At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling the sheath from which the stalk of a plant springs. The same ornament often occurs at the base of the shaft, and seems to a certain extent borrowed from the shape of the lower portion of the papyrus plant. Other capitals imitate an unopened bud or seed-pod (here).

Pillar at the Palace at Luxor

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling…

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling the sheath from which the stalk of a plant springs. The same ornament often occurs at the base of the shaft, and seems to a certain extent borrowed from the shape of the lower portion of the papyrus plant (here). Other capitals imitate an unopened bud or seed-pod.

Pillar at the Temple at Edfu

At the lower part of the capital there frequently occurs an ornament of diminishing triangles, resembling…

The Ionic order was indebted for its earlier development to western Asiatic influence, notably to that of Persepolis; but its maturer beauties are to be attributed to a Doric source. Its main features are the same as in the Doric style; their forms, however, are different. The Ionic order has more mouldings, its forms are richer and more elegant, and, as a style, it is lighter and more graceful than the Doric.

Ionic Pillar in the Erechtheum at Athens

The Ionic order was indebted for its earlier development to western Asiatic influence, notably to that…

A pillar is similar to a column which is a vertical support structure in architecture, but the base section is any shape but circular. Tschultri, or choultry, is a resting place for visitors where rooms and food are provided by a charitable institution for nominal rates. Some were guest-houses where accommodation is free of charge. Choultries were famous in Colonial India. It was an Hindu-Caravanserai or a Colonnade. It was a typical ancient Indian type of hotel.

Pillar in Trimal Naik's Tschultri

A pillar is similar to a column which is a vertical support structure in architecture, but the base…

Representing the pillar of a table, bears a strong resemblance to an Ionic capital as displayed in Asia Minor.

Pillar of a Table in an Assyrian Relief

Representing the pillar of a table, bears a strong resemblance to an Ionic capital as displayed in Asia…

"Clustered pillar from the nave of Wells Cathedral." —D'Anvers, 1895

Clustered pillar

"Clustered pillar from the nave of Wells Cathedral." —D'Anvers, 1895

The column profiled shaft is a modern design that is more three dimensional with flat ornamentation used on the top.

Column Profiled Shaft

The column profiled shaft is a modern design that is more three dimensional with flat ornamentation…

The column profiled shaft is a modern design that is more three dimensional with flat ornamentation used on the top.

Column Profiled Shaft

The column profiled shaft is a modern design that is more three dimensional with flat ornamentation…

The lower part of column profiled shaft is a design found in the Mayence Cathedral in Germany.

Lower Part of Column Profiled Shaft

The lower part of column profiled shaft is a design found in the Mayence Cathedral in Germany.

The lower part of column profiled shaft is a design found in the Palais du Commerce in Lyons, France.

Lower Part of Column Profiled Shaft

The lower part of column profiled shaft is a design found in the Palais du Commerce in Lyons, France.

Parallel vertical or columnar sections on the face of Pulpit Rock, near Colorado Springs, through identical strata, and only 20 feet apart; illustrating rapid lateral changes in the character of the strata.

Pulpit Rock Sections

Parallel vertical or columnar sections on the face of Pulpit Rock, near Colorado Springs, through identical…

"Hold a vibrating tuning fork over the mouth of a cylindrical jar about 10 or 18 inches deep, and notive the feebleness of the sound. Pour in water, as shown, and notive that, when the liquid reaches a certain level, the sound suddenly becomes much louder." -Avery 1895

Demonstartion of Resonance Using A Tuning Fork and Water Column

"Hold a vibrating tuning fork over the mouth of a cylindrical jar about 10 or 18 inches deep, and notive…

"Interior of the Basilica of San Paolo, Rome." —D'Anvers, 1895

Basilica of San Paolo

"Interior of the Basilica of San Paolo, Rome." —D'Anvers, 1895

"...represents a Savart bell and resonator. The length of the resonant air-column is changed by means of the moveable bottom of the resonator, which is to be adjusted by trial for resonant effect." -Avery 1895

Savart Bell and Resonator

"...represents a Savart bell and resonator. The length of the resonant air-column is changed by means…

In ancient architecture, a sort of second plinth or block under a column statue, to raise it.

Scamillus

In ancient architecture, a sort of second plinth or block under a column statue, to raise it.

The scamillus is the piece of stone sitting directly underneath a column.

Scamillus

The scamillus is the piece of stone sitting directly underneath a column.

"Arch of Severus, Column of Phocas, and S. Martina." — Young, 1901

Arch of Severus

"Arch of Severus, Column of Phocas, and S. Martina." — Young, 1901

"A column supporting a horizontal square slab at right angles with the picture plane. A pole leans against the wall behind, and cast sit shadow on the column. Sun's inclination 40°, elevation 35°." (Britannica, 1891)

Shadows of an Column Supporting a Horizontal Square

"A column supporting a horizontal square slab at right angles with the picture plane. A pole leans against…

The movement of General Sherman's troops towards the Atlantic Ocean.

Sherman's March to the Sea

The movement of General Sherman's troops towards the Atlantic Ocean.

The Renaissance spanrail panel is a plinth (base) of a column. It is found in the St. Anthony cathedral in Padua, Italy.

Renaissance Spanrail Panel

The Renaissance spanrail panel is a plinth (base) of a column. It is found in the St. Anthony cathedral…

Side view of a human spinal column.

Spinal column

Side view of a human spinal column.

