"Egyptian hunting Hippopotamus." — Lardner, 1885

Egyptian hunting

"Egyptian hunting Hippopotamus." — Lardner, 1885

An Egyptian ibis.

Ibis

An Egyptian ibis.

Found throughout Africa, the sacred (or white) ibis was revered by the ancient Egyptians.

Sacred Ibis

Found throughout Africa, the sacred (or white) ibis was revered by the ancient Egyptians.

Egyptian goddess of the Earth.

Isis

Egyptian goddess of the Earth.

Egyptian head of Isis.

Head of Isis

Egyptian head of Isis.

An Egyptian jackal.

Jackal

An Egyptian jackal.

Egyptian captivity and forced labor of the Jews.

Captivity of the Jews: Laborers

Egyptian captivity and forced labor of the Jews.

Egyptian captivity and forced labor of the Jews as Masons.

Captivity of the Jews: Masons

Egyptian captivity and forced labor of the Jews as Masons.

"48 And he gathered up all the food of the seven years which were in the land of Egypt, and laid up the food in the cities: the food of the field, which was round about every city, laid he up in the same. And Joseph laid up grain as the sand of the sea, very much, until he left off numbering; for it was without number." Genesis 41:48-49 ASV
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Illustration of Joseph riding through Egypt's streets in a chariot with a herald leading the horse and announcing him. He holds several sheaves of wheat with his left arm and is collecting more from the people. A small child is handing him more sheaves. Pharaoh and four other royals emerge from a doorway behind Joseph and Pharaoh is pointing to him. An obelisk is visible in the background.

Joseph Collects Wheat as Governor of Egypt in Preparation for the Famine

"48 And he gathered up all the food of the seven years which were in the land of Egypt, and laid up…

"And Joseph made ready his chariot, and went up to meet Israel his father, to Goshen; and he presented himself unto him, and fell on his neck, and wept on his neck a good while. And Israel said unto Joseph, Now let me die, since I have seen thy face, that thou art yet alive." Genesis 46:29-30
<p>Illustration of Joseph as he embraces Jacob. All of Jacob's family and people stand behind him. They are dressed as shepherds and bring sheep with them. Horses and Egyptians stand behind Joseph. Two of the Egyptians hold parasols. A pyramid can be seen in the background of the direction from which Joseph has come.

Joseph Greets His Father Jacob and His Family

"And Joseph made ready his chariot, and went up to meet Israel his father, to Goshen; and he presented…

"Then Joseph could not refrain himself before all them that stood before him; and he cried, Cause every man to go out from me. And there stood no man with him, while Joseph made himself known unto his brethren." Genesis 45:1 ASV
<p> Illustration of Joseph finally revealing himself to his brothers as they stand around him in awe. He leans over and hugs Benjamin. Six of the brothers kneel on the ground in front of Joseph. A seat or throne can be seen partially on the left. Through the two large open windows, a pyramid, camels, palm trees, buildings, and an obelisk are visible.

Joseph Reveals Himself to His Brothers and Embraces Benjamin

"Then Joseph could not refrain himself before all them that stood before him; and he cried, Cause every…

"Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites, and let not our hand be upon him; for he is our brother, our flesh. And his brethren hearkened unto him. And there passed by Midianites, merchantmen; and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty pieces of silver. And they brought Joseph into Egypt." Genesis 37:27-28 ASV
Illustration of Joseph being pulled away by the Ishmaelites as his brothers collect the silver they are owed. The cistern can be seen in the foreground, with a rope coming up out of the opening. A man is in the distant background (left), possibly Reuben. Three of the brothers take part in the money exchange. Two brothers sit nearby, one holds a cloak. Several goats, including a kid, sit and stand nearby. Camels wait in the background.

