Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 1D, hand loom.

Hand Loom

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 1D, hand loom.

An illustration of a man hauling cotton.

Hauling Cotton

An illustration of a man hauling cotton.

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5D, Jacquard motion.  The hooks are held upright by rods connected by spiral springs, a card pressing against the ends of these, pierced with holes opposite the ends of the rods connected with the required hooks; the arrangement of holes in the card thus determines the pattern which is woven.

Jacquard Motion

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5D, Jacquard motion. The hooks are held upright by rods connected by spiral…

"The modern system of cotton manufacture dates no further back than back 1760. Prior the mechanical inventions of Hargeaves, Arkwright, Crompton and Cartwright, the arts of spinning and weaving were entirely domestic, and the instruments of manipulation much the same as those which had been in use in the East for centuries before." -Lupton

The Spinning Jenny

"The modern system of cotton manufacture dates no further back than back 1760. Prior the mechanical…

"Single Scutcher and Lap Machine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Lap Machine

"Single Scutcher and Lap Machine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Cotton gin lapper.

Lapper

Cotton gin lapper.

A hand loom - front view.

Loom

A hand loom - front view.

Cotton manufacturing.  Fig. 2, flat carding machine.

Manufacturing

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 2, flat carding machine.

Scene from the story, "How Mary Got a New Dress."

Mary

Scene from the story, "How Mary Got a New Dress."

Scene from the story, "How Mary Got a New Dress."

Mary

Scene from the story, "How Mary Got a New Dress."

A middle-buster for cotton fields.

Middle-buster

A middle-buster for cotton fields.

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 1C, differential motion gear for slubbing machine.

Motion Gear

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 1C, differential motion gear for slubbing machine.

"In 1818 William Eator obtained a patent for a self-acting mule, in which the operations ordinarily performed by the spinner were effected by automatic means, and this machine, though not extensively adopted, contained several ingenious arrangements." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Mule

"In 1818 William Eator obtained a patent for a self-acting mule, in which the operations ordinarily…

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5C, mule spinning machine.

Mule-spinning Machine

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5C, mule spinning machine.

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5, opening machine.

Opening Machine

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5, opening machine.

This cotton press design allowed for cotton to filter through a windlass, later received by the hoop.

Cotton Press

This cotton press design allowed for cotton to filter through a windlass, later received by the hoop.

"This, which is the last required before the operations of spinning, strictly so called, commence, resembles in principle the slubbing and intermediate frames. It has a greater number of spindles than either, seldom less than 100, and often 164; and these spindles are set close together, and the bobbins are shorter and smaller than in the intermediate frame." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Roving Frame

"This, which is the last required before the operations of spinning, strictly so called, commence, resembles…

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5B, Roving machine with rack and pinion adjustment for raising and lowering bobbins to secure even winding.

Roving Machine

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 5B, Roving machine with rack and pinion adjustment for raising and lowering…

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 6C, slasher.

Slasher

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 6C, slasher.

"The operation which succeeds that of the drawing frame is slubbing, where the sliver has a certain amount of twist imparted to it, and is wound on a bobbin. In this process the end or sliver from the last head of the drawing frame is drawn out by means of three pairs of rollers, and this is twisted as it emerges from the front line of rollers by the action of vertical spindles and flyers, which at the same time wind the ends upon bobbins in successive layers." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Slubbing Frame

"The operation which succeeds that of the drawing frame is slubbing, where the sliver has a certain…

Scene from the story, "The Plaid Dress."

Spinners

Scene from the story, "The Plaid Dress."

A woman spinning cotton on a spinning jenny.

Spinning Jenny

A woman spinning cotton on a spinning jenny.

Cotton Manufacturing. Fig. 2C, Ring spinning machine.

Spinning Machine

Cotton Manufacturing. Fig. 2C, Ring spinning machine.

A spinning wheel used for cotton.

Spinning Wheel

A spinning wheel used for cotton.

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 2D, tappet motion: A, B, cams on shaft C, operate the tappet levers D, E by means of pedals F, and raise or lower the healds G as required.

Tappet Motion

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 2D, tappet motion: A, B, cams on shaft C, operate the tappet levers D, E…

"Probably no inventive contribution has been offered to the cotton trade more important than the mule. Samuel Crompton of Bolton completes in 1775 his invention of the mule jenny, contriving which he had been engages for several years. But this machine, possessing great merit and advantages, did not come into general use, nor was its value known, until after the expiration of Arkwright's patent, the spinner till then being confined to the rove prepared from common jenny spinning, which was unsuitable to the mule jenny." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

The Mule

"Probably no inventive contribution has been offered to the cotton trade more important than the mule.…

"The spinning frame, or throstle, is made with two sets of drawing rollers, one on each side. Between these the roving bobbins are placed, and the rove is drawn through them to the requisite fineness, and formed into thread by the action of the spindles and flyers, which are placed in front of each set of rollers, at such distances apart from one another as may be required for the different-sized bobbins and counts of yarn to be spun." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Throstle

"The spinning frame, or throstle, is made with two sets of drawing rollers, one on each side. Between…

"The spinning frame, or throstle, is made with two sets of drawing rollers, one on each side. Between these the roving bobbins are placed, and the rove is drawn through them to the requisite fineness, and formed into thread by the action of the spindles and flyers, which are placed in front of each set of rollers, at such distances apart from one another as may be required for the different-sized bobbins and counts of yarn to be spun." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Throstle

"The spinning frame, or throstle, is made with two sets of drawing rollers, one on each side. Between…

An old spinning wheel used to spin cotton into yard.

Spinning Wheel

An old spinning wheel used to spin cotton into yard.

A machine which separated the seeds from raw cotton more rapidly than could be done by hand.

Whitney's Cotton Gin

A machine which separated the seeds from raw cotton more rapidly than could be done by hand.

Inventor

Eli Whitney

Inventor

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 4C, Warder's bobbin winding machine, with cam motion for raising and lowering guides to secure even winding.

Winding Machine

Cotton manufacturing. Fig. 4C, Warder's bobbin winding machine, with cam motion for raising and lowering…