"Spira, the base of a column. in the Tuscan and the Roman Doric the base consisted of a single torus, sometimes surmounted by an astragal. In the Ionic and Attic it commonly consisted of two tori, divided by a scotia, and in the Corinthian of two tori divided by two scotiae. The upper torus was often fluted, and surmounted by an astragal, as in the left-hand figure of the following wood-cut, which shows the form of the base in the Ionic or Attic temple of Panops on the Ilissus. The right-hand figure in the same wood-cut shows the corresponding part in the temple of Minerva Polias at Athens. In this the upper torus is wrought with a platted ornament, perhaps designed to represent a robe or cable." — Smith, 1873

Spira

"Spira, the base of a column. in the Tuscan and the Roman Doric the base consisted of a single torus,…

All these buildings are of a pyramidal shape, with vertical stages, which are separated by curved roofs and terminate above in the from of a cupola. Rows of small cupolas stand out from the roofs of the stages. The walls of these stages are covered in a bewildering way with pilasters and niches, with intricately cut cornices, with varied intersecting mouldings, and with manifold and fantastic embellishments and carvings. Here is the entrance gate of the temple at Chillimbaram.

Temple of Chillimbaram Entrance Elevation

All these buildings are of a pyramidal shape, with vertical stages, which are separated by curved roofs…

Column located in the Temple of Denderah, with masks of Hathor, an Egyptian sky goddess of love and joy, adorning the top.

Column from the Temple of Denderah, with Hathor Masks, Time of Cesar

Column located in the Temple of Denderah, with masks of Hathor, an Egyptian sky goddess of love and…

A column depicting carvings and images of life in Thebes.

Column from Thebes

A column depicting carvings and images of life in Thebes.

"The Theseum is situated on a height to the north of the Areopagus, and was built to receive the bones of Theseus, which Cimon brought from Seyros in B.C. 469. It was probably finished about 465, and is the best preserved of all the monuments of ancient Athens. It was at once a tomb and a temple, and possessed the privileges of an asylum. It is of the Doric order, 104 feet in length by 45 feet broad, and surrounded with columns." — Smith, 1882

Thesium restored

"The Theseum is situated on a height to the north of the Areopagus, and was built to receive the bones…

"The Temple of Theseus at Athens." —D'Anvers, 1895

Temple of Theseus

"The Temple of Theseus at Athens." —D'Anvers, 1895

"The column was originally surmounted by a colossal statue of Trajan (replaced in the seventh century by one of St. Peter), and contains no less than 2500 human figures and a great number of horses." —D'Anvers, 1895

Relief of Trajan Column

"The column was originally surmounted by a colossal statue of Trajan (replaced in the seventh century…

"Interior view of Trajan's Basilica." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Trajan's Basilica

"Interior view of Trajan's Basilica." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

A triumphal column in Rome, commemorating Roman emperor Trajan's victory in the Dacian Wars.

Column of Trajan

A triumphal column in Rome, commemorating Roman emperor Trajan's victory in the Dacian Wars.

Peculiar vaulted buildings often existed in connection with the palaces for the preservation of valuables; the base of these treasure-houses is circular, and their covering of a dome shape; it does not, however, form an arch, but courses of stones are laid horizontally over one another in such a way that each course projects beyond the one blow it. till the space at the highest course becomes so narrow that a single stone covers it. Ornamental fragments, which belonged to these buildings, lead to the conjecture that Mesopotamian art had some influence on the earliest Grecian buildings.

Pillar Fragment from the Treasury of Atreus

Peculiar vaulted buildings often existed in connection with the palaces for the preservation of valuables;…

"Stylidium calcaratum. 1. anthers and stigma, forming the point of the column; 2. capsule split open; 3. seed." -Lindley, 1853

Book Triggerplant

"Stylidium calcaratum. 1. anthers and stigma, forming the point of the column; 2. capsule split open;…

"Applied to one of the 5 orders of arch, which allows no ornaments or flinting." — Williams, 1889

Tuscan order

"Applied to one of the 5 orders of arch, which allows no ornaments or flinting." — Williams, 1889

"1. flower of Cynanchum fruticulosum; 2. its pollen masses; 3. column of Glossonema Boryanum." -Lindley, 1853

Dog Strangling Vine

"1. flower of Cynanchum fruticulosum; 2. its pollen masses; 3. column of Glossonema Boryanum." -Lindley,…

Column from the Great Hall of Xerxes at Persepolis.

Great hall of Xerxes

Column from the Great Hall of Xerxes at Persepolis.

Column from the Great Hall of Xerxes at Persepolis.

Great hall of Xerxes

Column from the Great Hall of Xerxes at Persepolis.

Capital of a column from the Great Hall of Xerxes at Persepolis.

Great hall of Xerxes

Capital of a column from the Great Hall of Xerxes at Persepolis.

Capital of a column from the Great Hall of Xerxes at Persepolis.

Great hall of Xerxes

Capital of a column from the Great Hall of Xerxes at Persepolis.

"Athens is said to have derrived its name from the prominence given to its worship of Athena by its king erechtheus. The inhabitants were previously called Crannai and Cecropidae, from Cecrops, who, according to tradition, was the original founder of the city. This at first occupied the hill or rock which afterwards became the <em>Acropolis</em>, but gradually the buildings began to spread over the ground at the southern foot of this hill. It was not till the time of Pisitratus and his sons (B.C. 560-514) that the city began to assume any degree of splendour. The most remarkable of these building deposits was the gigantic temple of the Olympian Zeus, which, however, was not finished till many centuries later."&mdash; Smith, 1882

Temple of the Olympian Zeus

"Athens is said to have derrived its name from the prominence given to its worship of Athena by its…