A conventional cross hatching symbol for Babbitt, metal composed of tin and copper.

Mechanical Drawing Cross Hatching of Babbitt

A conventional cross hatching symbol for Babbitt, metal composed of tin and copper.

"If we take for example, a slip of zinc, and another of copper, and place the in a cup of diluted sulphuric acid, their upper ends in tontact, and above the water, and their lower ends separated, then there will be constituted a galvanic circle, of the simplest form, consisting of three elements, zinc, acid, copper." -Comstock 1850

Galvanic Battery

"If we take for example, a slip of zinc, and another of copper, and place the in a cup of diluted sulphuric…

"The Conversion of St. Eustace. By Albrecht Dürer. From the engraving on copper." -Heath, 1901

The Conversion of St. Eustace

"The Conversion of St. Eustace. By Albrecht Dürer. From the engraving on copper." -Heath, 1901

"Matte is converted into blister copper by means of a process called Bessemerizing, in a furnace called a converter." -Brownlee 1907

Converter Furnace

"Matte is converted into blister copper by means of a process called Bessemerizing, in a furnace called…

Copper axes from the Bronze age. Not drawn to scale.

Bronze Age Copper Axes

Copper axes from the Bronze age. Not drawn to scale.

"Monstrance of Copper Gilt; Italian work of the 15th century." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Copper Gilt

"Monstrance of Copper Gilt; Italian work of the 15th century." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

"The crystalline form of copper sulphate." — Hallock, 1905

Copper Sulphate

"The crystalline form of copper sulphate." — Hallock, 1905

Conventional cross hatching mechanical drawing of copper.

Mechanical Drawing Cross Hatching of Copper

Conventional cross hatching mechanical drawing of copper.

"A bar of copper marked with the figure of a bull. Dates from the fourth century B.C."—Webster, 1913

Early Roman Bar Money

"A bar of copper marked with the figure of a bull. Dates from the fourth century B.C."—Webster,…

"...is constructed with a plate of black oxide of copper suspended between two plates of zinc, and the fluid is a solution of caustic potash in water." -Atkinson 1903

Edison-Lalande Cell

"...is constructed with a plate of black oxide of copper suspended between two plates of zinc, and the…

"A copper wire coiled, by winding it around a piece of wood. The turns of the wire should be close together for actual experiment, they being parted in the figure to show the place of the iron to be magnetized. The best method is, to place the coiled wire, which is called the electrical helix, in a glass tube, the two ends of the wire, of course, projecting. Then placing the body to be magnetized within the folds, send the galvanic influence through the whole by placing the poles of the battery in the cups." —Comstock, 1850

Electrical Helix

"A copper wire coiled, by winding it around a piece of wood. The turns of the wire should be close together…

"The expansion of solids by heat is clearly shown by the following experiment: m represents a ring of metal, through which, at the ordinary temperature, a small iron or copper ball, a, will pass freely, this ball being a little less than the diameter of the ring. If this ball be now heated by the flame of an alcohol lame, it will be come so far expanded by heat as no longer to pass through the ring." —Wells, 1857

Expansion of Solids

"The expansion of solids by heat is clearly shown by the following experiment: m represents a ring of…

"Gazzetta of the Ionian islands, 1801. A small copper coin, worth about 3 farthings, made in Venice for the Ionian islands." -Whitney, 1911

Obverse and Reverse Sides of a Gazzetta

"Gazzetta of the Ionian islands, 1801. A small copper coin, worth about 3 farthings, made in Venice…

"It is of gold plate, so thick as to require no "piping" at the back to sustain it; but in general the repoused examples have a piping of copper wire." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Gold Plate

"It is of gold plate, so thick as to require no "piping" at the back to sustain it; but in general the…

"Place a bar of iron and a similar one of copper end to end so as to be heated equally by the flame of a lamp. Fasten small balls by wax to the under surfaces of the bars at eqiual distances apart. More balls will be melted from the copper than from the iron." -Avery 1895

Difference of Heat Transference Between Copper and Iron

"Place a bar of iron and a similar one of copper end to end so as to be heated equally by the flame…

This old Persian jar is made with a repousse copper technique. It is a metalworking technique shaped by hammering from the reverse side.

