The inner ear of a reptile (top), a bird (left) and an ox (right).

Animal Ears

The inner ear of a reptile (top), a bird (left) and an ox (right).

The auditory apparatus with the surrounding bone removed. Labels: M, external auditory canal; SC, semicircular canals; C, cochlea.

The Auditory Apparatus

The auditory apparatus with the surrounding bone removed. Labels: M, external auditory canal; SC, semicircular…

A diagram of a section of the auditory apparatus. Labels: E, external canal; M, in the middle ear; V, vestibule; SC, semi-circular canals; N, auditory nerve; S, cochlea; ET, Eustachian tube.

Diagram of the Auditory Apparatus

A diagram of a section of the auditory apparatus. Labels: E, external canal; M, in the middle ear; V,…

A view of the auditory nerve. Labels: 1, The spinal cord. 2, The medulla oblongata. 3, The lower part of the brain. 4, The auditory nerve. 5, A branch to the semicircular canals. 6, A branch to the cochlea.

View of the Auditory Nerve

A view of the auditory nerve. Labels: 1, The spinal cord. 2, The medulla oblongata. 3, The lower part…

Casts of the bony labyrinth of the ear. Labels: A, left labyrinth see from the outer side; B, right labyrinth from the inner side; C, left labyrinth from above; Fc, round foramen; Fv, oval foramen; h, horizontal semicircular canal; ha, its ampulla; Vaa, ampulla of anterior vertical semicircular canal; Vpa, ampulla of posterior vertical semicircular canal; Vc, conjoined portion of the two vertical canals.

The Bony Labyrinth of the Ear

Casts of the bony labyrinth of the ear. Labels: A, left labyrinth see from the outer side; B, right…

A boy putting his hand up to his ear to listen.

Boy Listening

A boy putting his hand up to his ear to listen.

"A Cast of the External Auditory Canal. The auditory canal is a passage in the solid potion of the temporal bone. It is lined by skin on which there are fine hairs, and a set of glands secreting earwax, which serves to moisten the parts, catch particles fo dust, and keep away small insects." — Blaisedell, 1904

External auditory canal

"A Cast of the External Auditory Canal. The auditory canal is a passage in the solid potion of the temporal…

Diagram of a section of a coil of the cochlea of the ear. Labels: C.C, canal of the cochlea; mR, its upper wall; Sc.V, the part of the bony cavity above the canal of the cochlea; Sc.T, the part below it; O.C, the organ of Corti on the basilar membrane; A.N., branch of auditory nerve in the central column of the spiral; a, connective tissue cushion to which the basilar membrane is attached; b, the bony walls; m.t, a membrane lying over the organ of Corti; l.s, the spiral ledge projecting from the axis.

Cochlea

Diagram of a section of a coil of the cochlea of the ear. Labels: C.C, canal of the cochlea; mR, its…

A cross-section of a turn of the cochlea of the ear(diagrammatic).

Cochlea of the Ear

A cross-section of a turn of the cochlea of the ear(diagrammatic).

An imaginary figure or plan of the cochlea.

The Cochlea of the Ear

An imaginary figure or plan of the cochlea.

A vertical section of the cochlea, highly magnified, to show the arrangement and connection of its parts.

The Cochlea of the Ear

A vertical section of the cochlea, highly magnified, to show the arrangement and connection of its parts.

A section through the cochlea in the line of its axis.

The Cochlea of the Ear

A section through the cochlea in the line of its axis.

Section of one coil of the cochlea, magnified. Labels: SV, scala vestibuli; R, membrane of Reissner; CC, membranous cochlea; lls, limbus laminae spiralis; t, tectorial membrane; ST, scala tympani; lso, spiral lamina; Co, rods of Corti; b, basilar membrane.

Cochlea, Section of

Section of one coil of the cochlea, magnified. Labels: SV, scala vestibuli; R, membrane of Reissner;…

Section of bony cochlea.

Section of Cochlea

Section of bony cochlea.

Part of cochlear nerve.

Cochlear Nerve

Part of cochlear nerve.

Good ears of flint corn. Grown for grain in the northeast United States.

Flint corn

Good ears of flint corn. Grown for grain in the northeast United States.

An unfertilized ear of corn. Only a few kernals formed.

Unfertilized corn

An unfertilized ear of corn. Only a few kernals formed.

Transverse section of Corti's organ from the central coil of cochlea.

