Illustration of 56 congruent cubes stacked in heights of 1, 4, and 5 cubes that form a zigzag pattern. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

56 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 56 congruent cubes stacked in heights of 1, 4, and 5 cubes that form a zigzag pattern.…

Illustration of 57 congruent cubes stacked in heights of 1 and 5 cubes that form a zigzag pattern. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

57 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 57 congruent cubes stacked in heights of 1 and 5 cubes that form a zigzag pattern. A…

Illustration of 59 congruent cubes stacked at various heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

59 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 59 congruent cubes stacked at various heights. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional…

Illustration of 64 congruent cubes stacked so they form a cube that measures 4 by 4 by 4. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

64 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 64 congruent cubes stacked so they form a cube that measures 4 by 4 by 4. A 3-dimensional…

Illustration of 65 congruent cubes stacked at heights increasing from 1 to 5 cubes. A 3-dimensional representation on a 2-dimensional surface that can be used for testing depth perception and identifying and counting cubes, edges, and faces.

65 Stacked Congruent Cubes

Illustration of 65 congruent cubes stacked at heights increasing from 1 to 5 cubes. A 3-dimensional…

The decorated shaft column is designed with intarsia a form of wood inlaying. It is a German Renaissance design.

Column Decorated Shaft

The decorated shaft column is designed with intarsia a form of wood inlaying. It is a German Renaissance…

A passageway covered by a succession of arches supported by columns.

Doric Arcade

A passageway covered by a succession of arches supported by columns.

The earliest of the three Greek orders of architecture.

Doric Column

The earliest of the three Greek orders of architecture.

Grecian Doric Order.

Doric Order

Grecian Doric Order.

Doric order

Doric Order

Doric order

"A transverse section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, used for heavy forge work."—Finley, 1917

Transverse section of a double-column hammer

"A transverse section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, used for heavy forge work."—Finley,…

"A section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, fitted with a valve v provided with three pistons."—Finley, 1917

Valve casing of a double-column hammer

"A section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, fitted with a valve v provided with three…

"A vertical section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, used for heavy forge work."—Finley, 1917

Vertical section of a double-hammer column

"A vertical section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, used for heavy forge work."—Finley,…

"Bank of Ireland, Dublin." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Dublin Bank

"Bank of Ireland, Dublin." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Restoration of the column of Gaius Duilius, a Roman politician and admiral in the First Punic War.

Column of Duilius

Restoration of the column of Gaius Duilius, a Roman politician and admiral in the First Punic War.

"The column was adorned with the brazen beaks of the captured Carthaginian vessels. Part of the inscription reciting the achievements of the Roman fleet has been preserved."—Webster, 1913

Column of Duilis

"The column was adorned with the brazen beaks of the captured Carthaginian vessels. Part of the inscription…

The Roman Eagle is shown on a pedestal of Trajan's column in Rome.

Roman Eagle

The Roman Eagle is shown on a pedestal of Trajan's column in Rome.

A diagram showing the titles for different types of architecture.

Elements of an Architectural Order

A diagram showing the titles for different types of architecture.

"The horizontal portion of an order, including cornice, frieze, and architrave, which is supported by the columns." — Williams, 1889

Entablature

"The horizontal portion of an order, including cornice, frieze, and architrave, which is supported by…

"Facade of the Great Hall of Columns of the Ptolemaic temple at Edfu." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Facade

"Facade of the Great Hall of Columns of the Ptolemaic temple at Edfu." — The Encyclopedia Britannica,…

"Gaine. Renaissance sculpture. Maison de Pierre, Toulouse, France. In sculpture, the lower part of a figure of which the head, with sometimes the bust, is alone carved to represent nature, the remaining portion presenting, as it were, the appearance of a sheath closely enveloping the body, and consequently broader at the shoulders than at the feet." -Whitney, 1911

Gaine of Renaissance Sculpture

"Gaine. Renaissance sculpture. Maison de Pierre, Toulouse, France. In sculpture, the lower part of a…

"A representation of a section of a grate and chimney. C D represents the light and warm column of air within the chimney, and A B the cold and heavy column of air outside the chimney. The column A B being cold and heavy presses down, the column C D being light and warm rushes up, and the greater the difference between the weight of these two columns, the greater will be the draught." —Wells, 1857

Grate

"A representation of a section of a grate and chimney. C D represents the light and warm column of air…

Corinthian.