Joseph's Brother Sell Him into Slavery after Pulling Him Out of the Cistern

"Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites, and let not our hand be upon him; for he is our brother,…

An illustration of an Egyptian hieroglyphic depicting the judgment of the dead. "An ape-assessor scourages an evil soul, that has been changed into an unclean animal." -Myers, 1896

Judgment of the Dead

An illustration of an Egyptian hieroglyphic depicting the judgment of the dead. "An ape-assessor scourages…

"Showing the weighing of the heart of the deceased in the scales of truth."—Myers, 1904

The Judgment of the Dead

"Showing the weighing of the heart of the deceased in the scales of truth."—Myers, 1904

Karnak, Egypt, which comprises of a vast mix of decayed chapels, temples, and other buildings.  It was constructed under the rein of Sesostris I in the Middle Kingdom.

Karnak

Karnak, Egypt, which comprises of a vast mix of decayed chapels, temples, and other buildings. It was…

Karnak is a vast grouping of ruined temples, chapels, pylons and other buildings located mear Luxor, Egypt. Built over 1300 years ago, it consists of large columns arranged in rows. It was constructed under the rein of Sesostris I in the Middle Kingdom.

Karnak

Karnak is a vast grouping of ruined temples, chapels, pylons and other buildings located mear Luxor,…

Campaniform capital at Karnak.

Karnak Capital

Campaniform capital at Karnak.

"The hall measures 170 feet deep by 329 feet broad. Its roof was supported by a central avenue of 12 massive columns, each 67 feet in height and 33 feet in circumference. Additional support was afforded by several rows of shorter columns (122 in all) disposed on each side of those in the middle avenues."&mdash;Webster, 1913

Central Avenue, Hall of Columns, Karnak

"The hall measures 170 feet deep by 329 feet broad. Its roof was supported by a central avenue of 12…

"Karnak is a village in Egypt built on the site of Thebes, on the bank of the Nile, and renowned for its magnificent architectural antiquities. The principal one of these is the Great Temple, 1,200 feet long and 330 feet wide. In this are found great colonades, obelisks, and a vast quantity of sculptures. Various colored marbles, sandstones and granite are used. Other smaller temples abound, beautifully ornamented with mural decorations which portray the kings, divinities and recreations of those ancient peoples. These temples were erected at various times from 1500 B.C. to 28 B.C."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Temple of Karnak

"Karnak is a village in Egypt built on the site of Thebes, on the bank of the Nile, and renowned for…

Gallery of columns. Built by Ramses III during ancient Egypt.

Temple of Chesnu at Karnak

Gallery of columns. Built by Ramses III during ancient Egypt.

Key pattern.

Key Pattern

Key pattern.

A Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. He reigned from 2589 to 2566 BC, and is known for being the builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza.

Khufu

A Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. He reigned from 2589 to 2566 BC, and is known for being the builder of the…

Dress of the Egyptian king

Egyptian King

Dress of the Egyptian king

"A representation of an Egyptian king." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian king

"A representation of an Egyptian king." — Goodrich, 1844

"A cook roasting a goose; he holds the spit with one hand, and blows the fire with a fan held in the other. A second person is cutting up joints of meat and putting them into the pot, which is boiling close at hand." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian Kitchen

"A cook roasting a goose; he holds the spit with one hand, and blows the fire with a fan held in the…

"Scene in Egyptian kitchen, showing use of a large rope to support a sort of hanging shelf." -Hill, 1921

Egyptian Kitchen

"Scene in Egyptian kitchen, showing use of a large rope to support a sort of hanging shelf." -Hill,…

This illustration shows a lentil plant. Lentils are the round, flat seeds of a small leguminous plant <i>(Vicia (Lens) hirsuta)</i>, of which numerous varieties are cultivated in the countries bordering the Mediterranean and elsewhere. The seeds are highly nitrogenous, and of great food value. They form the principal constituent of the well-known <i>Revalenta arabica</i> of commerce. They consist of -- starch, 50 percent; casein, 24 percent; fat, 2 percent; and water, 14 percent. The dark green German lentils are much more palatable than the reddish-yellow Egyptian variety.

