

"A machine for spinning flax into threads by hand. It consists of a wheel, band, and spindle, and is driven by foot or by hand...a, bench; b, b1, standards; c, driving band-wheel with flat rim, turned by the peg k held in the right hand of the spinner; d, cord-band, crossed at e and driving the speed-pulley f; g, cord-band imparting motion to the spindle h; i, thread in process of spinning." &mdash;Whitney, 1889

Spinning Wheel for Wool

"A machine for spinning flax into threads by hand. It consists of a wheel, band, and spindle, and is…

Two Native American tomahawks, covered in a beaded piece of cloth.

Tomahawk

Two Native American tomahawks, covered in a beaded piece of cloth.

A lightweight handheld collapsible canopy

Combination Cane Style Umbrella

A lightweight handheld collapsible canopy