Greek column

Corinthian.

"Greek Corinthian Style" — Morey, 1903

Greek Corinthian

"Greek Corinthian Style" — Morey, 1903

"Greek Decoration" — Morey, 1903

Greek Decoration

"Greek Decoration" — Morey, 1903

"Greek Doric Style" — Morey, 1903

Greek Doric

"Greek Doric Style" — Morey, 1903

"Greek Ionic Style" — Morey, 1903

Greek Ionic

"Greek Ionic Style" — Morey, 1903

"Greek Philosophy, which reached its highest excellence in Athens in the fourth century before Christ, had its origin two hundred years earlier i nthe ourlying settlements of the Hellenic race in Asia Minor, Thrace, Sicily, and Southern Italy, rather than in Greece proper. The founding of colonies and frequent changes of government in the older states led thoughtful men to study the constitution of man and of society." — The Delphian Society, 1913

Greek philosophers

"Greek Philosophy, which reached its highest excellence in Athens in the fourth century before Christ,…

A woman kneeling by a column, with several articles of pottery nearby.

Greek woman

A woman kneeling by a column, with several articles of pottery nearby.

"Section through Hall of Columns, Karnak. a, Clerestory window." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Hall of Columns

"Section through Hall of Columns, Karnak. a, Clerestory window." — The Encyclopedia Britannica,…

The Honourable Mrs. Graham, a painting by Thomas Gainsborough.

The Honourable Mrs. Graham

The Honourable Mrs. Graham, a painting by Thomas Gainsborough.

Junction between an arch and the column, pier, or wall on which it rests.

Impost, Continuous

Junction between an arch and the column, pier, or wall on which it rests.

Junction between an arch and the column, pier, or wall on which it rests.

Impost, Discontinuous

Junction between an arch and the column, pier, or wall on which it rests.

Junction between an arch and the column, pier, or wall on which it rests.

Impost, Shafted

Junction between an arch and the column, pier, or wall on which it rests.

One of the three Greek orders of architecture. It originated in mid-6th century BC.

Ionic Column

One of the three Greek orders of architecture. It originated in mid-6th century BC.

Grecian Ionic Order.

Ionic Order

Grecian Ionic Order.

Ionic order

Ionic Order

Ionic order

The Ionic order column originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia. The Ionic order column was being practiced in mainland Greece in the 5th century BC. The first of the great Ionic temples was the Temple of Hera on Samos, built about 570 BC–560 BC by the architect Rhoikos. It stood for only a decade before it was leveled by an earthquake. It was in the great sanctuary of the goddess: it could scarcely have been in a more prominent location for its brief lifetime. A longer-lasting 6th century Ionic temple was the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Greek Ionic Order

The Ionic order column originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia. The Ionic order column was being…

The Ionic order column originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia. The Ionic order column was being practiced in mainland Greece in the 5th century BC. The first of the great Ionic temples was the Temple of Hera on Samos, built about 570 BC–560 BC by the architect Rhoikos. It stood for only a decade before it was leveled by an earthquake. It was in the great sanctuary of the goddess: it could scarcely have been in a more prominent location for its brief lifetime. A longer-lasting 6th century Ionic temple was the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Greek Ionic Order (Side View)

The Ionic order column originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia. The Ionic order column was being…

The Ionic order column originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia. The Ionic order column was being practiced in mainland Greece in the 5th century BC. The first of the great Ionic temples was the Temple of Hera on Samos, built about 570 BC-560 BC by the architect Rhoikos. It stood for only a decade before it was leveled by an earthquake. It was in the great sanctuary of the goddess: it could scarcely have been in a more prominent location for its brief lifetime. A longer-lasting 6th century Ionic temple was the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Roman Ionic Order

The Ionic order column originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia. The Ionic order column was being…

The Bank of Ireland.

Bank of Ireland

The Bank of Ireland.

Campaniform capital at Karnak.

Karnak Capital

Campaniform capital at Karnak.

Gallery of columns. Built by Ramses III during ancient Egypt.

Temple of Chesnu at Karnak

Gallery of columns. Built by Ramses III during ancient Egypt.

The Roman Leaf design is shown as a capital of a column in Pantheon, Rome. The spoon-like roundings of the points of the leaves, as well as the deep incisions are designed to look good from a distance.

