An Egyptian crocodile (C. niloticus).

Crocodile

An Egyptian crocodile (C. niloticus).

Crouching Egyptian sphinx sculpture in the Louvre.

Crouching Sphinx

Crouching Egyptian sphinx sculpture in the Louvre.

Crouching Egyptian sphinx sculpture with ram's head in the Louvre.

Crouching Sphinx

Crouching Egyptian sphinx sculpture with ram's head in the Louvre.

The length of the Dashur pyramid is approximately 200 feet.

Pyramid of Dashur

The length of the Dashur pyramid is approximately 200 feet.

"Wooden dolls for children have also been discovered of various fasions, some of them precisely similar to those in use among us, and others of a different shape." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian doll

"Wooden dolls for children have also been discovered of various fasions, some of them precisely similar…

"Usually kept as a family seat, and occupied by the master and mistress of the house, though occaisionally offered, as a special honor, to the guests." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian double chair

"Usually kept as a family seat, and occupied by the master and mistress of the house, though occaisionally…

An Egyptian bow and drill.

Egyptian bow and drill

An Egyptian bow and drill.

"The <em>A. dubia</em> is found in the Nile. Several of this genus, brought from Egypt to Paris packed in bran, were found living, though they had been four months in making the passage." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Ampullaria dubia

"The A. dubia is found in the Nile. Several of this genus, brought from Egypt to Paris packed…

A medal showing a figure riding a crocodile, a symbol of Egypt.

Egypt Coin

A medal showing a figure riding a crocodile, a symbol of Egypt.

"And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt." Exodus 13:17 KJV

Departure of the Israelites from Egypt

"And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the…

Plan of the Memnonium, at Thebes.

Egypt, Plan of the Memnonium, Thebes

Plan of the Memnonium, at Thebes.

Types of Egyptian Columns.

Egypt, Types of Columns of

Types of Egyptian Columns.

Ancient Egyptian statue.

Egyptian Ancient Statue

Ancient Egyptian statue.

Egyptian archer with arrow-heads and stone-tipped reed arrow.

Egyptian archer

Egyptian archer with arrow-heads and stone-tipped reed arrow.

An image of the Egyptian brick-making process. Bricks were usually made by foreigners. Exodus 5 records the story of the Israelites making bricks in Egypt.

Egyptian Brick-Making

An image of the Egyptian brick-making process. Bricks were usually made by foreigners. Exodus 5 records…

Scenery of the Egyptian desert with pyramids in the background.

Egyptian Desert

Scenery of the Egyptian desert with pyramids in the background.

An Egyptian doodad.

Egyptian doodad

An Egyptian doodad.

The costume of an Egyptian King.

Egyptian King

The costume of an Egyptian King.

The Egyptian manifesto, an inside view.

Egyptian Manifesto

The Egyptian manifesto, an inside view.

The costume of an Egyptian Queen.

Egyptian Queen

The costume of an Egyptian Queen.

An Egyptian sandal, with a curved front.

Egyptian sandal

An Egyptian sandal, with a curved front.

A statue of a man who recorded books and/or documents during the era of Ancient Egypt.

An Egyptian Scribe

A statue of a man who recorded books and/or documents during the era of Ancient Egypt.

An Egyptian Temple

Egyptian Temple

An Egyptian Temple

"The skeleton lay on the left side with knees drawn up and hands raised to the head. About it were various articles of food and vessels of pottery."&mdash;Webster, 1913

A Prehistoric Egyptian Tomb

"The skeleton lay on the left side with knees drawn up and hands raised to the head. About it were various…

A group of three Egyptians carrying another.

Egyptians

A group of three Egyptians carrying another.

"When an Egyptian died the friends of the deceased went at once to the embalmer, By him they were shown a set of models, that is, wooden images painted and wrapped in imitation of the different styles of mummies prepared at the establishment. The models were divided into three classes; first, second, and third; and among these the friends selected according to their rank and means. The dead body was then delivered to the embalmers, by whom the brain was removed through the nostrils. Then an incision was made in the left side with a sharp stone. Through this opening the entire viscera were removed, and being cleansed by washing with palm wine, were covered with pounded aromatics and deposited in four urns. The cavity of the body was filled with powdered myrrh, cassia, and other fragrant substances, and the wound carefully sewn up. The whole body was then packed for seventy days in salt and carbonate of soda, at the end of which time it was washed and then wrapped in linen bands anointed on the inner surface with a certain gum which acted as glue. The mummy was finally put into a wooden case in the form of a man, and delivered to the relatives, by whom it was set upright against the wall in one of the rooms of their house."&mdash;Ridpath 1885

Process of Embalming

"When an Egyptian died the friends of the deceased went at once to the embalmer, By him they were shown…

"In their upper course the Euphrates and the Tigris traverse a region of steppes broken by rocky ridges and interspersed with pastures and fruitful districts. The banks of the rivers are fringed with plane-trees, tamarisks, and cypresses. Here and there are meadowlands, alternating with low hills. Further on, as the rivers descend to the level, the valleys broaden; but at the same time the higher district between becomes more sterile kind of upland waste, abounding in ostriches and bustards, the native home of wild asses and nomadic tribes of men."—Ridpath, 1885

Confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates

"In their upper course the Euphrates and the Tigris traverse a region of steppes broken by rocky ridges…

An illustration of an Egyptian sculpture of a family.

Family Sculpture

An illustration of an Egyptian sculpture of a family.

"The following is a figure of a hatchel or flax-comb." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian flax-comb

"The following is a figure of a hatchel or flax-comb." — Goodrich, 1844

Early developments of racial types, a tomb paint from an Egyptian tomb.

Racial Types From Egyptian Paintings

Early developments of racial types, a tomb paint from an Egyptian tomb.