Section of Corti's Organ

Transverse section of Corti's organ from the central coil of cochlea.

Section through outer wall of ductus cochlearis.

Section Through Ductus Cochlearis Wall

Section through outer wall of ductus cochlearis.

Section across the ductus cochlearis.

Section Across Ductus Cochlearis

Section across the ductus cochlearis.

"Diagram of the Middle and Internal Ear." — Blaisedell, 1904

Ear

"Diagram of the Middle and Internal Ear." — Blaisedell, 1904

Interior of the ear. There is external to the head a wide-mouthed tube, or ear-trumpet (a), for catching and concentrating the waves of sound. It is movable in many beings, so that they can direct it to the place from which the sound comes. The sound concentrated at the bottom of the ear-tube falls upon a membrane stretched across the channel, like the parchment of an ordinary drum, over the space called the <em>tympanum</em>, or <em>drum of the ear</em> (b), and causes the membrane to vibrate. That its motion may be free, the air contained within the drum has free communication with the external air by the open passage (f), called the <em>eustachian tube</em>, leading to the back of the mouth. A degree of deafness ensues when this tube is obstructed, as in a cold; and a crack, or sudden noise, with immediate return of natural hearing, is, generally experienced when, in the effort of sneezing or otherwise, the obstruction is removed. The vibrations of the membrane of the drum are conveyed further inwards, through the cavity of the drum, by a chain of four bones (not here represented on account of their minuteness), reaching from the centre of the membrane to the <em>oval door</em> or <em>window</em>, leading into the labyrinth (e). The labyrinth, or complex inner compartment of the ear, over which the nerve of hearing is spread as a lining, is full of watery fluid; and, therefore, by the law of fluid pressure, when the force of the moving membrane of the drum, acting through the chain of bones, is made to compress the water, the pressure is felt instantly over the whole cavity. The labyrinth consists of the <em>vestibule</em> (e), the three <em>semicircular canals</em> (c), imbedded in the hard bone, and a winding cavity, called the <em>cochlea</em> (d), like that of a snail-shell, in which fibres, stretched across like harp-strings, constitute the <em>lyra</em>.

Ear

Interior of the ear. There is external to the head a wide-mouthed tube, or ear-trumpet (a), for catching…

The human ear. Labels: A, vestibule or antechamber; B, auditory canal; C, the hammer, anvil, and the stirrup; D, semicircular canals; E, cochlea; G, Eustachian tube.

Ear

The human ear. Labels: A, vestibule or antechamber; B, auditory canal; C, the hammer, anvil, and the…

Diagrammatic view of the organ of hearing.

Ear

Diagrammatic view of the organ of hearing.

Semi-diagrammatic section through the right ear. Labels: M, concha; G, the external auditory canal; T, tympanic, or drum-membrane (ear drum); P, tympanum, or middle ear; o, oval window; r, round window. Extending from T to o is seen the chain of the tympanic bones; R, Eustachian tube; V, B, S, bony labyrinth; V, vestibule; B, semicircular canal; S, cochlea; b, l, v, membranous labyrinth in semi-circular canal and in vestibule. A, auditory nerve dividing into branches for vestibule, semicircular canal, cochlea.

Ear and Auditory Canal

Semi-diagrammatic section through the right ear. Labels: M, concha; G, the external auditory canal;…

Vertical section through the external auditory meatus and tympanum, passing in front of the fenestra ovalis.

Ear Showing External Auditory Meatus

Vertical section through the external auditory meatus and tympanum, passing in front of the fenestra…

Horizontal section through the right external acoustic canal viewed from above.

Auditory Apparatus of the Ear

Horizontal section through the right external acoustic canal viewed from above.

Vertical section through the right external acoustic canal, viewed from in front.

Auditory Canal of the Ear

Vertical section through the right external acoustic canal, viewed from in front.

