Illustration of a cross section of a Washington pear.

Washington Pear

Illustration of a cross section of a Washington pear.

An Assyrian pendant.

Pendant

An Assyrian pendant.

An illustration of a cross pendant worn by the king of Assyria.

Cross Pendant

An illustration of a cross pendant worn by the king of Assyria.

"The French-Normandy pendant cross and locket presents a characteristic example of peasant jewelry." - Britannica, 1910

Cross and Locket Pendant

"The French-Normandy pendant cross and locket presents a characteristic example of peasant jewelry."…

"A necklace with gold beads and a cross pendant." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Pendent

"A necklace with gold beads and a cross pendant." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Illustration of Peter being bound to an upside down cross. One man holds his upper body, while another man ties his ankles to the cross. A third man prepares to pierce Peter's feet with a large nail. Peter asked to be crucified upside down because he did not believe he was worthy of being crucified in the same manner as Jesus.

Peter Crucified on an Upside Down Cross

Illustration of Peter being bound to an upside down cross. One man holds his upper body, while another…

Fancy cross stitching used to make the designs in pillow cases.

Pillow-lace

Fancy cross stitching used to make the designs in pillow cases.

Fancy cross stitching used to make the designs in pillow cases.

Pillow-lace

Fancy cross stitching used to make the designs in pillow cases.

Cross section of pipe, 2 concentric circles

Cross Section of Pipe

Cross section of pipe, 2 concentric circles

Illustration of Pope Leo, dressed in full papal costume and holding the primatial cross, approaches Attila the Hun. Several clergy follow behind Leo, one carrying the cross of Christ. Attila bows slightly. He is wearing a crown and carrying a sword. His army follows behind. The face of a horse is visible. God, carrying a sword, floats in a cloud over the scene.

Pope Leo the Great Approaches Attila, King of the Huns, on the Battlefield

Illustration of Pope Leo, dressed in full papal costume and holding the primatial cross, approaches…

"Quarterly, first and fourth argent, a chevron gules, second and third gules, a cross argent (that is, the field red and the cross silver or white)." -Whitney, 1911

Quarterly Shield

"Quarterly, first and fourth argent, a chevron gules, second and third gules, a cross argent (that is,…

The raising of the Christian cross following the discovery of the New World.

Rearing the Cross

The raising of the Christian cross following the discovery of the New World.

"Now when he was risen early on the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from whom he had cast out seven demons." Mark 16:9 ASV
<p>Illustration of Mary, fallen on her knees, at Jesus' feet as He rounds a corner and walks towards her. Two angels holding olive branches, sit behind her, at the entrance to the empty tomb. Rays of light emanate from Jesus' head. He is carrying the banner of the cross.

Jesus Appears to Mary Magdalene After His Resurrection

"Now when he was risen early on the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from…

"Michel-Angelo assumed such considerable and prominent position by his genius and authority, that his example necessarily entailed imitation and produced effects on subsequent times. When his deviations were moderate, they were considered by his imitators merely as marks of the originality of his wonderful talent, and by this means proved stepping-stones to the degeneration which marked the ensuing period of the Roccoco style. Amongst his architectural works, the design of the Capitol at Rome, with its wings, may be considered as the most pleasing, whilst as a testimony to his lofty genius the mighty and glorious dome of St. Peter's at Rome, which has no rival in the world, must be adducted as a striking instance. This dome was only completed after Michel-Angelo's death. Both as regards its colossal dimensions, as well as its beautiful proportions and lines, it produces, both internally and externally, a most wonderful impression. It should be remarkable that Michel-Angelo, like Bramante before him, selected the form of the Greek cross for his church, and planned the dome accordingly, and that the nave, which is by Carlo Maderno, is, both externally and internally, prejudicial to the effect of the dome."The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: Basilica Sancti Petri), officially known in Italian as the Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. Peter's Basilica, is located within the Vatican City. St. Peter's has the largest interior of any Christian church in the world, holding 60,000 people. It is regarded as one of the holiest Christian sites and has been described as "holding a unique position in the Christian world" and as "the greatest of all churches of Christendom". In Catholic tradition, it is the burial site of its namesake Saint Peter, who was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and, according to tradition, first Bishop of Rome and therefore first in the line of the papal succession.