The Lentil Plant

This illustration shows a lentil plant. Lentils are the round, flat seeds of a small leguminous plant…

The illumination of a Koran link border is a scroll design of leaves connected like a chain. This design is found on the tomb of the Sultan El-Ghury in Egypt.

Illumination of a Koran Link Border

The illumination of a Koran link border is a scroll design of leaves connected like a chain. This design…

Painted lotus band from Egyptian tomb.

Lotus Band

Painted lotus band from Egyptian tomb.

Painted lotus band from Egyptian tomb.

Lotus Band

Painted lotus band from Egyptian tomb.

Painted lotus band from Egyptian tomb.

Lotus Band

Painted lotus band from Egyptian tomb.

Painted lotus band from Egyptian tomb.

Lotus Band

Painted lotus band from Egyptian tomb.

Painted lotus band from Egyptian tomb.

Lotus Band

Painted lotus band from Egyptian tomb.

Lotus-palmette design in a gold jewel from the IVth dynasty.

Lotus-Palmette

Lotus-palmette design in a gold jewel from the IVth dynasty.

Lotus-palmette design.

Lotus-Palmette

Lotus-palmette design.

The peculiar horn-like volutes are probably representations of the third and fourth sepals of the lotus-calyx.

Lotus-Palmette

The peculiar horn-like volutes are probably representations of the third and fourth sepals of the lotus-calyx.

Lotus-palmette necklace.

Lotus-Palmette Necklace

Lotus-palmette necklace.

Lotus-palmette with tabs consists of a group of diverging leaves or petals springing from between two spirals. It is predominately used as an isolated or terminal motive in Egyptian art.

Lotus-Palmette with Tabs

Lotus-palmette with tabs consists of a group of diverging leaves or petals springing from between two…

Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in the city today known as Luxor (ancient Thebes) and was founded in 1400 BC. Known in the Egyptian language as ipet resyt, or "the southern harem", the temple was dedicated to the Theban Triad of Amun, Mut, and Chons and was built during the New Kingdom, the focus of the annual Opet Festival, in which a cult statue of Amun was paraded down the Nile from nearby Karnak Temple (ipet-isut) to stay there for a while, with his consort Mut, in a celebration of fertility, hence its name.

Luxor Temple

Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in…

This is an Egyptian Man's costume that was typically worn during the Old Kingdom. It consists of a wrap skirt with a belt tied around the waist.

Egyptian Man's Costume

This is an Egyptian Man's costume that was typically worn during the Old Kingdom. It consists of a wrap…

This is an Egyptian Man's costume that was worn by priests during the 5th Dynasty. It shows a man wearing a triangular wrap skirt.

Egyptian Man's Costume

This is an Egyptian Man's costume that was worn by priests during the 5th Dynasty. It shows a man wearing…

This is an Egyptian Man's costume that was typically worn during the 5th Dynasty. It consists of a triangular wrap skirt with a belt tied around the waist.

Egyptian Man's Costume

This is an Egyptian Man's costume that was typically worn during the 5th Dynasty. It consists of a triangular…

"A papyrus of the first century A.D., containing the Ten Commandments. It was discovered in Egypt."&mdash;Webster, 1913

Ancient Hebrew Manuscript

"A papyrus of the first century A.D., containing the Ten Commandments. It was discovered in Egypt."—Webster,…

"The third pyramid on the ridge of Gizeh was built by Menkera, a successor of Khafra and fourth or fifth king of Dynasty IV. This structure is but two hundred and thirty-three feet at the base, and the slant height two hundred and sixty-two feet. The Menkera pyramid stands on looser soil than its more ambitious sisters, and the substructure is consequently of greater relative proportions. Part of the exterior consists of polished slabs of granite. The sepulchral chamber within is double, one apartment being behind the other." —Ridpath, 1885

Sarcophagus of Menkera

"The third pyramid on the ridge of Gizeh was built by Menkera, a successor of Khafra and fourth or fifth…

The fourth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, reigning from 1213 to 1203 BC.