"1, malleus, or hammer; 2, incus, or anvil; 3, stapes, or stirrup." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Bones of the ear

"1, malleus, or hammer; 2, incus, or anvil; 3, stapes, or stirrup." — Blaisedell, 1904

"Across the middle ear a chain of three small bones stretches from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear. These bones are called from their shape the <em>malleus</em> (hammer), the <em>incus</em> (anvil), and the <em>stapes</em> (stirrup)." — Ritchie, 1918

Bones of the Ear

"Across the middle ear a chain of three small bones stretches from the tympanic membrane to the inner…

Cross-section of the external and internal ear. <em>a, b, and c</em>: External ear. <em>d</em>: Entrance to the tube of the ear <em>(f)</em>. <em>g</em>: Drum of the ear. <em>h</em>: Cavity beyond the drum where the chain of bones is, the bones being left out that the arrangement of the apparatus may be more clear to you. <em>k</em>: Tube which comes from the back part of the throat to this cavity. If you shut your mouth and close the nostrils with your fingers, and then force the air strongly from your chest into the mouth, you can feel the air pass through this tube into the ear where the little bones are. <em>l</em>: is the vestibule of the labyrinth. <em>m</em>: Semi-circular canals. <em>n</em>: Cochlea. <em>o</em>: Trunk of the nerve of hearing as it goes to branch out in the labyrinth. <em>e</em>: Bone in which the labyrinth is enclosed.

A Cross-Section of the Ear

Cross-section of the external and internal ear. a, b, and c: External ear. d: Entrance…

Details of the ear.

Details of the Ear

Details of the ear.

"Many of both sexes wear enormous ear plugs and earrings, some of which are as big around as a napkin. The holes in the lobes of their ears so large that they can carry a cigar in them." &mdash;Carpenter, 1902

Dyak's ear

"Many of both sexes wear enormous ear plugs and earrings, some of which are as big around as a napkin.…

General view of the right external ear and middle. The external ear has been opened by a vertical section carried obliquely lateralward and dorsalward.

External Ear and Middle Ear

General view of the right external ear and middle. The external ear has been opened by a vertical section…

Horizontal section of right ear; upper half of section, viewed from below.

Horizontal Section of Ear

Horizontal section of right ear; upper half of section, viewed from below.

A diagram of the human ear. It is divided into the outer ear - A, middle ear - B, and inner ear - C. 1: ear trumpet or pinna, 2: outer ear passage with the drum that vibrates when sound waves hit it or the tympanum (3) across the inner ear, 4-5-6: the ear ossicles: hammer (malleus) anvil (incus) and stirrup (stapes) which transmit vibrations from the drum to the inner ear (they are also the smallest bones in the body), 7: the Eustachian tube, which connects to the mouth and through which air can indirectly enter, 8: largest chamber in the inner ear, called the utriculus, that has three semicircular canals, 9: the smallest chamber, called the sacculus, which is connected to the cochlea (10) which is the important hearing organ, 11: a "window" in the periotic bone, called the fenestra rotunda, 12: the endolymphatic duct.

Human Ear

A diagram of the human ear. It is divided into the outer ear - A, middle ear - B, and inner ear - C.…

View of the left ear in its normal state.

Left Ear

View of the left ear in its normal state.

Section through the external meatus, middle ear, and Eustachian tube. Labels: a, External auditory meatus; b, attic of tympanum; c, Eustachian tube; d, internal auditory meatus; e, cochlea; f, ossicles; g, membrana tympani; h, styloid process.

Meatus and Eustachian Tube of the Ear

Section through the external meatus, middle ear, and Eustachian tube. Labels: a, External auditory meatus;…

Membranous labyrinth of the right ear, viewed from the outer side.

Membranous Labyrinth of the Ear

Membranous labyrinth of the right ear, viewed from the outer side.

The middle ear and its bones, considerably magnified. Labels: G, the inner end of the external auditory meatus, closed internally by the conical tympanic membrane; L, the malleus, or hammer-bone; H, the incus, or anvil-bone; S, the stapes, or stirrup-bone.

Middle Ear

The middle ear and its bones, considerably magnified. Labels: G, the inner end of the external auditory…

A view of all the parts of the ear, Labels: 1, The tube that leads to the internal ear. 2, The membrana tympani. 3, 4, 5, The bones of the ear. 7, The central part of the labyrinth, names the vestibule. 8, 9, 10, The semicircular canals. 11, 12, The channels of the cochlea. 13, The auditory nerve. 14, The channel from the middle ear to the throat (Eustachian tube). 15, A nerve. 16, A process. 17, The seventh pair of nerves (facial). 18, A process of the temporal bone.

Parts of the Ear

A view of all the parts of the ear, Labels: 1, The tube that leads to the internal ear. 2, The membrana…

Semidiagrammatic section through the right ear. Labels: M, concha; G, external auditory meatus; T, tympanic membrane; P, middle ear; o, oval foramen; r, round foramen; R, pharyngeal opening of Eustachian tube; V, vestibule; B, a semicircular canal; S, the cochlea; Vt, scala vestibuli; Pt, scala tympani; A, auditory nerve.