Section of the Dome of St. Peter's, Rome

"Michel-Angelo assumed such considerable and prominent position by his genius and authority, that his…

"Michel-Angelo assumed such considerable and prominent position by his genius and authority, that his example necessarily entailed imitation and produced effects on subsequent times. When his deviations were moderate, they were considered by his imitators merely as marks of the originality of his wonderful talent, and by this means proved stepping-stones to the degeneration which marked the ensuing period of the Roccoco style. Amongst his architectural works, the design of the Capitol at Rome, with its wings, may be considered as the most pleasing, whilst as a testimony to his lofty genius the mighty and glorious dome of St. Peter's at Rome, which has no rival in the world, must be adducted as a striking instance. This dome was only completed after Michel-Angelo's death. Both as regards its colossal dimensions, as well as its beautiful proportions and lines, it produces, both internally and externally, a most wonderful impression. It should be remarkable that Michel-Angelo, like Bramante before him, selected the form of the Greek cross for his church, and planned the dome accordingly, and that the nave, which is by Carlo Maderno, is, both externally and internally, prejudicial to the effect of the dome."The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: Basilica Sancti Petri), officially known in Italian as the Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. Peter's Basilica, is located within the Vatican City. St. Peter's has the largest interior of any Christian church in the world, holding 60,000 people. It is regarded as one of the holiest Christian sites and has been described as "holding a unique position in the Christian world" and as "the greatest of all churches of Christendom". In Catholic tradition, it is the burial site of its namesake Saint Peter, who was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and, according to tradition, first Bishop of Rome and therefore first in the line of the papal succession.

Back View of St. Peter's, Rome

"Michel-Angelo assumed such considerable and prominent position by his genius and authority, that his…

The sceptre with a cross, used since the restoration of the English monarchy.

English Royal Sceptre

The sceptre with a cross, used since the restoration of the English monarchy.

"The royal Sceptre with the Cross is of gold; the handle is plain, and the upper part wreathed; it is in length two feet nine inches, the fleur-de-lis of six leaves; the mound, and the cross above it, are richly embellished with amethysts and diamonds.SCEPTRE. A royal staff; an ensign of sovereignty borne in the hand. It was originally a javelin without a head. Sceptres of the present time are splendidly decorated with jewellery." -Hall, 1862

Sceptre with the Cross

"The royal Sceptre with the Cross is of gold; the handle is plain, and the upper part wreathed; it is…

This shelf is designed with a cross in the center and a kneeling angel on each side. It also has scrolls of leaves all around.

Shelf

This shelf is designed with a cross in the center and a kneeling angel on each side. It also has scrolls…

An example of a heraldic shield with roundels.

Shield with Roundels

An example of a heraldic shield with roundels.

"A description of cross, with the ends or extremities bent at right angles."&mdash;Avelin, 1891

Fylot Shield

"A description of cross, with the ends or extremities bent at right angles."—Avelin, 1891

Illustration including one large shield from the first half of the 13th century, bearing a decorative cross. It also includes two men having a sword fight. The man on the left is wearing a shield from the close of the 14th century, while the man on the right uses a shield from the close of the 13th century. The man on the right is on horseback. Both men have their swords raised and are wearing full armor.

Medieval Shields from the 13th and 14th Centuries

Illustration including one large shield from the first half of the 13th century, bearing a decorative…

The Scandinavian square panel is a bas-relief design found on a Celtic stone cross. This panel is divided into eight equal spaces that are decorated with a repeated design.

Scandinavian Square Panel

The Scandinavian square panel is a bas-relief design found on a Celtic stone cross. This panel is divided…

St. Martin's cross.