Roman Leaf

The Roman Leaf design is shown as a capital of a column in Pantheon, Rome. The spoon-like roundings…

The main entrance through the circuit wall was made grand by the best known feature of Mycenae, the Lion Gate, through which passed a stepped ramp leading past circle A and up to the palace. The Lion Gate was built in the form of a 'Relieving Triangle' to support the weight of the stones. Two lionesses flank the central column that represents a god or goddess.

Lion Gate at Mycenæ

The main entrance through the circuit wall was made grand by the best known feature of Mycenae, the…

This Pulled Grotesque Mask is on a pedestal of a column on a tomb in Pforzheim, Germany during the German Renaissance. It was designed by Hans von Trarbach.

Pulled Grotesque Mask

This Pulled Grotesque Mask is on a pedestal of a column on a tomb in Pforzheim, Germany during the German…

A, crepidoma or stylobate; B, column; C, architrave; D, tænia; E, frieze; F, horizontal cornice; G, raking cornice; H, tympanum of pediment; K, metope.In this and other cuts of this order, only the upper and lower parts of the shaft are shown, the intervening and greater part of the shaft being omitted, to save space.

Greek Doric Order

A, crepidoma or stylobate; B, column; C, architrave; D, tænia; E, frieze; F, horizontal cornice;…

"Ionic order. From the Temple of Athene (Minerva) at Priene." —D'Anvers, 1895

Ionic order

"Ionic order. From the Temple of Athene (Minerva) at Priene." —D'Anvers, 1895

In several Egyptian temples there are square or rectangular piers fronted with colossal sculptured figures of Osirid holding a scourge and a "Nile key" or "key of life."

Osirid Pier

In several Egyptian temples there are square or rectangular piers fronted with colossal sculptured figures…

Piers and columns sustained the roofs for chambers that were too wide for single lintels, and produced, in halls like those of Karnak, of the Ramesseum, or of Denderah, a stupendous effect by their height, massiveness, number, and color decoration. The simplest piers were plain square shafts. The most striking were those against whose front faces were coarved colossal figures of Osiris, as at Luxor, Medinet Habu, and Karnak.

Osiris Pier, Medinet Habu

Piers and columns sustained the roofs for chambers that were too wide for single lintels, and produced,…

All these buildings are of a pyramidal shape, with vertical stages, which are separated by curved roofs and terminate above in the from of a cupola. The pillars, which are round or octagonal, resemble the columnar structure of the rock temples, and are richly ornamented in every part. The inner spaces are low and dark, but the cupolas are high and narrow.

Pagoda Column

All these buildings are of a pyramidal shape, with vertical stages, which are separated by curved roofs…

"The Parthenon stood on this highest part of the Acropolis, near its centre, and probably occupied the site of an earlier temple destroyed by the Persians. It was entirely of Pentelic marble, on a rustic basement of ordinary limestone, and its architecture, which was of the Doric order, was of purest kind." — Smith, 1882

Parthenon restored

"The Parthenon stood on this highest part of the Acropolis, near its centre, and probably occupied the…

"The spinal column consists of abdominal and caudal vertebre, the coalescence of the parapophyses into a complete hemal ring and the suspension of the anal fin generally forming a sufficiently well-marked boundary between the abdominal and caudal regions." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Perch Skeleton

"The spinal column consists of abdominal and caudal vertebre, the coalescence of the parapophyses into…

Persian architectural details.

Persian Architecture

Persian architectural details.

Clustered Gothic pier with an elaborate foliated capital.

Clustered Pier

Clustered Gothic pier with an elaborate foliated capital.

All these buildings are of a pyramidal shape, with vertical stages, which are separated by curved roofs and terminate above in the from of a cupola. Rows of small cupolas stand out from the roofs of the stages. The walls of these stages are covered in a bewildering way with pilasters and niches, with intricately cut cornices, with varied intersecting mouldings, and with manifold and fantastic embellishments and carvings.

Pilaster, Temple of Chillimbaram

All these buildings are of a pyramidal shape, with vertical stages, which are separated by curved roofs…

"Pillar in Hindu temple." —D'Anvers, 1895

Pillar

"Pillar in Hindu temple." —D'Anvers, 1895

"Columns are largely employed in the architecture of Egyptian temples. They are of various forms." —D'Anvers, 1895

Pillar and beam

"Columns are largely employed in the architecture of Egyptian temples. They are of various forms." —D'Anvers,…