Section of the Ear

Semidiagrammatic section through the right ear. Labels: M, concha; G, external auditory meatus; T, tympanic…

Section of the right ear.

Section of the Right Ear

Section of the right ear.

Semi-diagrammatic section through the right ear. Labels: M, concha; G, external auditory meatus; T, tympanic or drum membrane; P, middle ear; o, oval foramen; r, round foramen. Extending from T to o is seen the chain of tympanic bones. R, Eustachian tube. V,B,S, bony labyrinth: V, vestibule; B, semicircular canal; S, cochlea. b,l,l', membranous semicircular canal and vestibule. A, auditory nerve dividing into branches for vestibule, semicircular canal, and cochlea.

Section Through the Right Ear

Semi-diagrammatic section through the right ear. Labels: M, concha; G, external auditory meatus; T,…

Chains of small bones and their ligaments, seen from the front in a vertical, transverse section of the tympanum.

Small Bones and Ligaments of the Ear

Chains of small bones and their ligaments, seen from the front in a vertical, transverse section of…

Structure of the ear.

Structure of the Ear

Structure of the ear.

A view of the left ear in its natural state.

The Left Ear

A view of the left ear in its natural state.

Vertical transverse section of right ear; anterior half of section, viewed from behind.

Vertical Section of Ear

Vertical transverse section of right ear; anterior half of section, viewed from behind.

"In these, which are called <em>Ear-Shells</em>, the animal has a shrt muzzle and two branchial plumes; the shell has a spiral conformation, and the perforations for the anal siphon are arranged in a row along the back of the shell." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Ear-shell

"In these, which are called Ear-Shells, the animal has a shrt muzzle and two branchial plumes;…

Transverse section of the cartilaginous part of the eustachian tube.

Eustachian Tube

Transverse section of the cartilaginous part of the eustachian tube.

The incus, or anvil-bone. Labels: 1, body; 2, ridged articulation from the malleus; 4, processus brevis, with 5, rough articular surface from ligament of incus; 6, processus magnus, with articulating surface for stapes; 7, nutrient foramen.

Incus

The incus, or anvil-bone. Labels: 1, body; 2, ridged articulation from the malleus; 4, processus brevis,…

1. Helix 2. Concha 3. Outer passage 4,5,6. emicircular canals 7. Oval indow 8. Cochlea 9. Eustachian tube 10. Ear drum

Inner Ear

1. Helix 2. Concha 3. Outer passage 4,5,6. emicircular canals 7. Oval indow 8. Cochlea 9. Eustachian…

A view of the labyrinth laid open. Labels: 1, The cochlea. 2, 3, Two channels that wind two and half turns around a central point (5). 7, The central portion of the labyrinth called the vestibule. 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, The semicircular canals.

View of the Labyrinth Laid Open

A view of the labyrinth laid open. Labels: 1, The cochlea. 2, 3, Two channels that wind two and half…

Diagrammatic representation of the different parts of the membranous labyrinth.

Labyrinth

Diagrammatic representation of the different parts of the membranous labyrinth.

View, very much enlarged, of the external phase of the bony labyrinth of the left side, open, exposing the vestibule and its contents, etc.

Labyrinth and Vestibule of the Ear

View, very much enlarged, of the external phase of the bony labyrinth of the left side, open, exposing…

Membranous labyrinth of a five months' fetus, viewed from its postero-mesial aspect.

Labyrinth of Fetus

Membranous labyrinth of a five months' fetus, viewed from its postero-mesial aspect.

View of the labyrinth in a straight position, open to show the distribution of the nerves.

Labyrinth of the Ear

View of the labyrinth in a straight position, open to show the distribution of the nerves.

View of labyrinth on the left side, open throughout, in order to show its structure -- enlarged.

Labyrinth of the Ear on the Left Side

View of labyrinth on the left side, open throughout, in order to show its structure -- enlarged.

The labyrinth of the middle ear, which is composed of a system of fluid passages.

The Labyrinth of the Inner Ear

The labyrinth of the middle ear, which is composed of a system of fluid passages.

A view of the labyrinth of the left side laid open in its whole extend, so as to show its structure - magnified.

The Labyrinth of the Inner Ear

A view of the labyrinth of the left side laid open in its whole extend, so as to show its structure…