Old Persian Jar

This old Persian jar is made with a repousse copper technique. It is a metalworking technique shaped…

"Experiment illustrating Lenz's Law. If a copper ring be held in front of an ordinary elecromagnet, and the current circulating through the coil of the magnet be in such a direction as to magnetize the core as indicated b the letters S N, then as the current increases in the coil more and more of the lines of force proceeeding from N pass through the ring OO from left to right." -Hawkins, 1917

Lenz's Law

"Experiment illustrating Lenz's Law. If a copper ring be held in front of an ordinary elecromagnet,…

"The coils of wire may begin near one pole of the magnet and terminate near the other, or the wire may consist of shorter pieces wound over each other, on any part of the magnet. In either case, the ends of the wire, where several pieces are used, must be soldered to two strips of tinned sheet copper, for the combined positive and negative poles of the wires. To form the magnet, these pieces of copper are made to commnicate with the poles of the battery, by means of cups containing mercury, as shown in the figure, or by any other method." —Comstock, 1850

Magnet

"The coils of wire may begin near one pole of the magnet and terminate near the other, or the wire may…

A mallet is a type of hammer with a head made of softer materials than the steel normally used in hammerheads, so as to avoid damaging a delicate surface.

Mallets

A mallet is a type of hammer with a head made of softer materials than the steel normally used in hammerheads,…

"To make the ligament, a very large number of exceedingly fine copper wirers laid close together are soldered to the upper surface of the upper trunnion." —Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Kelvin Flexible Metallic Ligament

"To make the ligament, a very large number of exceedingly fine copper wirers laid close together are…

Ancient mining shaft from the mound-builders, where copper was brought up.

Mining

Ancient mining shaft from the mound-builders, where copper was brought up.

"The Nativity. By Albrecht Dürer. From the engraving on copper." -Heath, 1901

The Nativity

"The Nativity. By Albrecht Dürer. From the engraving on copper." -Heath, 1901

"The bottle (a) serves as an aspirator to draw airthrough the apparatus and also to collect the residual nitrogen. the oxygen is removed by combining it with copper (gauze) in the hard glass tube (c), which is heated by the combustion furnace (b)...air has to pass through the bottles (ee) containing a concentrated solution of potassium hydroxide to take out the carbon dioxide, and through the bottles (dd) containing concentrated sulphuric acid to remove the water vapor or moisture. The nitrogen [is] collected in a." -Brownlee 1907

Nitrogen Preparation

"The bottle (a) serves as an aspirator to draw airthrough the apparatus and also to collect the residual…

The smallest Anglo–Indian copper coin, equal to one third of a pice. About one fourth of a United States cent.

Pie

The smallest Anglo–Indian copper coin, equal to one third of a pice. About one fourth of a United…

The smallest Anglo&mdashIndian copper coin, equal to one third of a pice. About one fourth of a United States cent.

Pie

The smallest Anglo&mdashIndian copper coin, equal to one third of a pice. About one fourth of a United…

"In all engraving upon metal plates the traces or marks which are to appear on the paper are cut or sunk into the plate." —The Popular Cyclopedia, 1888

Copper-plate printing

"In all engraving upon metal plates the traces or marks which are to appear on the paper are cut or…

"Nichols Rheostat. a, wooden frame; b, tinned iron strip; c, stationary, and c', movable binding-posts; d, copper strip for short-circuiting." -Whitney, 1911

Rheostat

"Nichols Rheostat. a, wooden frame; b, tinned iron strip; c, stationary, and c', movable binding-posts;…

"Vibration of a wire. A conducting copper wire, w, is suspended by a loop from a hook of the same metal, which passes through the arm of metal or wood, as seen in the cut. The upper end of the hook terminates in the cup P, to contain mercury. The lower end of the copper wire just touched the mercury, Q, contained in a little trough about an inch long, formed in the wood on which the horseshoe magnet, M, is laid, the mercury being equally distant from the two poles. The cup, N, has a stem of wire which passes through the wood of the platform into the mercury, this end of the wire being tinned, or amalgamated, so as to form a perfect contact." —Comstock, 1850

Wire Vibration

"Vibration of a wire. A conducting copper wire, w, is suspended by a loop from a hook of the same metal,…