St. Martin's

St. Martin's cross.

"St. Martin's Cross, Iona." &mdash; Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

St. Martin's Cross

"St. Martin's Cross, Iona." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Two Angels with St. Veronica's Napkin is an engraving that was created by German artist Albrecht D&uuml;rer in 1513. It shows two angels carrying the veil that has the image of Jesus. St. Veronica was the woman that followed Jesus as he carried the cross and gave him her veil to wipe his forehead. After Jesus used it, he handed back her veil and his image miraculously appeared on it.

Two Angels with St. Veronica's Napkin

Two Angels with St. Veronica's Napkin is an engraving that was created by German artist Albrecht Dürer…

"1, longitudinal section; 2, 3, 4, cross section; 5, detached disk; 7, 8, fibrillae." &mdash; Richardson, 1906

Striped Muscle

"1, longitudinal section; 2, 3, 4, cross section; 5, detached disk; 7, 8, fibrillae." — Richardson,…

"And with him they crucify two robbers; one on his right hand, and one on his left." Mark 15:27 ASV
<p>Illustration of Jesus on the cross with a robber on his left and right. Mary Magdalene is at Jesus' feet. Jesus' mother, Mary, stands at the foot of the cross with another woman. Soldiers cast lots for Jesus' clothing (left). A soldier with a spear stands beside the cross.

The Crucifixion of Jesus with Two Robbers

"And with him they crucify two robbers; one on his right hand, and one on his left." Mark 15:27 ASV…

Right triangle ABC with angles A, B, C to be used for finding distance across a river. This is a trigonometry problem. Wishing to determine the width of the river, I observed a tree standing directly across on the bank. The angle of elevation of the top of the tree was 32 degrees. At 150 ft. back from this point and in the same direction from the tree the angle of elevation of the top of the tree was 21 degrees. Find the width of the river.

Right Triangle For Finding Distance Across a River

Right triangle ABC with angles A, B, C to be used for finding distance across a river. This is a trigonometry…

"The Trinity. By Albrect D&uuml;rer. In the Belvedere, Vienna.'" -Heath, 1901

The Trinity

"The Trinity. By Albrect Dürer. In the Belvedere, Vienna.'" -Heath, 1901

"The Act of Union with Scotland (1707) required that England and Scotland should have one flag made of the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew combined. After the union with Ireland (1801) the cross of St. Patrick was incorporated in the flag. The name 'Jack' comes from the French Jacques, referries to James I, the first sovereign of Great Britain."—Webster, 1920

The Union Jack

"The Act of Union with Scotland (1707) required that England and Scotland should have one flag made…

Vair is one of the furs in heraldry composed of several silver and blue pieces representing little shields.

Vair

Vair is one of the furs in heraldry composed of several silver and blue pieces representing little shields.

A British naval and military decoration instituted by royal warrant and bestowed for "Conspicuous bravery or devotion" to the country in the presence of the enemy.

Victoria Cross

A British naval and military decoration instituted by royal warrant and bestowed for "Conspicuous bravery…

"The Victoria Cross is an English naval and military decoration instituted by royal warrant, Jan. 29, 1856, and bestowed for 'conspicuous bravery or devotion' to the country in the presence of the enemy. It is the most coveted of all British decorations, and is open to all officers and men of the regular, auxiliary, and reserve forces."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Victoria Cross

"The Victoria Cross is an English naval and military decoration instituted by royal warrant, Jan. 29,…

Voided, in heraldry, a term applied to a charge or ordinary pierced through, or having the inner part cut away, so that the field appears, and nothing remains of the charge except its outer edges.

Voided Cross

Voided, in heraldry, a term applied to a charge or ordinary pierced through, or having the inner part…

"The gable cross of Washburn Chirch in Worcestershire." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Worcestershire

"The gable cross of Washburn Chirch in Worcestershire." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893