Merneptah

The fourth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, reigning from 1213 to 1203 BC.

"Monkeys appear to have been trained to assist in gathering fruit; and the Egyptians represent them in the sculptures handing down figs from the trees to the gardeners below; but, as might be expected, these animals amply repaid themselves for the labor imposed upon them, and the artist has not failed to show how much more they consulted their own wishes than those of their employers." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Fruit Gathering Monkeys

"Monkeys appear to have been trained to assist in gathering fruit; and the Egyptians represent them…

"And when she could not longer hide him, she took for him an ark of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and with pitch; and she put the child therein, and laid it in the flags by the river's brink. And his sister stood afar off, to know what would be done to him. And the daughter of Pharaoh came down to bathe at the river; and her maidens walked along by the river-side; and she saw the ark among the flags, and sent her handmaid to fetch it." Exodus 2:3-5 ASV
<p>Illustration of Miriam, Moses' sister, kneeling over him as he lies in a basket on the edge of the river. Pharaoh's daughter approaches with four of her handmaids. Two handmaids are holding feathered fans. Pharaoh's daughter is wearing a crown.

Moses is Found by Pharaoh's Daughter as Miriam Watches

"And when she could not longer hide him, she took for him an ark of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime…

"Mummy. Another striking religious custom was the embalming of the dead. It was thought that the soul would reanimate the body at the resurrection, and for this reason great care was taken to preserve the body from decay and provide it with a suitable resting place. Embalming was so skillfully and effectively done that decay was often prevented for thousands of years. The interior of the sepulcher was often decorated, and food and drink were placed beside the body. These houses of the dead were among the finest and the most enduring of Egyptian buildings."&mdash;Colby, 1899

mummy

"Mummy. Another striking religious custom was the embalming of the dead. It was thought that the soul…

An image depicting the coffin used for mummies in ancient Egypt.

Mummy and Cover of Coffin

An image depicting the coffin used for mummies in ancient Egypt.

An illustration of a mummy coffin. The mummy was typically wrapped in linen and placed many nesting coffins and then finally a sarcophagus.

Mummy Coffin

An illustration of a mummy coffin. The mummy was typically wrapped in linen and placed many nesting…

An illustration of the mummy of a sacred bull.

Mummy of Sacred Bull

An illustration of the mummy of a sacred bull.

"That the Egyptians paid great attention to the study of music and had arrived at a very accurate knowledge of the art, is evident from the instruments which they used." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian musician

"That the Egyptians paid great attention to the study of music and had arrived at a very accurate knowledge…

"The Egyptian needles were of the following fashion. They wrote with a reed, or rush, many of which have been found, with the tablets and inkstands belonging to the writeres." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian needle

"The Egyptian needles were of the following fashion. They wrote with a reed, or rush, many of which…

Assuan on the Nile in Egypt.

Nile River

Assuan on the Nile in Egypt.

Israeli women would often wear rings not just on their wrists, but on their noses and ears and ankles.

Nose ring

Israeli women would often wear rings not just on their wrists, but on their noses and ears and ankles.

Obelisk of Heliopolis

Obelisk

Obelisk of Heliopolis

Obelisk and sphinx with palm tree

Obelisk and sphinx

Obelisk and sphinx with palm tree

In several Egyptian temples there are square or rectangular piers fronted with colossal sculptured figures of Osirid holding a scourge and a "Nile key" or "key of life."

Osirid Pier

In several Egyptian temples there are square or rectangular piers fronted with colossal sculptured figures…

"Osiris was worshipped as the god of the sun, the source of warmth, life, and fruitfulness, in addition to which he was also regarded as god of the Nile, who annually visited his wide Isis (the Earth), by means of an inundation." &mdash;Bulfinch, 1897

Osiris

"Osiris was worshipped as the god of the sun, the source of warmth, life, and fruitfulness, in addition…

A stylized papyrus.

Conventional Papyrus

A stylized papyrus.