An illustration of sculptures from a gateway at Khorsabad.

Gateway at Khorsabad

An illustration of sculptures from a gateway at Khorsabad.

"The pyramid when completed had a height of 481 feet. It is now 451 feet high. Its base covers 13 acres. Some of the blocks of white limestone used in construction weigh 50 tons. The facing of polished stone was gradually removed for building purposes by the Arabs. On the northern side of the pyramid a narrow entrance, once carefully concealed, opens into tortuous passages which lead to the central vault. Here the sarcophagus of the king was placed. This chamber was long since entered and its contents rifled."&mdash;Webster, 1913

The Great Pyramid of Giza

"The pyramid when completed had a height of 481 feet. It is now 451 feet high. Its base covers 13 acres.…

The Great Pyramid at Gizeh

Gizeh Pyramid

The Great Pyramid at Gizeh

Two pyramids and a sphinx near Gizeh, Egypt, built during the 25th century. These three structures rank high in superiority to other pyramids due to their size and magnificence.

Pyramids of Gizeh

Two pyramids and a sphinx near Gizeh, Egypt, built during the 25th century. These three structures rank…

Egypt, a present from Gladstone.

Gladstone's Present

Egypt, a present from Gladstone.

"The form of the bottle and the use of the blow-pipe are unequivocally indicated; and the green hue, in the painting, of the fused material, taken from the fire at the point of the pipe, cannot fail to show the intention of the artists." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian glassblowers

"The form of the bottle and the use of the blow-pipe are unequivocally indicated; and the green hue,…

Egyptian God, Bes, known as the cheerful.

Egyptian God, Bes

Egyptian God, Bes, known as the cheerful.

Chnemu creator-god, married to Hekt, a frog goddess.

Egyptian God, Chnemu

Chnemu creator-god, married to Hekt, a frog goddess.

Hathor (Isis) the Egyptian cow goddess.

Egyptian God, Hathor

Hathor (Isis) the Egyptian cow goddess.

"Set" the Egyptian God of Darkness.

Egyptian God of Darkness

"Set" the Egyptian God of Darkness.

"Anubis" the Egyptian God of Darkness. Anubis has a distinct Jackal head.

Egyptian God of Darkness

"Anubis" the Egyptian God of Darkness. Anubis has a distinct Jackal head.

Thoth-lunus is the Egyptian God of letters and all learning.

Egyptian God, Thoth-lunus

Thoth-lunus is the Egyptian God of letters and all learning.

Typhon was he wife of Anubis, God of Darkness. Typhon is also known as the Terrible One.

Egyptian God, Typhon

Typhon was he wife of Anubis, God of Darkness. Typhon is also known as the Terrible One.

An illustration of the Great Hall of Columns at Karnak.

Great Hall of Columns at Karnak

An illustration of the Great Hall of Columns at Karnak.

"Vertical Section of the Great pyramid, looking West showingA. Entrance passage.       B. A later opening.D. First ascending passage. E. Horizontal Passage.F. Queen's chamber.G G. Grand gallery.H. Antechamber.I. Coffer.K. King's chamber.M N. Ventilating chambers.O. Subterranean chamber.P. Well, so-called.R R R. Probable extent to which the native rock is employed to assist the masonry of the building." - West, 1904

Vertical section of the Great Pyramid

"Vertical Section of the Great pyramid, looking West showing A. Entrance passage. B. A later opening. D.…

Columned Hall of the Temple of Karnak

Columned Hall

Columned Hall of the Temple of Karnak

Egyptian harps.

Harp, Egyptian

Egyptian harps.

"That the Egyptians paid great attention to the study of music and had arrived at a very accurate knowledge of the art, is evident from the instruments which they used." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian harp

"That the Egyptians paid great attention to the study of music and had arrived at a very accurate knowledge…

An Egyptian hawkhead.

Hawkhead

An Egyptian hawkhead.

An Egyptian King's Head.

King's Head

An Egyptian King's Head.

Egyptian headdress.

Headdress

Egyptian headdress.

A 68-foot stone pillar located at Al-Matariyyah part of Heliopolis. It is considered to be the earlier obelisk built that is still in its original position.

Obelisk of Heliopolis

A 68-foot stone pillar located at Al-Matariyyah part of Heliopolis. It is considered to be the earlier…

An illustration of an Egyptian hieroglyphic next to the shore of a river.

Hieroglyphic

An illustration of an Egyptian hieroglyphic next to the shore of a river.

An illustration of an Egyptian hieroglyphic panel with a cartouche. In Egyptian hieroglyphs, a cartouche is an oblong enclosure with a horizontal line at one end, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name, coming into use during the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty under Pharaoh Sneferu.

Hieroglyphic Panel

An illustration of an Egyptian hieroglyphic panel with a cartouche. In Egyptian hieroglyphs, a cartouche…

Cleopatra's name, written in hieroglyphics.

Hieroglyphics, Cartouche of Cleopatra

Cleopatra's name, written in hieroglyphics.

An early figure of the Egyptian hippopotamus goddess.

Egyptian Hippopotamus Goddess

An early figure of the Egyptian hippopotamus goddess.

"Hounds were also used to pursue game, as may be perceived from the subjoined representation of a huntsman carry home his prey." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian hunter

"Hounds were also used to pursue game, as may be perceived from the subjoined representation of a huntsman…

"Egyptian hunting Hippopotamus." &mdash; Lardner, 1885

Egyptian hunting

"Egyptian hunting Hippopotamus." — Lardner, 1885

An Egyptian ibis.

Ibis

An Egyptian ibis.

Found throughout Africa, the sacred (or white) ibis was revered by the ancient Egyptians.

Sacred Ibis

Found throughout Africa, the sacred (or white) ibis was revered by the ancient Egyptians.